Torah Science
The Science Of Noah's Ark
How The Ark Passes The Science Test
Science Amazing Ark Science (Genesis 6-8)
"Extraordinary Claims! Extraordinary Proof!"
 Home  | Contact  | Become a Christian  | Lessons  | 700+ New Messianic Prophecies  | Torah Sciences

Atom Orbit
God 2020
Jacob 1500
Moses Crucifixion





1700 2008
Creation Days Spotted-Striped Stick In Water Mishkan Tefillin Tzitzit Science
Dark Ages? 6000 Years of Hidden Knowledge Light
Form Follows Function. All Bible Science Models Look and Function Like Nature's Model

Pray Pray First
> Torah Science Summary (2 pg)
    > Genesis 1 Creation Days
    > Jacob's Stick, Tefillin (2 pg)
> Creation and Evolution
> Children's Science

With the exception of Jacob's stick (Genesis 30: 37-41) there are no other stories besides the creation story in Genesis 1 villified as unscientific by both atheists and modern "enlightened" Christians than the story of the flood (Genesis 6-8). Today the stories of our origins in Genesis 1-8 have been discarded by the mainline churches and its clergy and now many top evangelical leaders.
In this story there is no breakthrough modern science hidden in the story, so far. However, what I offer is the unique perspective of analyzing how the story could be possible, without looking at the opinions of other young earth creationists.
My motivation came from looking at a "scientific" analysis of the story in early 2000s. It was originally produced by BBC and was now being aired in the USA. It was initially advertised as a positive story for creationist. Or so it seemed. Narrated and edited and complied by a flock of PhD's, and scientific experts, within the first 10 minutes they had destroyed the credibility of the story, labelled Noah as a drunk and an immoral person and proceeded to tell the story of a localized flood written in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Using math and the rate of boarding the ark, they asked how is it possible to load 30 million species in such a short time?
So I waited for about 6 years to explore these numbers and figures, never really suspecting them of lying or even exaggerating the truth. They are scientists after all. They verify the work through a process of peer review. Or common sense.
I may conclude that they were deliberately lying by how the reported the "facts". However, I will state that because scientists already think that this is a useless story equivalent to caculating how many fairies can fit on the point of a needle, I just think they were not even remotely diligent in reporting the information.
I spent 3 months studying and calculating dung of all kinds. I was diligent.

Torah The Torah Pattern, Design And Laws.
Written by Moses during the exodus around 1500 BC, the events occurred about 4500 years ago. That is 1656 years after the creation, or about 1000 years before Moses. food (Genesis 6: 21). Wait 7 days after boarding (Genesis 7: 10)

Ark Science (Quantum Mechanics).
Possible Distribution Noah's Ark
3a. Flying Creatures. Birds, insects, eggs and humans
3b. Unclean Animals. Cats, monkeys, rodents and climbing animals
2. Clean Animals. Those without the ability to climb stairs easily.
1. Heavy Loads. Aquarium. Fish and marine animals. Tall, heavy animals

The Boat of Utnapishtim
(The Epic of Gilgamesh)
This was a cube that was 120 cubits on each side (180 feet or 55 m), seven floors and it was made in seven days.
Critics accuse Bible writers of plagiarizing this story as they "made up" their religion. But there are several key differences. One is the dimensions of the boats.
Cube. The 1:1:1 ratio of a cube is not stable in rough seas. It is a bad design. But the 30:5:3 ratio of the ark is extremely stable in rough weather.
Floor. Each floor was 17 cubits high. That is 25.5 feet. That is too high.
Seven Days. The construction time is also highly improbable since they had to construct 32,400 square feet of floor space every day, and also load the boat in a week. In fact, according to the story they had only two days to cover the frame.
Noah's ark makes mathematical sense in terms of time and design, while this boat does not.
» The Ark. The ark was designed to float, not to move. The ratio of the ark was 30:5:3. A Norwegian ship builder used the dimensions of the ark to build a ship. He found that it is the most stable design in rough weather. Oil tankers are now built to this ratio. It was a rectangle that was ten times longer than its height. This reduced the possibility that the wind would capsize it. It would float like a log. Tar was used for water proofing. It was 300 cubits by 50 by 30 high. (450 x 75 x 45 feet) or (137 x 23 x 14 meters). It had one window (or skylight), one door and three decks which were subdivided into compartments. This would hold four decks eleven feet high (335 cm) or three decks fifteen feet (457 cm) high. Since the antediluvians had an average height of over ten feet, the dimensions fit.

» Loading The Animals. The unclean animals went in twos, but the clean animals went in by sevens. Several strategies could be used to hold more animals. He could have carried the eggs or young animals. If the predators were cubs, it would reduce any chance of aggressive behavior. God could have used hibernation to control the animals. This would mean less feeding and work.

» The Rain. It rained for forty days and nights. Then there was wind for 150 days. The ark rested on the mountain after five months. But it took 370 days after the beginning of the flood before they could leave the ark. Noah sent a raven then a dove which returned with an olive branch. Finally he sent the dove again and she did not return and he knew that the land was dry. Noah reestablished the covenant with God, and God placed a rainbow in the sky.

We also assume the following basic design on each floor. There are four corridors, four feet wide along the length of the boat that separate eight rows of compartments. There is one corridor running along the width to the door. The compartments are 6 feet deep by 9 feet wide by 15 feet high. Since the total height is rarely required, several tiers of cages can be held in each room.
There are 48 rooms in each row. A storage room is located in every fifth space. There are 388 Rooms on each floor, sixty four are for storage.
Modifications. The human living space is a modification of one section on the third floor and we used a quarter of one floor in our model. The area near the door is modified to allow a wide entrance. The first floor has the dung and compost rooms.
The design could also have most of the animals on the first floor and the storage on the second floor. This allowed grain silos or feeding troughs to be refilled from above by the action of gravity. Animals that never needed feeding and cleaning and much supervision would be on the second and third floors (reptiles, insects, birds).

Loading The Ark.
The Flavian Amphitheatre colosseum in Rome seated 55,000 people in 10 minutes using 80 entrances. Modern stadiums can load 80,000 in one hour using 10 gates with multiple queues, using a moderate flow rate of 19.9 people/minute walking at speeds of 195 feet/minute (59.4 meters/minute). If we can load and unload a 80,000 seat football stadium in eight hours, then Noah could load hundreds of thousands of land animals in a week.
Multiple Queues
Noah's Ark
If the door was as wide as a two car garage door and located between the first two floors then loading would be very fast. The door, hinged at the bottom, could be used as a ramp to the first floor and a temporary ramp could be built to the second floor where the lighter animals were kept. Birds fly in above the walking animals and through the window. Insects crawl in anywhere along the side of the ark. We could easily get a minimum of six lines of traffic, six feet wide, three for birds above and three for animals below, and dozens for insects.
Lines of Traffic Speed of Entry Pairs Per Day Pairs Per Week
Pairs MinuteDistance
1 20 1 20 Feet 28,800 201,600
1 12 1 20 Feet 17,280 120,960
* 6 72 1 20 Feet 103,680 725,760
10 120 1 20 Feet 172,800 1,209,600
10 240 1 10 Feet 345,600 2,419,200
Sports stadiums can load 80,000 people in two hours

Food. Grain, seeds, nuts, grass, dried fruit and water would not be perishable. The food and supplies could be loaded three to seven years before the flood as each deck was completed. Weather was not a factor since it never rained.

