With the exception of Jacob's stick (Genesis 30: 37-41) there are no other stories besides the creation story in Genesis 1 villified as unscientific by both atheists and modern "enlightened" Christians than the story of the flood (Genesis 6-8).
Today the stories of our origins in Genesis 1-8 have been discarded by the mainline churches and its clergy and now many top evangelical leaders.
In this story there is no breakthrough modern science hidden in the story, so far.
However, what I offer is the unique perspective of analyzing how the story could be possible, without looking at the opinions of other young earth creationists.
My motivation came from looking at a "scientific" analysis of the story in early 2000s. It was originally produced by BBC and was now being aired in the USA.
It was initially advertised as a positive story for creationist. Or so it seemed.
Narrated and edited and complied by a flock of PhD's, and scientific experts, within the first 10 minutes they had destroyed the credibility of the story, labelled Noah as a drunk and an immoral person and proceeded to tell the story of a localized flood written in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Using math and the rate of boarding the ark, they asked how is it possible to load 30 million species in such a short time?
So I waited for about 6 years to explore these numbers and figures, never really suspecting them of lying or even exaggerating the truth.
They are scientists after all. They verify the work through a process of peer review. Or common sense.
I may conclude that they were deliberately lying by how the reported the "facts".
However, I will state that because scientists already think that this is a useless story equivalent to caculating how many fairies can fit on the point of a needle, I just think they were not even remotely diligent in reporting the information.
I spent 3 months studying and calculating dung of all kinds. I was diligent.
The Torah Pattern, Design And Laws.
Written by Moses during the exodus around 1500 BC, the events occurred about 4500 years ago. That is 1656 years after the creation, or about 1000 years before Moses.
food (Genesis 6: 21).
Wait 7 days after boarding (Genesis 7: 10)
- Structure. Build a wooden boat [300x50x30 cubits] covered by pitch (Genesis 6: 14-16).
- Exits And Entrances. It had one massive door and a window (Genesis 6: 16).
- Design. There were three levels of living spaces.
- Function. Its purpose was to save a sample of all living land creatures and humans to escape a global flood.
- Statutes And Laws. A male and female from each species were to be saved (Genesis 6: 19). 7 clean animals from each species were saved (Genesis 7: 2).
- Function. The ark survived a 370 day journey on the sea. The first 40 days were a catastrophic destruction of the earth by a flood, then the water remained for 150 days before retreating. Then the earth was drying for the other days.
- Miracles. The Bible only reported two miracles related to the story. So I will not venture outside this to appeal to any other process except what we observe in nature today.
- Special Migration. The animals came in a mass migration (Genesis 7: 9).
- Door Closed. God closed the door (Genesis 7: 16).
- Scientific Criticism. The criticisms are based on the claims of the theory of evolution.
Ark Science (Quantum Mechanics).
|Possible Distribution || |
|3a. Flying Creatures. Birds, insects, eggs and humans |
|3b. Unclean Animals. Cats, monkeys, rodents and climbing animals |
|2. Clean Animals. Those without the ability to climb stairs easily. |
|1. Heavy Loads. Aquarium. Fish and marine animals. Tall, heavy animals |
» The Ark.
The ark was designed to float, not to move. The ratio of the ark was 30:5:3. A Norwegian ship builder used the dimensions of the ark to build a ship. He found that it is the most stable design in rough weather. Oil tankers are now built to this ratio.
It was a rectangle that was ten times longer than its height.
This reduced the possibility that the wind would capsize it.
It would float like a log. Tar was used for water proofing.
It was 300 cubits by 50 by 30 high. (450 x 75 x 45 feet) or (137 x 23 x 14 meters). It had one window (or skylight), one door and three decks which were subdivided into compartments.
This would hold four decks eleven feet high (335 cm) or three decks fifteen feet (457 cm) high.
Since the antediluvians had an average height of over ten feet, the dimensions fit.
|The Boat of Utnapishtim |
(The Epic of Gilgamesh)
This was a cube that was 120 cubits on each side (180 feet or 55 m), seven floors and it was made in seven days.
Critics accuse Bible writers of plagiarizing this story as they "made up" their religion.
But there are several key differences. One is the dimensions of the boats.
The 1:1:1 ratio of a cube is not stable in rough seas. It is a bad design.
But the 30:5:3 ratio of the ark is extremely stable in rough weather.
Floor. Each floor was 17 cubits high. That is 25.5 feet. That is too high.
Seven Days. The construction time is also highly improbable since they had to construct 32,400 square feet of floor space every day, and also load the boat in a week.
In fact, according to the story they had only two days to cover the frame.
Noah's ark makes mathematical sense in terms of time and design, while this boat does not.
» Loading The Animals.
The unclean animals went in twos, but the clean animals went in by sevens.
Several strategies could be used to hold more animals. He could have carried the eggs or young animals.
If the predators were cubs, it would reduce any chance of aggressive behavior.
God could have used hibernation to control the animals.
This would mean less feeding and work.
» The Rain.
It rained for forty days and nights. Then there was wind for 150 days.
The ark rested on the mountain after five months.
But it took 370 days after the beginning of the flood before they could leave the ark.
Noah sent a raven then a dove which returned with an olive branch.
Finally he sent the dove again and she did not return and he knew that the land was dry.
Noah reestablished the covenant with God, and God placed a rainbow in the sky.
We also assume the following basic design on each floor.
There are four corridors, four feet wide along the length of the boat that separate eight rows of compartments. There is one corridor running along the width to the door.
The compartments are 6 feet deep by 9 feet wide by 15 feet high.
Since the total height is rarely required, several tiers of cages can be held in each room.
There are 48 rooms in each row.
A storage room is located in every fifth space. There are 388 Rooms on each floor, sixty four are for storage.
Modifications. The human living space is a modification of one section on the third floor and we used a quarter of one floor in our model.
The area near the door is modified to allow a wide entrance.
The first floor has the dung and compost rooms.
The design could also have most of the animals on the first floor and the storage on the second floor.
This allowed grain silos or feeding troughs to be refilled from above by the action of gravity.
Animals that never needed feeding and cleaning and much supervision would be on the second and third floors (reptiles, insects, birds).
Loading The Ark.
The Flavian Amphitheatre colosseum in Rome seated 55,000 people in 10 minutes using 80 entrances.
Modern stadiums can load 80,000 in one hour using 10 gates with multiple queues, using a moderate flow rate of 19.9 people/minute walking at speeds of 195 feet/minute (59.4 meters/minute).
If we can load and unload a 80,000 seat football stadium in eight hours, then Noah could load hundreds of thousands of land animals in a week.
|If the door was as wide as a two car garage door and located between the first two floors then loading would be very fast.
The door, hinged at the bottom, could be used as a ramp to the first floor and a temporary ramp could be built to the second floor where the lighter animals were kept.
Birds fly in above the walking animals and through the window.
Insects crawl in anywhere along the side of the ark.
We could easily get a minimum of six lines of traffic, six feet wide, three for birds above and three for animals below, and dozens for insects.
|Lines of Traffic ||Speed of Entry ||Pairs Per Day ||Pairs Per Week|
| 1 ||20 ||1 ||20 Feet ||28,800 ||201,600 |
| 1 ||12 ||1 ||20 Feet ||17,280 ||120,960 |
|* 6 ||72 ||1 ||20 Feet ||103,680 ||725,760 |
|10 ||120 ||1 ||20 Feet ||172,800 ||1,209,600 |
|10 ||240 ||1 ||10 Feet ||345,600 ||2,419,200 |
|Sports stadiums can load 80,000 people in two hours|
Food. Grain, seeds, nuts, grass, dried fruit and water would not be perishable.
The food and supplies could be loaded three to seven years before the flood as each deck was completed.
Weather was not a factor since it never rained.
The door was so massive, that God had to shut it. But let us assume that only two animals at a time could walk through the doors.
Since the animals came to the ark by themselves, they were probably also guided to their stalls by the same divine force.
They could have came in twenty four hours a day, with nocturnal animals coming at night and the rest by day.
At the slow pace of one pair per minute, 1440 pairs of large animals can be loaded in a day, or 10,000 in a week.
It takes me five seconds to walk twenty feet at a normal pace.