Animals. The door was so massive, that God had to shut it. But let us assume that only two animals at a time could walk through the doors. Since the animals came to the ark by themselves, they were probably also guided to their stalls by the same divine force. They could have came in twenty four hours a day, with nocturnal animals coming at night and the rest by day. At the slow pace of one pair per minute, 1440 pairs of large animals can be loaded in a day, or 10,000 in a week.
It takes me five seconds to walk twenty feet at a normal pace. So if each pair was twenty feet apart, the ark could be loaded at a reasonable pace of twelve pairs of large mammals per minute in a single row. That is 17,280 pairs of large animals per day! If birds flew in simultaneously in a second queue above the animals, then that would be 34,560 pairs per day and 241,920 pairs per week. Simultaneously, Noah and His sons could have loaded the eggs, large tanks of fish and other animals that could not walk in. Hundreds of fish could swim into a net and then be transported in tanks to the ark. I assume that Noah would have built the ark next to a lake. All of this could be done in a week with the animals arranged twenty feet apart. The average distance could have been five feet and that would increase the number of animal pairs by four or decreased the time to load by four. If there were more lines of animals through the wide doors the rate could increase even more.

Clean Animals. Our metrics are in pairs of animals, but the bible says that the clean animals were loaded in by sevens (Genesis 7: 2). It is unclear whether this is seven pairs or seven animals. The number of unclean animals is much more than the clean ones. Leviticus 11 lists few clean animals and so the total should account for less than ten percent of the animal population. In fact, there are only 194 clean animals among the estimated 5000 mammals. The infraorder "pecora" seems to be the branch that are the clean animals. Pronghorn (1) Giraffe and Okapi (2), musk deer (7), deer (49), cattle, sheep, goat, antelope (135)
We have demonstrated that we could comfortably store 76,000 pairs of medium animals and also load two and a half million pairs in a week. So we can accommodate a reasonable target of 70,000 pairs of animals, although it is more likely that there were about 10,000 pairs of each kind of animal. In summary, these factors affected the number of animals loaded on the ark.

Time. The boat had 33,750 square feet per floor (3151 square meters) and Noah preached for 120 years maximum. With his three sons or helpers, this would mean 1,497,600 man hours of work if they worked ten hours per day and six days per week. This is 2,537 square feet of construction per year for the boat and all compartments.
Rooms Section and Capacity Length Width Feet2 Mammal Room Construction (6 x 9 x 15)
4 3 decks and 1 roof 450 75135,000
Level Height Width (feet) Animals Pairs
Upper 1 feet 2 2 2 2 Small24
Upper 2 feet 2 2 2 2 Small24
Middle2 feet 4 4 Medium6
Middle2 feet 4 4 Medium6
Lower 6 feet 8 Large 2
Two pairs of animals can be kept in the lower cage which is 8 feet wide, 6 feet deep and 6 feet high. Two feet of height space is used to collect waste in the six inch space below each level. Each room requires 354 square feet of construction for divisions. Common walls are counted once. The labor involved in gathering and storing grain is not included. The four women could have done this in seven years.
Insects. Suppose there is no formal space for insects but that they roam freely and devour waste matter. If we assume that the average insect pair occupies space in a one inch (2.54 cm) cube then 1,000,000 pairs of insects would occupy a cube that measures 100 inches (254 cm) on each side.
2 Sides 450 3027,000
2 Front, back 50 303,000
1 Double Hull 2 sides, front and back30,000
Capacity Per Room (6 x 9 x 15) (feet)
4 Humans (30 x 20 x 15) Room with door, beds, storage 4,000
240 62 Mammals 6 x 9 x 15 84,960
10 Marine Mammals Swimming pool and deck 3,540
12 1000 Birds 12 levels 15 inches high. 700 ft2 of construction per room 8,400
12 1400 Reptiles 12 levels 15 inches high. 800 ft2 9,600
10 1500 Amphibians Pool, logs 2,000
10 70,000 Insects Open room with door, logs, sugar water. Or roaming free on the piles of dung 900
88 Storage (Hay) Open room with door 11,880
88 Storage (Grain) 4 Bins (2 x 15 x 6). 36,960
582 Unfinished Open room with door (135 ft2) 78,570
1,056 rooms Total construction area 435,410 3.43 man hours per square feet for 4 people

Material. Gopher wood was used to construct the ark. No one knows what type of wood this is. Experts claim that the date palm is the only large species native to that region and that it is not suitable for building. However, these assumptions were made by looking at the resources in the area after the flood. Just as humans decreased in size and health after the flood, the plant life could also have decreased in size and strength. The climate could have changed and any species of plant could have been living at that time. The quality of the wood could have been stronger. Experts also claim that a boat that size would have leaked and imploded if it were made of wood and not iron. I disagree, houses that size and made of wood do not leak and implode in bad weather. In fact, if they are damaged it is because flood waters force them from their fixed locations. The ark was designed to be a house boat. It was designed to float, not move. They used tar to seal the boat on the outside and inside and make it water proof. In addition, Noah could have used several construction techniques to strengthen the ark. The hexagonal structure of a honey comb, double hull and liberal use of cross braces that serve as the supports for each room.

Capacity (1,518,750 Cubic Feet Or 44,114 Cubic Meters or 11,361,001 Gallons).
The common cubit was 18 inches (457 mm) giving a volume of 1,518,750 cu ft (43,006,210 liters). The king's cubit was 24 inches (610 mm) giving a volume of 2,234,473 cu ft (63,273,220 liters).
Total Pairs Cubicle Size % Space
76,000 150.44 75%
50,000 150.44 50%
18,112 501.47 60%
9,112 1002.9 60%
7,500 1002.9 50%
5,000 1504.4 50%
There are less than 50,000 mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians identified currently. We need space for animals and food for one year. Just as the races came from the genetic pool of eight people, the wide diversity of animals could be a result of such interaction. So there would be less types of animals to transport. For example, there are now thirty seven species of cats which came from one pair. If there are an average of ten species per family, then that would only be 5,000 original pairs of vertebrates. In addition, millions of species like insects and fish could be transported as eggs and require little space or food. Millions more would survive in eggs outside the ark. So the problem to resolve is the storage and care of mammals with a backbone. Specifically, vertebrates who do not lay eggs and large animals.
Most birds and dinosaurs could be carried as eggs. 50,000 mammals would occupy an average of thirty cubic feet per pair of animals (0.88 M3). This is an area (10 feet x 3 x 1) (30 m x 0.9 x 0.3) or (5 feet x 3 x 2) (15 m x 0.9 x 0.6). That is more than generous. But most mammals are small and they probably loaded the ark with young animals. That would require an average space of ten cubic feet for a pair of cats. We do not have many species who are large babies or large one year olds that require over 100 cubic feet per pair.
We can transport 7,500 animal pairs in 100 cubic feet rooms with 50% of the space used for food, passage ways, and other wasted space. As the food supply diminished, it left more space for the growing animal.
» Growing Pains. The age of the animals leaving the ark must be at least 2 years old. They must have been weaned when they entered and they stayed on the ark for about 13 months. As the young animals grew in size, the empty feed rooms would be used for housing.

Construction Time.
How many years did it take to build the ark? We will assume it is 120 years. The best evidence shows that it could have been between 100 to 120 years, but there must have been helpers during that time.

Current Total Named Species
After I made the previous estimates, I decided to research real numbers to see if my arguments were valid.
# Kingdom Example ArkGenus Named Estimate 1 Estimate 2
Not on The Ark 1 Monera Bacteria, blue-green algae, spirochete No- 4,000 - 10,000 1,000,000 5-10,000,000
Not on The Ark 2 Protista Protozoans, algae No- 80,000 - 250,000 600,000 ?
Not on The Ark 3 Fungi Fungi, mold, mushroom, yeast, mildew No- 72,000 - 100,000 1,500,000 74-120,000
Not on The Ark 4 Plantae Mosses, ferns, woody, non-woody, flowering Food16,167 298,900 320,000 321,212
Not on The Ark 5 Animalia Invertebrates
Sponges, worms No- 634,337 9,780,832?
Not on The Ark Fish No- 31,300
Not on The Ark Corals No- 2,175
Not on The Ark Mollusks No- 85,000
Not on The Ark Crustaceans No- 47,000
On The Ark Insects Yes ?? 663,120 1-30,000,000
On The Ark Arachnids Yes 9,500 102,248
On The Ark Ark Passengers Vertebrates
Amphibians Yes 5845,3786,89415,000
on The Ark Reptiles Yes 325 7,9259,08410,000
On The Ark Birds Yes 2014 9,9989,99810,000
On The Ark Mammals Yes 192 5,4905,4905,500
Ark Passengers Total Air Breathing Creatures Of Relevant Size 311528,78231,466 40,500
Total Animals -1,326,23913,232,29830,000,000
Total Of All Species (Plants and Animals) 1,752,239-1,956,239 13,232,298 30,000,000
Not on The Ark Bacteria. They were not deliberately loaded on the ark by Noah. But they could have been in the stomach of the animals, in the wood, on food and survived in the water and soil outside
Not on The Ark Fungi and Protista. They were also not loaded in the ark.
Not on The Ark Plants. They could have survived outside as seeds. So the only plant stored in the ark was for food. If Noah needed to preserve plant species he would have brought seed.
The estimated named creatures is about 1.4 million. Mammals are about 0.4% of this number and insects are 50%. 97% are invertibrates and 3% are vertibrates (backbone).
30 Million. Some guess that there may be as much as 30 million or more. Of those who estimate over 30 million species, the estimated number of the larger species remain the same as those who estimate 1 million species. The excess number of species is attributed to insects. So even if this is true and all existed at the time of the flood, almost all of these would be microscopic creatures and would not substantially affect the space requirements.
Animal Size. Since they were in the ark for about 13 months, then the average age or size of the animals many be under two years old since he must have brought weaned animals into the ark if he brought babies.
Named Versus Estimated. We are comfortable with calculating size based on the named species, because we believe that any of the unfounded species among the estimated number will not be large creatures which would effect our space requirements or loading deadlines
# Animalia Phylum Example Ark Named Space (ft3)
1 Mammals Mammalia Human, whale, dolphin, lion, dog, bat, ruminant Yes 5,000 281,000
Artiodactyla Ruminantia Clean animals (224 ruminant species, 194 clean) Yes 194 260,736
2 Birds Aves Birds Yes 10,000 5,000
Families with Clean Birds Galliform (256), Anseriform (150), Columbiform (300) Yes 35,000
3 Insects Arthropoda Crustaceans, scorpions, spiders, insects Yes 663,120 16,578
4 Reptiles Reptilia Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators Yes 7,925 7,925
5 Amphibians Amphibia Frogs, toads (4714). Salamanders, newts (505). Caecilian Yes 5,378 2,689
6a Fish Osteichthyes Bony fish such as perch, trout, koi No 29,000 0
Agnatha Jawless fish without scales. Lampreys, hagfish No 40 0
Chondrichthyes Cartilage skeletons: Rays, sharks, skates No 1,000 0
7a Marine Echinidermata Star fish (sea star), urchins, sand dollars No 6,000 0
7b Mollusca Clams, snails, slugs, mollusks, oysters, squid, octopus No 50,000 0
7c Brachipoda Lamp shells No 335 0
7d Cindaria Corals, jelly fish, sea anemones, hydras No 9,500 0
7e Ctenophora Comb jellies No 90 0
7f Sponges Porifera Sponges No 10,000 0
8 Worms Acanthocephala (600), annelida (8,900), chaetognatha (100), entoprocta (150), nemetoda (80,000) and others No 114,761 0

Animal Species Cubicle Size /Pair Total Space + WeightFood (Space-Wgt)
Type SpeciesArk Total Length Width Height (ft3)(m3) (Kg) (m3)KgMenu
1Humans 1 8 302015 36,000 1,02224,640 7.77 5,280 1,2
Clean Mammals 194 1,358 684 130,368 3,699 221,014 7,204 1,873,044 3
Unclean Mammals 4,806 9,612 See space below 245,000 6,952 53,686 10,321 1,001,877 3, 6
10% Large 500 1,000 686 144,000 4,088 -
40% Medium 2,000 4,000 342 48,000 1,362
50% Small 2,5005,000 121 5,000 142
2Unclean Birds 9294 18,588 111 9,294 264 24,107.7 14.3 468,312 2
Clean Birds 706 4,942 111 2,471 170 7,535
*Unclean Birds 9,700 19,400 111 9,700 276 Pigeons and doves as the only clean birds
Doves, Pigeons 300 2,100 111 1,050 30
*Unclean Birds 5,000 10,000 111 5,000 142 50% clean and unclean birds
Clean Birds 5,000 35,000 111 17,500 497
3Insects 663,120 1,326,240 40 pairs per feet 3 16,578 471 21,259.7 - 711.5 4
4Reptiles 7,925 15,850 111 7,925 225 3,150.5 * * 5,6
5Amphibians 5,378 10,756 11.5 2,689 76 538 * * 5
Total Space for 1,438,874 air breathing animals 402,325 11,324 355,931 - 3,349,224 -
6Fish 30,040 60,090 111 30,040 852
# Animal Food Menu
0 All Water, salt
1 Humans Flour, beans
2 Birds Seeds, fruit
3 Animals Hay, grain, pellets
4 Insects *Dung, sugar, fruit
5 Reptile Insects
6 Carnivores Meat, rats
7Marine, sponges 75,925 151,850 111 75,925 2,154
8Worms 114,761 229,522 40 pairs per feet3 2,869 81
Total Space for 441,462 water creatures 108,834 3,087
Total Space for all 1,880,336 living creatures 511,159 14,414
* This food and space is produced on board through other systems

The Total Cargo Weight. Besides the weight of the timber used to construct the boat, we have other cargo that adds to the total weight on board.
Cargo Count Mass (Kg) Use
Animals -   355,931 Rooms
Food - 3,349,224 Food
Hay Bales 8,109 1,248,804 Food
Rubber - 914,379 Bedding
Packing Material 141,976 Storage
Water+Tank 26 82,834 Water
Pond - 27,592 Turtle, gator
Hens 1000 2300 Eggs
Hen Food - 68080 Feed hens
Salt - 20,720 Salt
Seeds - 1.5 Microgreens
Gardens 450 15,800 Bamboo, Vegetables
Soil and Mulch - 285,436
- 90,387 Burrows
- 132,862 Compost
Flies 10m 100
Worms 1 m 3,000
Dung Beetles 1m 20,000
Termites 100m 210,000 Food
Total Cargo 6,969,427 -
Ark (Empty) 6,727,493 Boat
Total Boat 13,696,920 -

Total Animals. The total animals named today are used as the total at that time even though the true amount may be ten percent of this number because the "kinds" of animal may represent the genus which was taken on board. Inheritance in isolation brings out different variations in the genus that we see today as the species.
All space, weight arguments are settled if we use genus as the number of land animals on the ark larger than insects (about 3100). However, we will calculate for species.