So if each pair was twenty feet apart, the ark could be loaded at a reasonable pace of
twelve pairs of large mammals per minute in a single row. That is 17,280 pairs of large animals per day!
If birds flew in simultaneously in a second queue above the animals, then that would be 34,560 pairs per day and 241,920 pairs per week.
Simultaneously, Noah and His sons could have loaded the eggs, large tanks of fish and other animals that could not walk in.
Hundreds of fish could swim into a net and then be transported in tanks to the ark.
I assume that Noah would have built the ark next to a lake.
All of this could be done in a week with the animals arranged twenty feet apart.
The average distance could have been five feet and that would increase the number of animal pairs by four or decreased the time to load by four.
If there were more lines of animals through the wide doors the rate could increase even more.
Our metrics are in pairs of animals, but the bible says that the clean animals were loaded in by sevens (Genesis 7: 2).
It is unclear whether this is seven pairs or seven animals.
The number of unclean animals is much more than the clean ones.
Leviticus 11 lists few clean animals and so the total should account for less than ten percent of the animal population.
In fact, there are only 194 clean animals among the estimated 5000 mammals.
The infraorder "pecora" seems to be the branch that are the clean animals.
Pronghorn (1) Giraffe and Okapi (2), musk deer (7), deer (49),
cattle, sheep, goat, antelope (135)
We have demonstrated that we could comfortably store 76,000 pairs of medium animals and also load two and a half million pairs in a week.
So we can accommodate a reasonable target of 70,000 pairs of animals, although it is more likely that there were about 10,000 pairs of each kind of animal.
In summary, these factors affected the number of animals loaded on the ark.
- Multiple Queues. Like our modern stadiums, multiple queues would allow many animals to be loaded, since the doors were wide.
- Air Breathing Land Animals. Genesis 7: 22 reports that the land animals who breathed died.
The vast majority of the parents of millions of current species survived outside the ark because Noah only carried the breathing animals.
- Majority Unclean. Although clean animals went in by sevens, most animals are unclean.
- Young Animals. Noah could have loaded eggs and baby animals.
- Fewer Species. The many varieties of each species can be traced to one parent. So the number of some species can be reduced by a factor of ten to twenty.
Each of their original pairs produced ten to twenty different species.
- New Species. 1.3 million species have been named. Scientists estimate about ten to one hundred million undiscovered species.
Since we populate the whole earth, we can assume that there many not be more than ten to one hundred large land animals among these that have not been discovered. So the rest are insects and other microscopic species and sea creatures.
Large air breathing sea mammals would have been discovered also because they must surface to breathe.
So new discoveries should not be an additional burden on our capacity or food requirements.
The boat had 33,750 square feet per floor (3151 square meters) and Noah preached for 120 years maximum.
With his three sons or helpers, this would mean 1,497,600 man hours of work if they worked ten hours per day and six days per week.
This is 2,537 square feet of construction per year for the boat and all compartments.
|Rooms ||Section and Capacity ||Length ||Width ||Feet2 ||Mammal Room Construction (6 x 9 x 15) |
|4 ||3 decks and 1 roof ||450 ||75||135,000
Two pairs of animals can be kept in the lower cage which is 8 feet wide, 6 feet deep and 6 feet high.
Two feet of height space is used to collect waste in the six inch space below each level.
Each room requires 354 square feet of construction for divisions. Common walls are counted once.
The labor involved in gathering and storing grain is not included. The four women could have done this in seven years.
|Level ||Height ||Width (feet) ||Animals ||Pairs |
|Upper ||1 feet ||2 ||2 ||2 ||2 ||Small||24 |
|Upper ||2 feet ||2 ||2 ||2 ||2 ||Small||24 |
|Middle||2 feet ||4 ||4 ||Medium||6 |
|Middle||2 feet ||4 ||4 ||Medium||6 |
|Lower ||6 feet ||8 ||Large ||2 |
Insects. Suppose there is no formal space for insects but that they roam freely and devour waste matter.
If we assume that the average insect pair occupies space in a one inch (2.54 cm) cube then 1,000,000 pairs of insects would occupy a cube that measures 100 inches (254 cm) on each side.
|2 ||Sides ||450 ||30||27,000 |
|2 ||Front, back ||50 ||30||3,000 |
|1 ||Double Hull ||2 sides, front and back||30,000 |
|Capacity Per Room (6 x 9 x 15) (feet) |
|4 ||Humans (30 x 20 x 15) ||Room with door, beds, storage ||4,000 |
|240 ||62 Mammals ||6 x 9 x 15 ||84,960 |
|10 ||Marine Mammals ||Swimming pool and deck ||3,540 |
|12 ||1000 Birds ||12 levels 15 inches high. 700 ft2 of construction per room ||8,400 |
|12 ||1400 Reptiles ||12 levels 15 inches high. 800 ft2 ||9,600 |
|10 ||1500 Amphibians ||Pool, logs ||2,000 |
|10 ||70,000 Insects ||Open room with door, logs, sugar water. Or roaming free on the piles of dung ||900 |
|88 ||Storage (Hay) ||Open room with door ||11,880 |
|88 ||Storage (Grain) ||4 Bins (2 x 15 x 6). ||36,960 |
|582 ||Unfinished ||Open room with door (135 ft2) ||78,570 |
|1,056 rooms ||Total construction area ||435,410 ||3.43 man hours per square feet for 4 people |
Gopher wood was used to construct the ark. No one knows what type of wood this is.
Experts claim that the date palm is the only large species native to that region and that it is not suitable for building.
However, these assumptions were made by looking at the resources in the area after the flood.
Just as humans decreased in size and health after the flood, the plant life could also have decreased in size and strength.
The climate could have changed and any species of plant could have been living at that time.
The quality of the wood could have been stronger.
Experts also claim that a boat that size would have leaked and imploded if it were made of wood and not iron.
I disagree, houses that size and made of wood do not leak and implode in bad weather.
In fact, if they are damaged it is because flood waters force them from their fixed locations.
The ark was designed to be a house boat. It was designed to float, not move.
They used tar to seal the boat on the outside and inside and make it water proof.
In addition, Noah could have used several construction techniques to strengthen the ark.
The hexagonal structure of a honey comb, double hull and liberal use of cross braces that serve as the supports for each room.
Capacity (1,518,750 Cubic Feet Or 44,114 Cubic Meters or 11,361,001 Gallons).
The common cubit was 18 inches (457 mm) giving a volume of 1,518,750 cu ft (43,006,210 liters).
The king's cubit was 24 inches (610 mm) giving a volume of 2,234,473 cu ft (63,273,220 liters).
There are less than 50,000 mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians identified currently. We need space for animals and food for one year.
Just as the races came from the genetic pool of eight people, the wide diversity of animals could be a result of such interaction.
So there would be less types of animals to transport. For example, there are now thirty seven species of cats which came from one pair.
If there are an average of ten species per family, then that would only be 5,000 original pairs of vertebrates.
In addition, millions of species like insects and fish could be transported as eggs and require little space or food.
Millions more would survive in eggs outside the ark.
So the problem to resolve is the storage and care of mammals with a backbone. Specifically, vertebrates who do not lay eggs and large animals.
|Total Pairs ||Cubicle Size ||% Space |
|76,000 ||15||0.44 ||75% |
|50,000 ||15||0.44 ||50% |
|18,112 ||50||1.47 ||60% |
|9,112 ||100||2.9 ||60% |
|7,500 ||100||2.9 ||50% |
|5,000 ||150||4.4 ||50% |
Most birds and dinosaurs could be carried as eggs.
50,000 mammals would occupy an average of thirty cubic feet per pair of animals (0.88 M3).
This is an area (10 feet x 3 x 1) (30 m x 0.9 x 0.3) or (5 feet x 3 x 2) (15 m x 0.9 x 0.6). That is more than generous.
But most mammals are small and they probably loaded the ark with young animals. That would require an average space of ten cubic feet for a pair of cats.
We do not have many species who are large babies or large one year olds that require over 100 cubic feet per pair.
We can transport 7,500 animal pairs in 100 cubic feet rooms with 50% of the space used for food, passage ways, and other wasted space.
As the food supply diminished, it left more space for the growing animal.
» Growing Pains.
The age of the animals leaving the ark must be at least 2 years old. They must have been weaned when they entered and they stayed on the ark for about 13 months.