Total Space (511,159 (ft3)). The space calculated for all living creatures using all species in the families with clean birds, or using 50% clean birds, is still less than half the total volume of the ark (1.5 million cubic feet). The total space for the land animals is one third the volume of the ark. Either situation leaves enough space for food.

Space. Space requirements were based on these average cubicle sizes for each type of animal. Each space is large and is probably double the size needed.

Large Land Animals. Our ark carries only the weaned child of all species who will be one year older when the ark lands. The largest animals are whales which are not on board.

Clean Animals. We over estimated the number of clean birds as half the bird population. However, we also showed the value for the number of clean bird species and the number of doves and pigeons. We have other estimates because the definition of a clean bird is not as clear as the definition for animals.

The Standard Space (Unit). All designed space and containers are based on a fixed space called a unit. The width of the ark allows two 30 foot areas on either side of the central corridor. The length allows 42 units on each side separated by space for stairs. Each unit is 30 wide x 10 long x 15 feet high (127.43 3).

Standard Food.
Standard Food (1 Consumer)
Menu Serving
# Food (m3) (g)
1 1xPasta 45 g 2.72 16,650
1 3xBean 38 g 1.44 42,180
1 3xLentil 32 g 1.8 35,520
1 2xRice 45 g 1.64 33,300
1 Flour 1/2 loaf 0.024 27,972
1 Apple 1 0.146 55,500
2 1x Raisin 0.25c/ 40 g 0.926 14,800
2 Powder
1 TBS 0.0055 2,722
2 Seed 2 TBS .004 7,200
3 Pellets 2 cups 740 0.175 352,000
3 10k Fish In the pond1,200,000
4 1m Worm In the compost heap455,000
4 10m Flies In the dung room100,000
4 1m Beetles In the dung room40 million
We base the sizes, weights and diet on animals that represent the average in at least 3 size classes. The large size group is very overestimated to account for the few outliers. I selected a standard to represent the type of food and measured its volume and weight and number of servings per consumer per year (370 days on the ark).

The Standard Animal.
Large Animal Weight and Height
Adult Animal Sizes Baby2 YrFood
/Day (g)
Animal (Maturity) (kg) (m) (Kg)(m) (Kg)
Elephant (13-20) 4900 7.5 100 35 600 food
Rhino (5-8) 2100 4.4 50 hgt 640 food
Hippo (6) 1800 4 30 hgt 6001-1.5% wgt
Giraffe (3-5) 1015 5.15 55 2 500 adult 38 l/34kg
Walrus () 944 2.860 0.110 2yr 3-6% wgt
Camel (6) 1000 3 37 hgt 340food
Moose 500 2.5 15 - 200food
Giant Hog (1-3) 320 1.1 0.7 .90 220food
Polar Bear (10-11) 700 3.05 6 hgt 140food
Siberian Tiger (3-6) 180 3.5 1 hgt 80food
Gorilla (13) 200 1.6 2.3 hgt 32adult 18kg
Chimp (15) 50 0.9 1.9 hgt 27Child 8 yrs
Crocodile (4-7) 454 3.8 56g hgt 165food
Tortoise (5-25) 200 3.8 Child hgt 27food
King Cobra (4-6) 12.7 5.7 Child 45cm 5food
Ostrich (3-4) 104 2.1 Child hgt 52food
Lion (3-4) 200 2.5 1.5 hgt 50food
Each type of animal is separated into large, medium and small group. Then I calculated the number of species in each size group and chose one animal as my standard for this group. I used its weight and feeding habits to determine the typical requirements for the group. On my Creation-Evolution page is my research on the number of animals in each species.
Finally, I accounted for the few large outliers, looking at the growth, maturation and feeding requirements of the very large animals.

Food Requirements ( 3,417,304 kg) 3,349,224 (Specimens) and 68,080 (Hens).
Standard Animal Size Total Daily
Animal Size (g) (%)
Insect Ant Small .000320% Garbage
Fly Medium 0.0110% Dung
Beetle Medium 4040% Dung
Worker bee Medium 0.0910% 0.005 g
Butterfly Large .30 - .0420% -
Amphibian Frog Medium 22.7-50100% Insects
Reptile Lizard Small 19899.7% Insects
Crocodile Large 4540.3% 1 kg
All Birds Songbird Small 8050% 2 TBSP
Chicken Medium 230044% 50-85g
Chicken Laying hens 110-170g
Pigeon Medium 4543% 2 oz
Eagle Large 77113% 10%
7% Clean
Chicken Medium 230058%  
Pigeon Medium 45442% 10%
Mammals Hamster Small 14250% 2 TBSP
Bat (Insect) Small 6014% 30%
Bat (fruit) Small 605% 30%
House Cat Medium 400011% 1 c
Dog Large 907210% 2 C
Cow X-Large 635,01710%  
3% Clean
Sheep Large 70,000 90% 3.5-4%
Cow X-Large 635,01710% 2-2.5%
Daily food listed as % body weight or actual amount
The following is the food required for the animals taken as specimens for the ark. Animals may eat 5% of their weight in food daily. The food listed as 0 kg is the food that is generated on board. Some animals are also brought on board for food or for services. Their food requirements are listed separately.

The Ship Weight.
Wood Ark Dry Weight
Strength (lbf)
HardRupture Elastic Crush Properties
Lignum Vitae Frame 1,350 4,500 17,760 2,304,000 11,400 Strength
Ekki Exterior 1,125 3,250 26,640 2,805,000 14,160 Strong, Insect, termite and teredo resistant
Jarrah Floor, Wall 860 1,920 16,200 1,880,000 8,870
Teak 6501,070 13,940 1,570,000 7,770
Balsa Walls 175 90 2,740 478,000 1,750 Light
Black Locust Interior Walls 825 1,700 19,400 2,050,000 10,200 Fluorescent,
Rot resistant
Coffeetree 675 1,390 10,500 1,420,000 6,600
Red Palm 850 2,060 15,840 1,843,000 11,310 Strength
Bamboo Interior Walls 500 1,410 11,020 2,610,000 8,990 Insect attack, decays in years
850 1,610 24,450 2,900,000 13,490
English Oak Walls 680 1,120 14,100 1,544,000 6,720 Rot resistant
Douglas Fir Frame 570 620 12,500 1,765,000 6,950 Strong, Hard
Cypress Frame 525 510 10,600 1,440,000 6,360 Decay resistant

Cross Section of 75 ft (22.86 m) (50 cubit) wide Ark
Hull (1.5') Hay Wall Living Spaces (30'x10') Garden Corridor Bamboo Living Spaces (30'x10') Hay Wall Hull (1.5')
Wall Post Wall 2' 10x10' 10x10' 10x10' 2' 2' 4' 10x10' 10x10' 10x10' 2' 3" 12" 3"

Cross Section of 450 ft (137.16 m) (300 cubit) Long Ark
Hull (1.5') Hay Wall 21 Living Spaces (Units) Water Ramp Water 21 Living Spaces (Units) Hay Wall Hull (1.5')
Wall Post Wall 2' 210x30' 23' Ramp 210x30' 2' 3" 12" 3"

The Layout.
Floors AnimalGen Species DesignHabitat Food Habitat Designs
# Section Name Kind Type TotalPod Units Light Habitat Diet
Pod A [30'x10']
PodFloor Size Pair Grid
A1 - * 10'
A12 Small 54 3'x3'
A1c3 Small 71 3'x3'
A1d4 Small 108 3'x3'
A22 Med 36 3'x5'
A2c3 Med 54 3'x5'
A32 Large 24 6'x5'
A3c3 Med 36 6'x5'
Water and Food
Pod B1 [20'x6']
616 Nests (14 Levels)
84 [1'x1'] Nests
266 Nests
266 Nests
Pod B2 [20'x8']
154 Nests (7 Levels)
28 [2'x2'] Nests
63 Nests
63 Nests
Pod B3 [20'x10']
65 Nests (5 Levels)
15 [3'x3'] Nests
25 Nests
25 Nests
Pod E [10'x10'] 30 Nests
PodFloor Size Pair Grid
E13 Small 15 2x3x4
2 Med 9 3x3x4
1 Large 6 5x3x6
Water and Food
E21-3 Small 45 2x3x4
E31-7 Small 175 2x2x2
E41-5 Small 60 1x1x1
E51-5 Small 500 1x1x1
EX1-15 Small1500 1x1x1
"W" = Water/pool in area
Pod W [20'x10']
PodFloor Size Grid
Ww2 Storage 10x10x7
1 Water10x10x7
Wd2 Land 10x10x7
1 Dirt 10x10x7
Pod HH [18'x20']
336 Nests (7 Levels)
Chicken Run [18'x4']
1 E-G 9-12.l1 Sheep, Goats 2 33 10 A2c 12 Day Land Clean

A-C 9-12.l1 Cattle, moose [1] 2 28 7 A3 17Day Land
A 9-12.l1 Wildebeest 1 10 7 A3 4Day Land
A 9-12.l1 Pronghorn[1] musk deer[4] 1 5 7 A3 1Day Land
E-F 1-5.l2 Deer 1 34 7 A3c 9 Day Land
F-G 1-5.l2 Cervidae 1 48 7 A3 10Day Land
A 3-5.l2 Chevrotain 1 6 7 A2c 2 Day Land
B 1-5.l2 Antelope 1 19 7 A3c 4 Day Land
C 1-5.l2 Duiker 1 21 7 A2c 4 Day Land
A 1-5.l1 Suina: pigs[19], peccary[4] 1 23 2 A3 2Day Land Omnivore
B 1-5.l1 Elephant 1 3 2 A3 1Day Land Unclean

B 1-5.l1 Horse, ass, zebra 1 7 2 A3 1.5 Day Land
B 1-5.l1 Giraffe, okapi 1 2 2 A3 0.5Day Land
B 4-5.l1 Hippo [1], rhino [5], tapir [4]3 11 2 A3 1Day Land
E 1-5.l1 Camel [2], Llama [4] 1 6 2 A3 1Day Land
E 1-5.l1 Kangaroo, wallaby 2 61 2 A3 2 Day Land
E 1-5.l1 Ratites: ostrich, emu 2 12 2 A3 1Day Land
1 A 3 Echidna, mole 2 379 2 Wd **5Night Burrow Insectivore
1 A 3 Edentata, numbat, pholidota 3 37 2Wd Night Burrow Insectivore
1 A 3 Wombat 1 3 2 Wd Night Burrow Herbivore
1 G 3-4 Tortoise [49] 1 49 2 Ww 1Night Land Herbivore
1 G 3-4.l1 Turtle [251], platypus 1 252 2 Ww Night Water Omnivore
1 G 1-2.l1 Crocodile, alligator 1 23 2 Ww 1Night Water Carnivore
2 A 2-6 Possum[70],cuscus[22],shrew[6] 3 98 2 E2 1*Day Land
2 B 2-6 Racoon [19], Skunk [11}, mongoose[41] 3 71 2 E2 1*Day Land
2 B 2-6 Weasel, civet, lingsang 3 93 2 E2 1*Night Land
2 A 1-2 Chiroptera (Fruit Bat) 1 366 2 E5 1 Night Cave Fruitarian
2 A 1-2 Chiroptera (Bat) 1 734 2 E5 1 Night Cave Insectivore
Wire Mesh
2 A 1-2Frog 1 6090 2 EXW 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Lizard 1 4470 2 EX 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Snake 1 2920 2 EX 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Salamander 1 615 2 E5W 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Caecilicans (worm-like) 1 189 2 Day Land
2 E 2-6 Myomorph: Small rodents 4 1539 2 EX 1*Night Land Omnivore
2 F 2-6 Sciuromorph: Squirrel 1 323 2 E3 1*Night Land
2 G 2-6 Castorimorph: Beavers 1 96 2 E2 1*Night Burrow Insect,seed
2 G 2-6 Hystricomorph: Capybara 1 230 2 E3 1*Night Land Herbivore
2 B 2-6 Rabbit, hare, hyrax 2 87 2 E2 1*Day Land
3 B 8-9 New world monkey 1 132 2 E2 3 **Day Land Omnivore
3 C 8-9 Lemur, loris, tarsier ... 3 125 2 E2 3 **Night Land
3 C 8-9 Old world monkey 1 135 2 E2 3 **Day Land
3 C 8-9 Lesser apes (gibbons) 1 16 2 E1 2 **Day Land
3 C 8-9 Great apes 1 6 2 E1 Day Land
3 G 8-10 Insects, dinosaur eggs * 2 E 1Both Land Omnivore
3 BA8-9 Dogs, bears 2 49 2 E1 2 **Day Land Carnivore
3 B 8-9 Cats 1 40 2 E1 2 **Day Land
3 A 3-6 Birds of Prey (Raptors) 9 290 2 B3 4Day Land
3 A 3-6 Owls (Night Raptors) 1 130 2 B2 1Night Land
3 A 3-6 Water Birds, cranes 21 351 2 B2 2Day Land Omnivore
3 B 3-6 Cuckoo, roadrunner, ani 3 126 2 B2 1Day Land
3 B 3-6 Swift, hummingbird, game 10? 650 2 B1 1Day Land
3 B 3-6 Other Small Birds 33? 3300 2 B1 5Day Land
3 C 3-6 Other Medium Birds 5? 456 2 B2 3Day Land
3 F-G 3-6 Parrots 1 300 2 B1 9Day Land
3 F 3-6 Song Birds 50? 5000 2 B1 Day Land Vegetarian
3 F 3-6 Clean Birds 8 300 7 B1 4Day Land
3 G 8-10 Hens for egg production 1000 1 HH 3Both Land
3 E 8-12 Humans 1 4 * 2 A 4 Day Land
1 A 1 Dung Room A **5 Day Land Dung
1 A 2 Compost A **5 Day Land
1 A 1-2 Worm, flies, dung beetle A **5 Day Land
* Storage * = number of 10'x10' space in front of or behind the living space in the 30x10' unit
Units are the number of 30x10x15 foot space from hull to skylight where the pods are located. There are 42 on each side of the skylight for a total of 84 on each floor. A pod is a type of habitat design.
Floor Plan 1. This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals and big "poopers" above. It allows for easy cleaning of feces and urine for those who produce great quantities. The sewer goes directly to the chutes, emptying above the water line above the first floor. The change in construction is to add 1716 kg /1800 ft of chain link fence at the corridors.
FloorPlan 1Plan 2AnimalSewer
33a2, 3 South Man, Primates, Cats, Dogs, Bears, Hens. Food, grain, storageRhinoDung