As the young animals grew in size, the empty feed rooms would be used for housing.
How many years did it take to build the ark? We will assume it is 120 years.
The best evidence shows that it could have been between 100 to 120 years, but there must have been helpers during that time.
- Probation (120 Years). Their days were numbered. This must have been the length of time until the flood.
And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
(Genesis 6: 3)
Since they lived to be hundreds of years old, this limit of 120 years could not have been their age.
Since they lived for hundreds of years after the grand children, it could not be the length of their time immediately after the flood.
The record shows that for at least 10 generations after Noah, people lived to be 175 years old.
Noah (950), Shem (600), Arphaxad (438), Salah (433), Eber (460), Peleg (239), Reu (237), Serug (230), Nahor (148), Terah (275), Abram (175).
Abraham lived to be 175 years old (Genesis 25: 7-8).
» The Patriarchs.
The deaths of 6 patriarchs did not occur until after Noah, 2 died before, Enoch was raptured.
Adam and Seth died before Noah.
The flood came the year Methuselah died.
||Cainan ||Mahalaleel ||Jared||Enoch
||Methuselah ||Lamech ||Noah
| No deaths Until After Lamech
|Generations Of Warnings
||Signs Of The End
||120 Years Remain
And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
(Genesis 5: 32)
These are the generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood:
(Genesis 11: 10)
It was only by the time of David that we see the official age given was 70 years.
The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.
(Psalm 90: 10)
- Noah Begins The Task.
If this is the order in which they died,
there was none to help him build the ark 120 years before the flood, except for Methuselah, Lamech and all the children and relatives still alive when the fathers died.
Presumabably, all these righteous relatives died before the flood.
If the children were born 100 years before the flood, then they would not have been able to help their father much for at least 16 years.
So all the help came from other people. Shem was 98 so may have helped his father for at least 80 years.
- Noah Becomes A Father. He became a father at 500 years old.
When the flood came, Noah was 600 years old and Shem was 98 years old.
And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years.
And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years: and he died.
(Genesis 9: 28-29)
- Preacher Of Righteousness.
Some claim that there is no evidence that Noah preached to them or warned them.
The character of God and His basis for judgment and His covenant and the evidence clearly show that God must have warned them because He is just and righteous.
- Preacher. Peter did not simply imply that Noah showed a righteous example. He was a preacher.
And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly;
(2 Peter 2: 5)
- The Witness Of The Holy Spirit.
Apparently, the Holy Spirit who quickened Jesus, suffered long as He preached to those who would not obey.
As the witness and voice of their conscience the Holy Spirit was imprisoned by their evil minds.
He had to plead with them because blasphemy against Him was not forgiven.
For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:
By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison;
Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.
(1 Peter 3: 18-20)
- Righteous. The New Testament logically says, how can people be condemned for what they do not know.
For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?
(Romans 10: 13-14)
God also says that He overlooks what we do in ignorance (Acts 17: 30).
- Mocking The Preacher Of Righteousness.
Others claim that there is no evidence that they mocked Noah.
Since they were warned, the only explanation is that they ignored the signs and mocked because this is what fools do.
- Teaching. Since the patriarchs knew that this would happen at least by the time they named Methuselah, they would have tried to warn people to repent.
When Noah knew that only 120 years were left they must have been warned.
We assume that only 8 were saved and everyone perished. All the righteous patriarch lived up to the time of the flood and there must be countless other relatives.
So we can conclude that God intended to restart with one righteous family of 8 and a chosen pair of animals, leaving all who would not repent.
So all who repented must have died following the same pattern of the patriarchs.
Enoch became a type of those who would not die, the rest are a type of those who would be resurrected.
Methuselah's name means, "when he is dead it shall be sent" or "when he dies it shall come".
Methusaleh died the same year as the flood.
And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died.
(Genesis 5: 27)
- Ignored Signs. The death of Methuselah and the migration of animals were signs. The dying of all the righteous must have also been signs but they could have mocked this as no reward for being righteous.
"God will kill you if you repent", must have been the joke.
Since Noah knew that there were 120 years remaining and since God does not want to see the wicked perish, there is no reason for them to withhold this information to save them.
9 partriarchs and Shem were alive during the time of Lamech.
Shem lived to the age of 600/602 and died 33 years after Abram died.
Locked in seven days without a flood, the people who might have had pause to think when the animals came, may have conquered their fears after seeing no sign of rain by the third day.
Perhaps nervous on the first day, they might have been cheered up by those who boosted the crowd.
Fools make a mock at sin: but among the righteous there is favour.
(Proverbs 14: 9)
The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge: but fools despise wisdom and instruction.
(Proverbs 1: 7)
The wise shall inherit glory: but shame shall be the promotion of fools.
(Proverbs 3: 35)
- Known Science (No Rain). Two statements show that they probably did not believe Noah's warning.
- No Rain. There had never been rain and a mist watered the earth (Genesis 2: 5-6).
Seeing a mist as ground fog, they probably thought that it was impossible for large amounts of water to be suspended in the air.
- Things Not Seen. Noah's warnings might have seemed impossible.
By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith.
(Hebrews 11: 7)
- The Ark. A boat was being built for perhaps at least 120 years. If they ignored, then they mocked.
- Eternal Damnation. At some point they filled their cup of iniquity and there was no remedy.
Their last hope would have been to listen to the pleading of the Holy Spirit.
Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme:
But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation.
(Mark 3: 28-29)
Current Total Named Species
After I made the previous estimates, I decided to research real numbers to see if my arguments were valid.
|# ||Kingdom ||Example ||Ark||Genus ||Named ||Estimate 1 ||Estimate 2|
| ||1 ||Monera ||Bacteria, blue-green algae, spirochete ||No||- ||4,000 - 10,000 ||1,000,000 ||5-10,000,000|
| ||2 ||Protista ||Protozoans, algae ||No||- ||80,000 - 250,000 ||600,000 ||?|
| ||3 ||Fungi ||Fungi, mold, mushroom, yeast, mildew ||No||- ||72,000 - 100,000 ||1,500,000 ||74-120,000|
| ||4 ||Plantae ||Mosses, ferns, woody, non-woody, flowering ||Food||16,167 ||298,900 ||320,000 ||321,212|
| ||5 ||Animalia ||Invertebrates|
|Sponges, worms ||No||-
||634,337 ||9,780,832||? |
| || Fish ||No||- ||31,300|
| || Corals ||No||- ||2,175|
| || Mollusks ||No||- ||85,000|
| || Crustaceans ||No||- ||47,000|
| || Insects ||Yes ||?? ||663,120 ||1-30,000,000|
| || Arachnids ||Yes ||9,500 ||102,248|
| || Vertebrates |
| Amphibians ||Yes ||584||5,378||6,894||15,000|
| || Reptiles ||Yes ||325 ||7,925||9,084||10,000|
| || Birds ||Yes ||2014 ||9,998||9,998||10,000|
| || Mammals ||Yes ||192 ||5,490||5,490||5,500|
| Total Air Breathing Creatures Of Relevant Size ||3115||28,782||31,466|| 40,500 |
| Total Animals ||-||1,326,239||13,232,298||30,000,000|
|Total Of All Species (Plants and Animals) ||1,752,239-1,956,239 ||13,232,298 ||30,000,000|
| ||Bacteria. They were not deliberately loaded on the ark by Noah. But they could have been in the stomach of the animals, in the wood, on food and survived in the water and soil outside|
| ||Fungi and Protista. They were also not loaded in the ark. |
| ||Plants. They could have survived outside as seeds. So the only plant stored in the ark was for food. If Noah needed to preserve plant species he would have brought seed.|
The estimated named creatures is about 1.4 million.
Mammals are about 0.4% of this number and insects are 50%.
97% are invertibrates and 3% are vertibrates (backbone).
Some guess that there may be as much as 30 million or more.
Of those who estimate over 30 million species, the estimated number of the larger species remain the same as those who estimate 1 million species.
The excess number of species is attributed to insects.
So even if this is true and all existed at the time of the flood, almost all of these would be microscopic creatures and would not substantially affect the space requirements.
Since they were in the ark for about 13 months, then the average age or size of the animals many be under two years old since he must have brought weaned animals into the ark if he brought babies.