3b1a Sheep, Goats, Deer, Cervidae, Antelope, Chevrotain, Duiker [+ Fence]Pigs
22a1a, 1b Cattle, Horses, Unclean Animals. These cannot climb easily. Milk Kitchen [+ Fence]Elephants
2b3 North Birds (Water line is at this level) Snakes, bats, amphibians
112 Rabbits, weasel, rodents, possum, racoon, armadillo, sloth ... anteater, pond Dung Room

Floor Plan 2. This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals below. It allows for easy entry and exit.
The First Floor Layout (Level 1)
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1 Light Sewer Dung Zebra, ass, horse
Elephant[3], giraffe
water water water
Ostrich, emu
Camel, llama
Kangaroo, wallaby
2   Compost Corridor Fish
3 armadillo sloth numbat echidna mole wombat anteater Tapir [4] Rhino[5]
Hippo[2] Pig [19]
Peccary [4]
water Up
Stairs Turtle[300]
4 waterwater
5 water water
6 Sewer Vegetable Garden water water Vegetable Garden Sewer
7 water Skylight Traffic Skylight Door
8 |
  - Vegetable Garden water Hold water Tomato Garden -   |
9 Wildebeest
Musk Deer[4]
Moose [1]
water Stair Sheep [8]
Others [14]
Goat [10] Tahr [1]
Room 2
10 Sewer Kitchen Sewer
11   - water Milk Closet -
12 water water water
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
Human Humans water Water water Stair Closet Closet Sewer Sewer/Dung/Bilge Fan Vent Light Biogas Hay Hay
Diggers: Armadillo, Numbat, Anteater, Sloth [29] Mole [375], Echidna [4] Wombat [3]
The floor is divided into 2 levels. Food is stored above and the animals are on level 1. This facilitates shoveling food into the space below and loading these large animals without the use of ramps. These animals occupy the entire 30x10x7' space of each unit.
» Clean Animal. 63 half units
» Unclean Animal. 8 units
» Underground (Mole).
» Turtle. 2 units G (1-5) - level 1

Total Garbage Space: 24,000 ft3
» Dung. [50x30x8'] - A (1)
» Compost. [50x30x8'] - A (2)
The messiest poopers are next to the dung room.
» Garden Space.

Total Living Space: 153,700 ft3

Total Storage: 182,400 ft3
Level 1 (11 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (14 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (34 Half Units). 17 corn
Level 2 (30 Half Units). 15 oats

The First Floor Layout (Level 2)
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1 Light Sewer Dung Antelope [19]
Duiker [21]
water water water Cervidae [48]
Deer [34]
2   Compost Corridor
3 Chevrotain [6] water Up
4 waterwater
5 water water
6 Sewer Corridor water water Corridor Sewer
7 water Skylight
8 |
  - Corridor water Hold water Corridor -   |
9 Grain and Hay water Stair Grain and Hay Storage
Room 2
10 Sewer water water Sewer
11   - water Closet -
12 water water water
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
The second level is for food to feed the herbivores below.
It is also the expansion space for growing herbivores as the food is depleted.
Most deer are kept on this level.
Space (G 9-12) on both levels is a possible location for a second compost room when the food in this section is used up.

» Dung Disposal On Landing. While the boat is in transit, all the dung portholes can be used. However, when the boat lands only those to the rear should be used. In addition, while water still surrounds the boat for 2.5 months, dung should be stored in the dung room. This ensures that the front half of the boat is not sitting in a pool of dung when the animals disembark.'

The Second Floor Layout
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1   - Bat Cave Frog Snakes
water water water Oats,corn Acorn, Nuts, Wood  
2 Reptile Corridor Small
Dunnart [21]
Bandicoot [21]
3 Possum
Racoon [19]
Nuts Silo
water Up
4 water water
5 water water water
6 Sewer water water DeckSewer
7 Closet Skylight Skylight
8 |
  - Rabbits
Weasel [55]
Civet [35+1]
Linsang [2]
Food water   water Expansion Rooms -   |
9 water Stair
10 Sewer Fresh Fruit [5]Oats
water - Grain
Fresh Fruit [6] Sewer
11   -waterwater -
12 Fresh Fruit [7] (210x10 feet) water water water Fresh Fruit [7] (210x10 feet)
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
This space functions mainly as the food silos for the animals below. Most animals are either nocturnal or hibernating or not fed regularly and live in section A-B row 1-6. The bats and reptiles are fed through the mesh floors from the insects in the dung and compost rooms below.

Total Living Space: 48,000 ft3
[  60x30x15'] A (1-6) - Cage
[  80x20x15'] B (2-6) - Rodents
Total Storage: 327,000 ft3
[  80x10x15'] B (1-6)
[  70x30x15'] C (1-6)
[210x30x15'] E-G (1-6)
[420x30x15'] A-G (8-12)

This floor can be food only. The insect eaters are on level 2 above the dung rooms and the rest on level 1 of the first floor.

The Third Floor Layout
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1   Seed (210x10 feet) water water water Seed (210x10 feet)  
2 - Large
Birds [290]

Owl [130]
Medium Birds
water Animals
water Clean
[* 300]
3 water water
4 water water
5 water water water
6 Sewer Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Grove Bamboo Bamboo Corridor Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Grove Bamboo Bamboo Sewer
7 Closet - Skylight -
8 |
  Bears [8]
Dogs [37]
Hyena [4]
Cat [12+28]
great ape[6]
water   water Human Human Human Human Run
9 water Stair Kitchen Food
10 Sewer Lemur, loris [125] water - Dry Fruit Salt
11   Jerky Food Pellets water water Oil Dinosaurs Eggs
12 Nuts (210x10 feet) water water water Nuts Insects
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
All bird space has a 10x10x15 feet space behind the pods for food storage. Pod "B" also has a 4 x 20 x 15 foot space from back to front and Pod "C" has a 2x20x15 foot space. All pods have a central space and front balcony for flight, water, food and perching trees.

Total Living Space: 132,000 ft3
» Birds. 30.5 [2/3] units
» Carnivores. 4 [1/3] units
» Primates. 11 [1/3] units
» Egg-Laying Hens. 1 Unit
» Dinosaur eggs. Closet.
» Humans. 4 Units
Free Flight Space [30x10x15']
» 4 Units. (C 1-6)
» 8 Units. (E 1-6)
Total Storage: 246,000 ft3
Food Space Behind Animals
» 30.5 units [10x10']. (A-E 1-2)
» 15 units [20x10']. (B-C 10-12)
» Dry fruit[8] & Vegetables[14]
    • 17 units. (E-G 8-12)
    • 6 units. (A 8-12)

Flood Science Criticisms: Stolen Legends. I heard these arguments on the Discovery Channel production about Noah's ark in December 2005. While searching for this broadcast in July 2013, I found a BBC documentary from 2003 with the same arguments.
Undermining the Bible, the BBC documentary immediately labeled Noah as a drunk of questionable character and concluded that the story of Noah in the Torah was stolen from anicent Sumerian mythology about a local flood. The story was embellished and made up by Jewish priests living in captivity during the Babylonian exile as a cautionary tale about disobeying God.
They concluded that the Sumerian Noah was a trader on the Euphrates who got caught in a local flood with his cargo of animals and beer. All had to drink beer to survive for the 7 days the boat was adrift in the Persian Gulf. Settling on the local Mesopotamian flood as authentic, it went on to say that the ark was a small boat carrying only 260 animals that were found locally. They arrived at these figures from the list of clean and unclean animals in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14. These are 10 species of clean animals and about 30 unclean animals and the birds.

Flood Science Criticisms: The Animals.

Flood Science Criticisms: Constructing The Ark
Construction Schedule
Age Project Activity Workers
480 Gather
(40 Years)
Cut trees and replant Hired Workers
Make fasteners (nail, pegs)
Make tools and replacements
490Saw wood into planks, dry and cure and position supplies around the ark work site
500 Sons Born
520 Assemble Frame Children
Hired Workers
530Assemble base and frame
540 Each Deck
(10 Years)
Construct exterior walls+floor
Construct Interior walls
Construct stalls and storage
Prepare more wood
550Deck 2 Construct Deck 2, food silos
560Deck 3 Construct Deck 3, frame roof
570 Special
Make fish pond, bamboo grove
Make dung and compost rooms
RoofCover roof (wood and quartz)
580 Duct Water, Sewer, Feeding ducts
Collect resin for pitch and rubber
Apply pitch (Several Coats)
Apply rubber floor beds
StorageMake 1359 food, 26 water tanks
FenceMake rope and wire fence
590 BagsMake 5,316 food storage bags Women
Food Gather grain, nuts, seeds, hay
595 Lamech dies (1651)
598Bamboo Establish grove, garden
Insects Start termite and ant hills
Start dung beetle, worm colony
Fish Pond Prepare pond. Shell fish filter
Zoo Temporary zoo in clear-cut area
Prepare Food Dry fruit, grain, nuts, seeds, flour
Dehydrated food, pellets, flour
Intense Evangelism All
600 Methuselah dies (1656)
Make temporary water duct
Gather animals (Migrate), eggs God
Month Pre-Load
Fill food and water bins
Assemble entry/exit ramp
Week Load
Feed large meals to reptiles
Week Load all Animals
Load entry/exit ramp
WeekWait Shut door God

Flood Science Criticisms: There Was No Technology To Build A Wooden Ship
Longest Wooden Ships Over 300ft
Name Size (LxW) Owner Purpose
Santiago 1899–1918 324 X 46 ft America Great Lakes Barge
Belyana 1916 328 X 50 ft Russia River logging barges
Wyoming 1909–1924 329 X 50 ft America Schooner
HMS Orlando 1858
HMS Mersey 1875
335 X 60 ft British Warships
Caligula's Giant Ship c. 37 341 X 66 ft Rome Transported obelisks from Egypt to Rome
Syracusia c. 240 BC 360 ft Greek Transport ship by Archimedes' design
Leontophoros c. 280 BC 360 ft Greek Warship, built for Lysimachos. 1600 oarsmen
Thalamegos c. 200 BC 377 X 46 ft Egypt River boat for Ptolemy IV Philopator
Treasure ship 15th c 416X170 ft China Ming Dynasty
Tessarakonteres c. 200 BC 420X58 ft Egypt Ancient references.
Largest human powered ship
Well Documented Historical References
Only body size counted. Not jib boom to spanker boom

Flood Science Criticisms: Conditions On Board The Ark

Flood Science Criticisms: Other Issues.
Earth Preach Door
Wait Asteroid Impact Tsunami Submerged Ark Ararat RavenDove Dove Dove Wait Exit
Flood 150 Days (Water) 150 Days (Wind) 70 Days
2-10 2-17 40 Days 3-27 110 Days 7-17 10-1 10-10 40 days 21 days 12-1 12-17 1-1 2-27
Sin Building Ark Rough Seas Calmer Seas (253 Days) Incubation (77 Days)
Trees and Forests Trees Destroyed and Submerged Ground Drying Olive Tree Grows
1656 Years 1 Year (370 Days + 7)

Flood Science Criticisms: The Flood.
Critics also claim that it was not a global flood because there is no evidence of a global flood and there is not enough water to cover the earth.

Flood Science Evidence: Enough Water.
Mountain HeightHeight Flood Waters Earth Surface
# Base (km) A. [Km (mi)]B. (km) Mountain Coverage
Covered 0 0 2.6176 (1.636)5.14 0% - Flat surface
Covered 866 2.6176 2.678 (1.674) 0 24% of current land
Covered 1226 2.6176 2.826 (1.7665) 0 24% of surface
Covered 2046 2.6176 2.966 (1.8535) 0 40% of surface
Covered 2556 2.6176 3.0527 (1.908) 0 50% of surface
Not 2046 4.00 3.149 (1.968) 0 40% of surface
Not 2046 5.137 3.300 (2.063) 0 40% of surface Ararat
Not 2556 5.137 3.471 (2.169) 0 50% of surface Ararat
Not 4086 5.137 3.983 (2.489) 0 80% of surface Ararat
Covered Mountains Covered Not Mountains Not Covered
The planet is 71% water on the surface area. But they claim that this is not enough water to cover the tops of the mountains. However, the Bible claims that the surface of the earth was very different before the flood. It did not rain because the surface was mostly land floating on water. The entire planet was land floating on an aquifer with rivers, springs and small lakes above ground. The planet probably did not have huge mountains, miles high but smaller hills. If so, then these could have easily been inundated by the water below as the earth sank below the water and displaced it. So it is not only a problem of water rising to cover the highest point of land, the land probably sank below the water.
As the earth dried in the following year, the force of water goughed out huge canyons and reshaped the surface of the earth for over one hundred years after.
» Methodology. I decided to use the volume of spheres. If I take the sphere of the earth and place it inside the sphere in which the water will cover the earth, then the volume of the water (or water + mountain) is the difference between the volumes of the two spheres.

» Limitations (Bald Earth). I will first make the calculations for a smooth earth without mountains with the water as an aquifer underneath. I will not account for the flood goughing out the soft earth or the forces pushing up the earth to build taller mountains. Instead I want to see what would be the size of the mountains that would be covered by the volume of water currently in our oceans. I will not be concerned about "undiscovered" or "unknown" water below the surface since the answer to all these problems only makes my case stronger. Either there would be more water to cover taller mountains, or taller mountains appeared after the flood. I used two different models for my calculations.