Named Versus Estimated.
We are comfortable with calculating size based on the named species, because we believe that any of the unfounded species among the estimated number will not be large creatures which would effect our space requirements or loading deadlines
|# ||Animalia ||Phylum ||Example ||Ark ||Named ||Space (ft3) |
|1 ||Mammals ||Mammalia || Human, whale, dolphin, lion, dog, bat, ruminant ||Yes ||5,000 ||281,000 |
|Artiodactyla Ruminantia ||Clean animals (224 ruminant species, 194 clean) ||Yes ||194 ||260,736 |
|2 ||Birds ||Aves ||Birds ||Yes ||10,000 ||5,000 |
|Families with Clean Birds ||Galliform (256), Anseriform (150), Columbiform (300) ||Yes ||35,000 |
|3 ||Insects ||Arthropoda ||Crustaceans, scorpions, spiders, insects ||Yes ||663,120 ||16,578 |
|4 ||Reptiles ||Reptilia ||Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators ||Yes ||7,925 ||7,925 |
|5 ||Amphibians ||Amphibia ||Frogs, toads (4714). Salamanders, newts (505). Caecilian ||Yes ||5,378 ||2,689 |
|6a ||Fish ||Osteichthyes ||Bony fish such as perch, trout, koi ||No ||29,000 ||0 |
|Agnatha ||Jawless fish without scales. Lampreys, hagfish ||No ||40 ||0 |
|Chondrichthyes ||Cartilage skeletons: Rays, sharks, skates ||No ||1,000 ||0 |
|7a ||Marine ||Echinidermata ||Star fish (sea star), urchins, sand dollars ||No ||6,000 ||0 |
|7b ||Mollusca ||Clams, snails, slugs, mollusks, oysters, squid, octopus ||No ||50,000 ||0 |
|7c ||Brachipoda ||Lamp shells ||No ||335 ||0 |
|7d ||Cindaria ||Corals, jelly fish, sea anemones, hydras ||No ||9,500 ||0 |
|7e ||Ctenophora ||Comb jellies ||No ||90 ||0 |
|7f ||Sponges ||Porifera ||Sponges ||No ||10,000 ||0 |
|8 ||Worms ||Acanthocephala (600), annelida (8,900), chaetognatha (100), entoprocta (150), nemetoda (80,000) and others ||No ||114,761 ||0 |
|Animal Species ||Cubicle Size /Pair || Total Space + Weight||Food (Space-Wgt) |
|Type ||Species||Ark Total ||Length ||Width ||Height ||(ft3)||(m3) ||(Kg) ||(m3)||Kg||Menu|
|1||Humans ||1 ||8 ||30||20||15 ||36,000 ||1,022||24,640 || 7.77|| 5,280|| 1,2|
|Clean Mammals ||194 ||1,358 ||6||8||4 ||130,368 ||3,699 || 221,014 || 7,204|| 1,873,044|| 3|
|Unclean Mammals ||4,806 ||9,612 ||See space below ||245,000 ||6,952 || 53,686 || 10,321 || 1,001,877|| 3, 6|
|☆||10% Large ||500 ||1,000 ||6||8||6 ||144,000 ||4,088 || - |
|☆||40% Medium ||2,000 ||4,000 ||3||4||2 ||48,000 ||1,362 |
|☆||50% Small ||2,500||5,000 ||1||2||1 ||5,000 ||142 |
|2||Unclean Birds ||9294 ||18,588 ||1||1||1 ||9,294 ||264 ||24,107.7 || 14.3|| 468,312|| 2|
|Clean Birds ||706 ||4,942 ||1||1||1 ||2,471 ||170 ||7,535 |
|*||Unclean Birds ||9,700 ||19,400 ||1||1||1 ||9,700 ||276 ||Pigeons and doves as the only clean birds|
|Doves, Pigeons ||300 ||2,100 ||1||1||1 ||1,050 ||30|
|*||Unclean Birds ||5,000 ||10,000 ||1||1||1 ||5,000 ||142 || 50% clean and unclean birds|
|Clean Birds ||5,000 ||35,000 ||1||1||1 ||17,500 ||497 |
|3||Insects ||663,120 ||1,326,240 ||40 pairs per feet 3 ||16,578 ||471 ||21,259.7 || - || 711.5|| 4|
|4||Reptiles ||7,925 ||15,850 ||1||1||1 ||7,925 ||225 ||3,150.5 || *|| *|| 5,6|
|5||Amphibians ||5,378 ||10,756 ||1||1||.5 ||2,689 ||76 ||538 || *|| *|| 5|
|Total Space for 1,438,874 air breathing animals ||402,325 ||11,324 || 355,931 || -|| 3,349,224|| -|
|6||Fish ||30,040 ||60,090 ||1||1||1 ||30,040 ||852
|# ||Animal ||Food Menu |
|0 ||All ||Water, salt |
|1 ||Humans ||Flour, beans |
|2 ||Birds ||Seeds, fruit |
|3 ||Animals ||Hay, grain, pellets |
|4 ||Insects ||*Dung, sugar, fruit |
|5 ||Reptile ||Insects |
|6 ||Carnivores ||Meat, rats |
|7||Marine, sponges ||75,925 ||151,850 ||1||1||1 ||75,925 ||2,154 |
|8||Worms ||114,761 ||229,522 ||40 pairs per feet3 ||2,869 ||81 |
|Total Space for 441,462 water creatures ||108,834 ||3,087 |
|Total Space for all 1,880,336 living creatures ||511,159 ||14,414 |
|* This food and space is produced on board through other systems |
The Total Cargo Weight.
Besides the weight of the timber used to construct the boat, we have other cargo that adds to the total weight on board.
|Cargo ||Count ||Mass (Kg) ||Use |
|Animals ||- || 355,931 ||Rooms |
|Food ||- || 3,349,224 ||Food |
|Hay Bales ||8,109 || 1,248,804 ||Food |
|Rubber ||- || 914,379 ||Bedding |
|Packing Material ||141,976 ||Storage |
|Water+Tank ||26 || 82,834 ||Water |
|Pond ||- ||27,592 ||Turtle, gator |
|Hens ||1000 || 2300 ||Eggs |
|Hen Food ||- ||68080 ||Feed hens |
|Salt ||- || 20,720 ||Salt |
|Seeds ||- ||1.5 ||Microgreens |
|Gardens ||450 || 15,800 ||Bamboo, Vegetables |
|Soil and Mulch ||- ||285,436 |
|- ||90,387 ||Burrows |
|- ||132,862 ||Compost |
|Flies ||10m || 100 |
|Worms ||1 m || 3,000 |
|Dung Beetles ||1m ||20,000 |
|Termites ||100m ||210,000 ||Food|
|Total Cargo || 6,969,427 ||- |
|Ark (Empty) || 6,727,493 ||Boat |
|Total Boat || 13,696,920 ||- |
The total animals named today are used as the total at that time even though the true amount may be ten percent of this number because the "kinds" of animal may represent the genus which was taken on board.
Inheritance in isolation brings out different variations in the genus that we see today as the species.
All space, weight arguments are settled if we use genus as the number of land animals on the ark larger than insects (about 3100).
However, we will calculate for species.
Total Space (511,159 (ft3)).
The space calculated for all living creatures using all species in the families with clean birds, or using 50% clean birds, is still less than half the total volume of the ark (1.5 million cubic feet).
The total space for the land animals is one third the volume of the ark.
Either situation leaves enough space for food.
Space requirements were based on these average cubicle sizes for each type of animal. Each space is large and is probably double the size needed.
Large Land Animals.
Our ark carries only the weaned child of all species who will be one year older when the ark lands.
The largest animals are whales which are not on board.
We over estimated the number of clean birds as half the bird population.
However, we also showed the value for the number of clean bird species and the number of doves and pigeons.
We have other estimates because the definition of a clean bird is not as clear as the definition for animals.
The Standard Space (Unit).
All designed space and containers are based on a fixed space called a unit.
The width of the ark allows two 30 foot areas on either side of the central corridor.
The length allows 42 units on each side separated by space for stairs.
Each unit is 30 wide x 10 long x 15 feet high (127.43 3).
- Living Space. There is the hull on one side, an open mesh on the opposite end and there may be walls or dividers on the two sides.
- Food Storage. This space must have barriers on all sides to prevent the food from falling out.
Depending on the cargo the barrier can be solid walls or a fence.
- Square Barrel (1 m3 and (91.44 kg Covered) and (76.2 kg Uncovered). Liquids or foods in liquid must be stored in a barrel.
Our barrel is a cube, 1 cubic meter (1,000,000 mL or 1000 L).
36 barrels can hold in each 10x10x15 foot space or 108 in each unit (30x10x15).
This leaves a 3 ft space on top for manouvering.
The barrel is made of oak which weighs 600 kg/cubic meter.
» Barrel Sides = (.0254x 1x1)m = 0.0254 cu meter of oak weighing 15.24 kg
One barrel requires 6 sides. If they are stacked then only the one on top needs 6 sides (91.44 kg) and the others have 5 sides (76.2 kg).
» 36 Barrels /Room or 108 Barrels /Unit. In a 10x10x12 ft room there are 27 barrels without tops (2057.4 kg) and 9 with tops (822.96).
Total of 2880.36 kg/room. The rooms are 15 ft high with 1 ft of construction.
1 bushel is 35 liters. 1 barrel holds 28.57 bushels or 1000 liters or 4227 cups or 235 gallons.
- Cloth Sacks (1 m3 and 3.325 kg).
6 square meters of fabric fit one barrel of food. However, we need extra fabric to close the top. We will assume 7 square meters of fabric (3.325 kg).
Cotton denim is 475 g/m2.
It is impractical to store food in heavy barrels.
We will use the barrel as a unit of measurement but store dry good in sacks.
When opened, they will be in covered barrels.
We will supply barrels in each type of food room for this purpose.
- Grain Silo. The entire room has barriers on 4 sides and can be filled to the top.
It must have an outlet below or on the side for the grain to pour out.
- Hay Silo. The sides next to animal compartments or next to the corridor must have a fence as the barrier.
- Remodeling. As food space is emptied and animals get larger the space can be converted to living space.
- Common Space. The corridors and stairs (ramps).
We base the sizes, weights and diet on animals that represent the average in at least 3 size classes.
The large size group is very overestimated to account for the few outliers.
I selected a standard to represent the type of food and measured its volume and weight and number of servings per consumer per year (370 days on the ark).
|Standard Food (1 Consumer) |
|Menu ||Serving |
|# ||Food|| (m3) ||(g)|
|1 ||1xPasta || 45 g|| 2.72 || 16,650|
|1 ||3xBean || 38 g|| 1.44 || 42,180|
|1 ||3xLentil || 32 g|| 1.8 || 35,520|
|1 ||2xRice || 45 g|| 1.64 || 33,300|
|1 ||Flour || 1/2 loaf|| 0.024 || 27,972|
|1 ||Apple || 1|| 0.146 || 55,500|
|2 ||1x Raisin ||0.25c/ 40 g|| 0.926 || 14,800|
|2 ||Powder |
| 1 TBS || 0.0055 || 2,722 |
|2 ||Seed || 2 TBS|| .004 || 7,200|
|3 ||Pellets || 2 cups 740|| 0.175 || 352,000|
|3 ||10k Fish ||In the pond||1,200,000|
|4 ||1m Worm ||In the compost heap||455,000|
|4 ||10m Flies ||In the dung room||100,000|
|4 ||1m Beetles ||In the dung room||40 million|
- Fresh Food.
It is probably more effective to prepare and store all the dried food we will need and take advantage of the opportunities for food that present themselves.
However, we will evaluate the fresh food production to see what would be feasible if we had the space.
Some fresh food has a cargo weight of 0 kg because we have accounted for the weight of the things that will produce them.
- 1000 Eggs (0 kg). 1000 hens will produce 1000 eggs every day.
- Apples. Those with high sugar content, stored in a cool place can last 6-12 months, otherwise it is 3-6 months.
Rotten fruit can be fed to insects.
The average medium apple weighs 150 g (5 oz).
» Ancient Preservation Methods.
Submerged in honey, packaged in dry sawdust or plastered with clay, fruit remained fresh for over a year.
Sawdust can also used to feed the termites and insects and honey can be used to feed everyone.
1.4 million insects on .005g/day eat 15 lbs (45 medium apples).
16,650 apples per year is 799,200 cubic inch or 13 cubic meters and weighs 2497.5 kg.
They store well. 5 lbs bag potato use a space of 10x10x2 inch.
But a 20 lb bag dehydrated fits in a 2 quart bag when powdered and into 4 quarts when sliced.
Potatoes are about 80% water while dried chips are 1.5-2.5% water.
So a 20 lb bag (39.916 kg) of dehydrated potatoes weighs 4.4 lbs (1.9958 kg) and fits in a space (2 - 4 quarts) or (1.8927 - 3.785 liters).
20% of food for pigs, cows and other ruminants can be potatoes but they must be cooked.
- Vegetables. Mushrooms, sprouts, microgreens and plants that grow in the dark or low light could be grown in trays.
We will carry 1500 g of seed.
Also tomatoes grow fast and constantly produce so we will plant them with other fruit and vegetables.
- Fish Pond
Farmed fish can be kept for food. Tilapia is a fast growing fish which can be harvested in 6 months and catfish in 18 months.
The ark can be stocked with mature catfish, bass, bluegills and tilapia and juveniles which will be ready throughout the year.
The fish feed on algae, mosquito larvae and bluegills.
We will add this option if we are not overweight.
|#||Animal ||Liter/1 /Day ||Year |
|3 x 27 ||Cow ||8-35||30 || 899,100 |
|Total 21 Cows||630 ||233,100 |
|3 x 25 ||Goat ||2.7-3.6 ||3 ||83,250 |
|3 x 8 ||Sheep ||0.9 ||0.9 || 7,992 |
|3 x 1 ||Moose ||3.78 ||3.78 ||4,196 |
|Total Possible||2,688 ||994,538 |
|1000 ||Hen||Eggs ||1 ||370,000 |
- Milk (150 Cups).
Cows, buffalo, sheep and goats can provide milk if we choose three lactating females among the seven clean animals.
This is an opportunity but we have to bring extra food to maintain this level of milk production.
There are 183 animals to milk twice per day.
Milking time is shortened if the animal has large teats.
It takes about 5 minutes to milk one gallon (3.78 liters).
So it would take 60 man hours to milk 2688 liters from 183 animals.
This is too much work, so the best we can do is to take only 21 adult cows.
If it takes 40 minutes to milk one cow ir is 14 man hours per day, 7 in the morning and evening.
That would be 5 hours for each daughter-in-law or 2.5 hours for all the children.
630 liters of milk per day is 150 cups of milk.
- Dehydrated (Dry Food).
Dehydration preserves food. With moisture reduced to 2% it can last over 8 years.
Fruit, vegetables, seeds and nuts are dried and preserved.
We will take the total food requirements and make pellets out of dried food.
|Group||Animal ||Food ||Total (kg)
||Protein ||Carb ||Fat
For each diet I calculated a ratio of protein : carb : fat.
Vegetarians and omnivores are calculated as 10% Protein, 60% carb, 30% fat for a ratio of 10:60:30.
Carnivores as 30:40:30
|Herbivore || Human || Fresh|| 5,280||528 ||3,168 ||1,584 |
| Animal || Nuts || 8,325 ||833 ||4994 ||2498|
| Cattle, Ruminants || Grain|| 832,536||83,253 ||499,522 ||249,761 |
| Hay|| 1,248,804 ||Calculated separately|
|Omnivore|| Primates || Pellets|| 605,838 ||60,584 ||363,503 ||181,751|
| Small Animals || Pellets|| 75,625 ||7,562 ||45,375 ||22,688|
|Birds || Seeds|| 536,392 ||53,639 ||321,835 ||160,918|
| Insects || Nectar|| 712 ||71 ||427 ||214|
|Mixed|| Special Diet || Live || 8721 ||872 ||5,233 ||2,616|
|Carnivore ||Cats, dogs, bears || Meat||95,073 ||28,522 ||38,029 ||28,522|
|Total || 2,168,502||235,864 ||1,282,086 ||650,552|
Total Packaging: (141,976 kg in 6,271 Barrels in 108 Units). 124,301 kg wood and 17,675 kg cloth bags.