Mountain Calculation "A". This is the depth of the ocean water which covers the earth without mountains.
Radius Of Earth + Water. = Cube root [Volume (Earth+Water)/pi * 3/4] = 6379.112 km
Radius of Water. = (Radius Of Earth + Water) - (Radius of Earth) = 6379.112 - 6376.5 = 2.6176 km (1.636 mi) (8638 ft).
This is the minimum height of the water without mountains. Currently, mountains cover 24% of the land so I will use this as the baseline for what is reasonable.

» Mountains Displace Water. I was encouraged to calculate the possible height of this water that rose 15 cubits above the top of the mountain. The problem is that I do not know how tall the highest mountain was or how many mountains there were to displace the water. So instead I decided to take the current volume of water and determine how high it would go with various amounts of mountains and see if the story is unreasonable.
Calculation A
Water Above Circumference

Any mountain 1.6 miles high will be covered. In addition, the more mountains we add to our bald earth model, the more water will be displaced so that taller mountains can be covered. I will calculate the volume of a mountain by using the formula for the volume of a pyramid. If I add the volume of the mountain to the volume of the earth and water I will have the volume of the new sphere which represents the new height of the water + earth + mountain. Use this to calculate the new height.
» Conclusion. There is not enough water to cover the 5,137 meter mountain which we believe is Ararat. However, there is enough water to cover mountains between 2.6 and 3 km (1.6 and 1.9 miles) including the 15 cubits of water over the top (23-28 feet). It is possible.

Calculation B
Water Below Circumference
Mountain Calculation "B". All structures fit inside the diameter of the earth.
The minimum height of the earth without mountains under the water is 6373.88 km. This gives only a small advantage unless we use another model of mountain building other than filling the space with mountains which will displace water beyond the diameter of the earth.
Mountain in Basin The Basin Model. The earth is squished in on the side in the northern hemisphere. Let us work with this shape. Let us take a model of the earth with one land mass on top of an aquifer with very low mountains. Suppose the water covered the southern hemisphere with low hills only 0.10 km and then the majority of the water collected in a basin of mountains in the north or in a narrower northern hemisphere.
Hills and Low Lands
Basin Model
Water in basin

Evidence For The Flood
Evidence of the flood can be seen in the structure of the soil near these mountains. When viewed from this perspective, the earth can be seen as one giant flood basin with the bottleneck regions where the debris flowed the longest showing more scarring. These petroleum rich basins can be found near every major mountain. The force of the rushing water might have been precipitated by the dams bursting into the sea and the collapse of the land in the south formed the great seas and drained the water from the north, goughing a path between the continents through the mid Atlantic ridge and the pacific.

Mountains Of Evidence
The volume of the earth + water as high as Mount Everest = 1,090,542,840,622 km3
Volume of water needed to cover Everest = 7,332,839,659 km3 (7.3 x 109km3)
So there is not enough water to cover Everest if we believe that the total water on earth is 1.4 x 109km3
Although I believe most mountains achieved their height after the flood due to uplifting and volcanic activity under the soft earth, nevertheless I created a model based on the existing conditions in the north. But this model proposed that the post-flood volcanic and tectonic activity created the volcanic mountains in the southern hemisphere.
There are about four different types of mountains on the land. All can be formed by the tectonic or impact activity pushing through the soft earth. Two of them show signs of being formed very quickly and it is these two that form the highest mountains in both hemispheres.

Olive Tree Evidence. After 5 months of drying the dove finally returned an olive branch. What does this fact tell us?

Although we have no idea about the configuration of the pre-flood ecology or the hardiness of the plants, if we assume that it is relatively the same as it is today then the tree grew at the most at around 10,560 feet (2 mi or 3218 m). This is circumstantial evidence that the tallest mountains may have been about 2 miles which is close to the depth to which the total estimated amount of water can cover the earth with rogue waves.

So we maintain that the mountains were not as high before the flood. The waters we have could still cover very high mountains in support of this story.
Notice that the total volume of the major mountains is only about 7% of the total land area while the estimate is that 24% of the surface is covered with mountains. The remaining amount must be the smaller mountains and elevations. The size of the major mountains indicate the volume displaced in our theoretical basin.

Reasons For The Flood
Through the visions of a prophet, Seventh Day Adventists believe that the people before the flood had technology that was far superior to ours. The reason for the flood was because they had become too wicked and powerful through their knowledge. So God destroyed them and wiped out all traces of their technology. One heinous crime was their biological experiments. They were beginning to amalgamate man and animals.

Large buildings like the pyramid testify to ancient building technology and other buildings show advanced astrological knowledge. Independent verification of other ancient technology comes through Hindu writings. Sanskrit text, such as the Mahabharata, show evidence of great technological knowledge among the ancients. Much of this can be dismissed as the fertile imagination of an early futuristic novelist. But the description of the results of a nuclear blast are too realistic to dismiss.

Ancient Military Technology.
» Flying Machines. The Puspaka car that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravan; that aerial and excellent car going everywhere at will.... that car resembling a bright cloud in the sky. ".. and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent car at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere."
» War Planes. "Gurkha flying in his swift and powerful Vimana hurled against the three cities of the Vrishis and Andhakas a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe.
» Ancient Nuclear Weapons. " ... (the weapon was) a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as the thousand suns rose in all its splendor. An iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. The corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable.
» Radioactive Contamination. The hair and nails fell out, pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white ... after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected .... to escape from this fire, the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment ..."

Evidence of what might be a nuclear blast are in skeletons excavated in the ancient Rishi City of Mohenjodaro. They were as radioactive as those in Hiroshima. In another city, clay pots melted under intense heat and were changed to glass.
» Modern Science in the Bible. Since writing this article, God has shown me a model of the Periodic Table and a model for particle physics in the Old Testament. He obviously obscured this knowledge with Moses because He would use it in the end of time to shut the mouths of scoffers, but suppose the people before the flood knew all this science? I am convinced that Satan did not know about the science models in the scriptures, but perhaps the ancients knew enough science to build all this technology like we do without believing that God had it encoded in scripture.

"Come now, and let us reason together," Says the LORD, "Though your sins are as scarlet, they will be as white as snow; though they are red like crimson, they will be like wool. (Isaiah 1: 18)
Man's Wisdom Is Foolishness. Therefore, behold, I will once again deal marvelously with this people, wondrously marvelous. And the wisdom of their wise men will perish. And the discernment of their discerning men will be concealed. (Isaiah 29: 14)
Time: 5 Hours
Print: 42 pages
This File First Created : 21 December 2008. Split by Science Topics: June 2015
No permission is given to use this material at this time. Quoting of this material is strictly by the author's permission (Jeremiah 23: 30).
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editors: Patterson (February 2009-2011 and 2015). Peer Review: None

• Global Biodiversity. URL:
• How much water is there on, in, and above the Earth? URL:
• Largest Animals. URL:
• Food and Sizes. URL:
• The pitch for Noah’s Ark. Dr. Tas B. Walker. URL:
• Ancient Preservation Methods. URL:
• Sisal Rope Strength. URL:
• Asexual Reproduction. URL:
• Australian Dung Beetle Project.
• Facts about dung beetles.
• Noah's Ark The Real Story. BBC Documentary (2003). URL:
• Longet Wooden Ships. URL: (listed in 2015)