They can be recycled to build homes and clothes.
- Fruit (Raisins).
Raisins 4x6x1.75 15 oz (425 g) 2.5 cups. 40g is 1/4 cup = 130 cal - 11 serving/container.
» Figs, Plums and Apples. Other fruit can be dried and rehydrated.
» Preserves. Fruit can be stored for over 24 months. About one year after opening and indefinitely if unopened.
1 cubic meter holds 2113 large apples preserved in sugar weighs 832 kg.
1 bushel (35 liters) of fresh apples contain 80-120 apples.
Our 1 cubic meter barrel is 28.57 bushels. If 80-90 large apples fit in a bushel then it holds 2286-2571 fresh apples.
2300 apples (521.7 kg) occupy 0.67745 cubic meter leaving 0.32255 space for sawdust (67.7 kg).
Sawdust weighs 210 kg /cubic meter.
Honey weighs 136 g/mL = 136,000 kg/ cubic meter. 0.32255 cu meter honey weighs 43.866 kg.
15% Carbohydrates: Dry Fruit (192,313 kg). 1,201,956 cups or 284 barrels in 8 units.
Packaging: Fabric (944 kg). 3.325 x (284)
15% Carbohydrates: Fresh Fruit (192,313 kg). 737 barrels in 25 units. 1,695,100 apples (4581/day).
Packaging: Wood (104,354 kg). If packed in honey then 32,344 kg honey and 72,010 kg of barrels.
- Vegetables. Depending on the vegetable, a half cup dry is about 14 to 28g (40g/cup).
A bushel of oats is 32 lbs.
A bushel of loose corn is about 55 lbs.
20% Carbohydrates: Mixed Vegetables (256,417 kg). 1516 barrels in 14 units.
20% Carbohydrates: Oats (256,417 kg). 17,666 bushels in 618 barrels in 17 units.
30% Carbohydrates: Corn (384,626 kg). 15,417 bushels in 540 barrels in 15 units.
Packaging: Fabric (8,891 kg). 3.325 x (1516 + 618 + 540)
- Seeds And Nuts. One bushel of virginia peanuts is 22 lbs and a bushel of valencia peanuts is 30-35 lbs.
A bushel of almonds is 37 lbs. Bird seed is about 38 lbs per bushel.
We will assume that a bushel of nuts is 40 lbs (18 kg).
Fat: Nuts (650,552 kg). 36,141 bushels or 1265 barrels fits in 35 [10x10 rooms] or 12 units.
Packaging: Fabric (4,206 kg). 3.325 x (1265)
Bird Seed (536,392 kg). 29,800 bushels or 1043 barrels in 10 units. This is extra food.
Packaging: Fabric (3,468 kg). 3.325 x (1043)
Fat: Olive Oil (200,000 kg). 218 covered barrels in 2 units.
Olive Oil density is 7.64 lb/gallon or 916.8 kg/m3
Packaging: Wood (19,947 kg). 91.44 x (218)
- Dehydrated Meat (Beef Jerky, Shrimp, Tuna). 3 lbs beef = 1lb jerky. 2 cups cooked ground beef = 1 lb dehydrated.
2.5 lbs fresh meat package is 1.5x8x10 inches. 3.81x20.32x25.4 = 1966.45 cm3.
1 lb fresh meat uses 786.58 cm3 space.
1 lb jerky uses 262 cm3.
1lb cooked dehydrated uses 393 cm3.
» Powdered Milk.
1/3 cup dry powder = 1 cup milk.
Water milk is 8.6 lbs/gallon.
Protein (235,864 kg).
Cooked jerky is 42 m3 = 42 barrels in a 20x10 ft space.
Packaging: Fabric (140 kg). 3.325 x (42)
- Hay (1,248,804 kg In 8109 Bales).
One 14"x18"x36" (36x46x91 cm) bale weighs 60-70 lbs (132-154 kg) or more depending on how tightly packed it is.
We assume 154 kg per bale.
12,360 Bales Around The Hull.
The 14"x18"x36" (36x46x91 cm) bales are stacked 5 high and 2 deep on each floor.
They are placed between the diagonal braces which protrude 4 feet and are set every 5 feet along the interior hull.
4 bales fit between each diagonal along the 14" edge, the 18" edge protrudes out into the room and the 36" inch side go up vertically.
20 bales in each 5 ft section. There are 206 sections per floor.
This is 3x206x20 bales stacked 1 deep = 12,360 bales weighing 1,903,440 kg.
» Bales In A 30x10x15 Units.
5 high, 8.5 wide x 20 deep = 850 bales = 130,900 kg
- Artificial Nectar (162 kg in 1 Barrel). We will feed the bees and birds with this.
Powdered sugar uses half the space of granulated sugar.
A 5 lb bag of granulated sugar is 5x3x8 inches.
37 bags of granulated sugar is 4440 cubic inches (72,758 cc). This is 36,379 cc powdered sugar.
- Thick (61.5%). Active bees eat 50 mg/day (0.005g). 130,000 species of bees and wasps = 240.5 kg for 370 days = 109 lbs = 21.8 bags
- Medium (50%). Butterfly and hummingbird nectar is 25%. 175,000 species butterfiles = 161.9 kg for 370 days = 73.44 lbs = 15 bags granulated sugar
Packaging: Fabric (3 kg). 3.325 x (1)
- Salt (20,720 kg in 7 Barrels).
Sheep eat 8-11g salt per day and their weight is about 70 kg. This is 0.157 g of salt per kg of body weight.
Using this as the estimated amount per body weight then we need 55,932 g of salt per day for 355,931 kg of animals.
This is 20,720 kg for 370 days occupying 7030 liters of space or 7 barrels.
1 lb (2.2 kg) of salt fits in a 3.25x5.5 inch (8.255 x 13.97 cm) round container = 0.7475 liter.
Packaging: Fabric (23 kg). 3.325 x (7)
- Free Food (Dung and Garbage). We can solve some of our food problems and dung problem at the same time.
The population of insects can regenerate between feedings because many of the insect eaters also hibernate or can survive for long periods without food.
We will place more of these animals on board to solve the waste problem while serving as food supplies to our small carnivores.
Our design has the affected animal quarters surrounding the dung room.
The wall is a half wall with mesh at the top and the ceiling is a mesh to the bat caves, reptile and amphibian quarters above.
The mesh is small enough to let the flies come in but keep the animals out of the dung and compost room.
- Calcium Supplement (0 kg). Crushed egg shell powder will be used in the feed of the egg laying hens.
An egg contains 6 g of calcium. This is 6kg daily for 1000 hens.
We can carry a weeks supply (42 kg) or feed the hens additional calcium before boarding and create supplement from the used eggs.
- Dung Beetle. No special food needs to be stored for them because their food is the waste.
- Worms. The soil used will be mixed with dried leaves. This and the compost generated will be the worm food.
Worms are used for composting and for food.
The night crawler size ranges from 9-30 cm and a 32 cm (12.6 inch) worm weighs 11.2 g.
A 7 cm (2.75 inch) worm weighs about 3g.
Worms produce 3-80 cocoons/year each carries 1-20 eggs which incubate in 14-23 day and mature in 10-55 weeks.
If we assume that the average worm produces 5 cocoons per month each with 12 eggs then each worm will produce 2 worms each day.
1 million worm can produce 2 million worms per day. The first set will reach maturation after 30 days.
Since our underground dwellers store food then we can integrate them into their environment for at least 3 months before so that they can dig tunnels and store worms.
We can also carry extra worms for them to store if they are brought on board the ark during the seven day final boarding period.
Fruit flies live for 8-10 days, laying around 500 eggs, using rotting fruit or vegetables as their nest.
So with an initial population of 10 million flies, we can potentially multiply them by 200 in one week using our dung and garbage to feed them.
- Brown Rat.
They are mature in 5 weeks and the gestation period is only 21 days and litters average 7 and can be as high as 14 as much as 5 times per year.
They will even increase their reproduction rate if their population is being exterminated.
A single pair of rats can produce more than 15,000 descendants in a year.
Brown rats love cereal (especially oats), scrambled eggs and corn. However they will eat anything, even feces.
- Pigeon. They are clean meat and eggs incubate in 10-18 days and are mature by 28 days.
There can be 7 nests per year each with 2 birds.
- Crickets, Grasshoppers, Cicadas and Katydids.
If the 17 year locusts emerged just before the flood, then Noah could have had millions stored for food.
We can feed birds and reptiles.
- Termites and Ants. Mounds are placed in the compost, dung rooms and the quarters of the Edenta species.
300,000 termites will eat 22 feet of 2x4 in one year (1.22 cubic feet).
All we need is to bury soft wood or place it on top of the soil
- Cellulose (Wood). As our barrels are emptied they become food for termites and wood for rodents to chew on.
- 508,685 kg Soil (497,813 kg Dirt and 10,872 kg Mulch ).
We need soil for underground animals, compost and dung rooms. All these rooms are 50x10x15 feet.
We also need soil for the bamboo and vegetable gardens.
» Soil Density [1.5 g/cc].
A cubic foot of packed earth weighs about 95 pounds per cubic foot. (43103 g/28316.8 cu cm = 1.5g/cc)
This soil is mixed in with extra dried leaves to give food for the millions of worms we need to feed.
One cubic foot of dry leaves weighs between 3.5-6 lbs (1.59-2.72 kg) = 0.096 g/cc.
We start with 2 feet of dirt in the dung and compost rooms and vegetable garden.
3 feet in the animal and bamboo areas.
Each room has 2 feet of dry leaves (mulch).
Potato hills are planted so that mature tubers are underground in the dung, compost and mole rooms.
- Dung Room [50x10] feet2 or [1524 x 304.8] cm2. 3 ft dirt (91.44 cm), 2 ft (60.96 cm) mulch.
Total: 63,713 kg dirt and 2,718 kg mulch = 66,431 kg.
- Compost Room [50x10] feet2. 3 ft dirt, 2 ft mulch.
63,713 kg dirt and 2,718 kg mulch = 66,431 kg.
- Underground Burrow [50x10] feet. 4 ft dirt, 4 ft mulch.
84,951 kg dirt and 5,436 kg mulch = 90,387 kg.
- Bamboo Garden [420x4x3] feet3. 12802 x 121.92 x 91.44 cc = 214,075 kg dirt
A 15 foot bamboo can be grown in 30 inches of soil.
- Vegetable Garden [420x2x2] feet3. 71,361 kg dirt
- Bamboo Grove Garden (15,800 kg).
The skylight over the three story atrium allows us to cultivate live plants.
Sprouts and mushroom grow in the dark and there are fast-growing foods that could be cultivated for human use.
Animals could also get fresh foliage. Some species of bamboo can grow up to 100 cm (39 in) within 24 hours.
If they planted bamboo in the atrium on the lower floor or planted them in portable containers one year before, then they would have a mature grove which could be harvested daily to feed the elephants and other grazing animals.
The reeds need to be tethered to ride out the motion of the boat.
There is lots of dung for fertilizer and this dung soil is recycled into food for the bamboo.
Although the vegetable garden and bamboo grove are represented as one continuous bed along opposite sides, they are actually alternating beds so that more light can enter on each side through the gaps created by the vegetable gardens.
» 2 Eucalyptus Trees (1,400 kg). A tree can be planted in the corner at one end of the atrium corridor.
» Bamboo Tree (14,400 kg).
A 12' tall, with 12 to 14" root ball weighs up to 70 pounds/32 kg.
A 30" square pot holds about 10 bamboo in a clump. This is 700 lbs or 320 kg.
We will have one clump of bamboo in front of every unit space on one side. This is 45 clumps.
|Side View Of Water Unit |
|Hull||Alligators||Fish||Turtle and Platypus |
|Shrimp and Shell Fish |
- Pond (27,592 kg).
The design is one large tank with mesh separating the animals.
There is mesh at the bottom that allows dung to fall through and bottom feeders to remain secure in a 12 inch space.
There is also two fences to separate the crocodiles, alligators and turtles.
Water fills the entire 30x10 space. Another 30x10 space is used for land assigned to each group.
|Top View Of Water And Land Units |
|Water||Alligators||Fish||Turtle and Platypus |
|Land||Alligators ||Turtle and Platypus |
» Tank Structure (1,687 kg).
(Deck (30x10x2") + Front (20x5x2") + Side (30x5x2") ) x 650
(Deck (9.144x3.048x0.0508) + Front (6.096x1.524x0.0508) + Side (9.144x1.524x0.0508) ) x 650
The walls are 5 feet high with 3 feet of water.
The "land" area is a deck 3 ft high with walls that extend 5 feet. There are already walls on 2 sides.
» 0.25" Tar Water Proofing (408 kg). 0.00635 x ((24.384 x 1.524) + (9.144x3.048)) x 1153 kg/m3
» 3' Water (25,167 kg). (30x10x3) ft = (914.4 x 304.8 x 90.3) cm = 25167433 cc
» Aerating The Water. The alligators thrashing around.
» Clams (330 kg).
There are about 12 clams per pound. I will populate the tank with clams at a density of 6 per square feet to clean the tank.
This is 1800 clams 150 pounds (330 kg).
- 2 Days Of Water (48,100 kg Water + 34,734 kg Tanks).
Since our water supply is taken from the outside, then we only care about what we need to store on board for a day or two.
|2000 liter Water Tanks |
|Days||#Tanks||Empty (kg) ||Water (kg) ||Volume (m3) |
|-||1|| 1335.9 || 1850 || 2 |
|1||13|| 17,367 || 24,050 || 26|
|2||26|| 34,734 || 48,100 || 52|
|3||39|| 52,100 || 72,150 || 78|
|4||52|| 76,146 || 96,200 || 104|
- Drinking Water (26 Tanks).
Based on the drinking water requirements of humans and elephants, both need about 1 liter for 35 kg of weight.
The total weight of all creatures is 857,202 kg.
This is 24,491 liters of water daily which weighs 24,491 kg.
This fits in thirteen 2000 liter tanks (530 gallons) which use 26 cubic meters of space (one 10x10x10 ft room).
Each 2000 liter tank is approximately 70x70x400 cc.
39 tanks hold a 3 day supply.
- Washing Water (2.5 Tanks).
We will wash the two levels of the first floor daily but the others less frequently.
If we allocate 2 gallons of water per unit of space for 4 floors. This is (2 x 4 x 80) = 640 gallons or 1.25 tanks per day.
1/4 cup vinegar to 2 gallons of water or 1/2 cup to 1 gallon of water.
80 cups to 320 cups (5 to 20 gallons of vinegar/day or 1800 to 7200 gallons per year (8 to 30 barrels).
» English Oak With Brass Lining.
They can be made of oak or chestnut boards with brass plating. This is 4 tanks per floor.
The density of brass is 8400 - 8730 kg per m3 (8.4 to 8.73 grams per cc).
The density of English oak 680 kg/m3
» Tank Construction Materials.
Sides 4(80x400) + ends 2(80x80) = 140,800 cc.
It is made with 4 inch (10 cm) thick English oak = 1.408 3 = 957.44 kg
and 1/8 inch (0.32 cm) brass plating = 0.045056 3 = 378.5 kg
» The First Seven Days (Water Resupply Source).
Noah was locked in the ark for 7 days before the rain began. So he needs about 8 days supply of water in the beginning.
He could resupply the tanks through pipes feeding through the skylight from an external tank or near a water fall.
When the flood begins all the tanks will be full.
- Dung Production And Disposal.
About 75% of manure is water.
Each day, on average, people produce 0.0283 kg of poop for each 5.44 kg of their body weight or 0.005 kg per kg.
A 7020 kg elephant produces 50 liters urine and 100 kg dung.
This is 0.014 kg dung per kg. So dry solids are 0.00356 kg per kg of elephant and urine production is 0.007 liters per kg.
If we use the elephant as the standard and assume a 0.004 kg of solids per day then 355,931 kg of animals produce 1423.724 kg of solid waste, 4,271 kg liquid evaporated waste, and 2491 liters of urine each day.
If it is the same density as soil (1.5g/cc) then the solids fit in 949 liter (0.949 m3).
» Annual Poop Production.
The production for 370 days is 526,778 kg which is 351,185 liters of solids, 1,580,334 liters of evaporated liquid waste and 921,670 liters of urine.
A 30x10x15ft room is 127.43 m3.
The dung room volume is 212.376 m3.
The dung and compost rooms are 1/3 filled with soil leaving 141.4 cubic meter of empty space in each room. Each can hold 40% of the waste and will fill in 149 days.
» Dung Management.
20% or 70 days of dung need alternate disposal if it is not used up.
We could convert an empty storage room at the opposite end as another dung room or dispose of the waste outside.
The dung will also be burnt as fuel and processed through the methane digester, reducing its volume.
This overflow room requires 66,934 kg of material (63,713 kg of dirt and 3,221 kg of walls).
If we move the freshly composted soil here then we do not need the dirt.
» Bilge Pump. The above situation represents the worst case scenario but some or all of the dung can be removed through holes in the hull with a displacement pump after the first 40 days.
» OutHouse Portholes. Dung can go directly outside from the first two floors and pumped up from the first floor. Then the dung room can be used to store dung for 2 months after the ark lands and while the earth is drying and then use only the rear port holes. It prevents a sewer around the front exit of the ark.
The Standard Animal.
Each type of animal is separated into large, medium and small group. Then I calculated the number of species in each size group and chose one animal as my standard for this group.
I used its weight and feeding habits to determine the typical requirements for the group.
On my Creation-Evolution page is my research on the number of animals in each species.
|Large Animal Weight and Height |
|Adult Animal Sizes ||Baby||2 Yr||Food |
|Animal (Maturity) || (kg) || (m) ||(Kg)||(m) ||(Kg)|
|Elephant (13-20) || 4900 || 7.5 || 100 || 35|| 600 ||food|
|Rhino (5-8) || 2100 || 4.4|| 50|| hgt || 640 ||food|
|Hippo (6) || 1800 || 4|| 30|| hgt || 600||1-1.5% wgt|
|Giraffe (3-5) || 1015 || 5.15 ||55 || 2 || 500|| adult 38 l/34kg|
|Walrus () || 944 || 2.8||60|| 0.110 || 2yr || 3-6% wgt|
|Camel (6) || 1000 || 3 || 37 || hgt || 340||food|
|Moose || 500 || 2.5 || 15|| - || 200||food|
|Giant Hog (1-3) || 320 || 1.1 ||0.7|| .90 || 220||food|
|Polar Bear (10-11) || 700 || 3.05 || 6|| hgt || 140||food|
|Siberian Tiger (3-6) || 180 || 3.5 || 1|| hgt || 80||food|
|Gorilla (13) || 200 || 1.6 || 2.3|| hgt || 32||adult 18kg|
|Chimp (15) || 50 || 0.9 || 1.9|| hgt || 27||Child 8 yrs|
|Crocodile (4-7) || 454 || 3.8 || 56g || hgt || 165||food|
|Tortoise (5-25) || 200 || 3.8 || Child || hgt || 27||food|
|King Cobra (4-6) || 12.7 || 5.7 || Child|| 45cm || 5||food|
|Ostrich (3-4) || 104 || 2.1 || Child|| hgt || 52||food|
|Lion (3-4) || 200 || 2.5 || 1.5|| hgt || 50||food|
Finally, I accounted for the few large outliers, looking at the growth, maturation and feeding requirements of the very large animals.
- Large Babies.
I calculated weight of a 2 year old as = Weight of average male + female /number of years to maturity * 2.
This is the weight used for the animal at its maximum size in the ark.
Finally, I estimated their number as 10% of the population (480) animals. This is much more than the existing number.
- Elephant. It is 90-130 kg, and height is from 0.85 to 1 meter.
The adult eats 270 kg of vegetation and drinks 254 liters of water daily. Newborns drink 10-15 liters of milk daily.
Elephants in the wild eat 100-200 kg (220-400 lbs) per day while in the zoo they eat 57 kg (125 lbs) and drink about 30 gallons (113.5 liters).
Animals eat about half their normal food in captivity.
- Giraffe. The baby is 55 kg and 1.6 meter tall, growing another meter in 1 year.
- Lion. A 2 year old lion is about 3/4 the size of an adult.
- Birds, Dinosaurs, Alligators. All creatures born from eggs could be loaded into the ark as eggs. In cool temperatures at the high elevations maturation could be delayed.
Depending on how long the eggs can remain viable, the eggs could be incubated for hatching in the month before the ark is opened or until after the first violent months.
This is either the fourth or seventh month.
This saves on food and work.
Food Requirements ( 3,417,304 kg) 3,349,224 (Specimens) and 68,080 (Hens).
The following is the food required for the animals taken as specimens for the ark.
Animals may eat 5% of their weight in food daily.
The food listed as 0 kg is the food that is generated on board.
Some animals are also brought on board for food or for services.
Their food requirements are listed separately.
|Standard Animal Size ||Total ||Daily |
|Animal ||Size ||(g) ||(%)|
|Insect ||Ant || Small || .0003||20% ||Garbage|
|Fly || Medium ||0.01||10% || Dung|
|Beetle || Medium ||40||40% || Dung|
|Worker bee || Medium ||0.09||10% ||0.005 g|
|Butterfly ||Large ||.30 - .04||20% ||-|
|Amphibian ||Frog || Medium || 22.7-50||100% || Insects|
|Reptile ||Lizard || Small || 198||99.7% || Insects|
|Crocodile || Large || 454||0.3% || 1 kg |
|All Birds ||Songbird || Small || 80||50% || 2 TBSP|
|Chicken || Medium ||2300||44% || 50-85g|
|Chicken ||Laying hens || 110-170g|
|Pigeon || Medium ||454||3% || 2 oz|
|Eagle || Large || 7711||3% || 10%|
|7% Clean |
|Chicken || Medium ||2300||58% || |
|Pigeon || Medium ||454||42% || 10%|
|Mammals ||Hamster || Small || 142||50% || 2 TBSP|
|Bat (Insect) ||Small || 60||14% || 30%|
|Bat (fruit) ||Small || 60||5% || 30%|
|House Cat || Medium || 4000||11% || 1 c|
|Dog || Large || 9072||10% || 2 C|
|Cow || X-Large || 635,017||10% || |
|3% Clean |
|Sheep || Large ||70,000 ||90% || 3.5-4%|
|Cow || X-Large || 635,017||10% || 2-2.5%|
|Daily food listed as % body weight or actual amount |
- Insects (711.5 kg).
Insects feed on fruit, artificial nectar, wood (cellulose) or dung.
However, we only need to carry food for 30% of the population (butterflies and bees). We will feed them on half fresh fruit and half artificial nectar.
The rest feed on our free supply of dung and garbage.
1,326,240 insects weigh (79.57g ants + 1326.24 g flies + 21219840 g beetles + 11936.16 g bees + 26524.8 g butterflies)
Specimen Mass (21,259.7 kg).
Food Mass (711.5 kg). Butterflies and bees.
Food Mass (393,304 kg). All specimen insects
» Service Insects Requirements.
Additional mass not part of garbage.
Supplies taken from garbage is counted as 0 kg.
Mass (100 kg). 10 million flies (0.01g)
Mass (3,000 kg). 1 million worms (3g and 7cm)
Mass (20,000 kg). 1 million dung beetles (8-50g)
Mass (210,000 kg). 100 million termites (0.21mg)
Food Mass (0 kg Dung). Flies, beetles, worms
Food Mass (0 kg Wood). Termites eat 40 ft3 (1.133 m3)
Average weight of a termite is about 2.1 mg.
A 300,000 termite colony can consume approximately 1.2 cubic foot of wood annually.
This is a (2x4x264") piece of wood. Our 100 million termites need 33 pieces of wood. This is about 40 cubic feet or 1 cubic meter.
This wood can be taken from our barrels as they are emptied, but weigh about 500 kg.
- Amphibians (0 kg).
They feed on insects which will be provided live from the offspring of the insects brought to feed on the dung and garbage.
So their food space and food mass requirements are already calculated for the space in the dung and compost rooms and the insects needed to maintain the system.
The 30 cm (13.5") goliath frog is the largest at 3 kg (6.6 lbs) and the smallest is only 1 cm.
The average size and weight of the common frog is 8 cm and 23 g.
The bull frog is 3.6 to 6 in (9.1 to 15 cm) and weighs 5 - 175 g. I will assume an average of 50g.
Frog will eat an average of 2 to 13 mosquitos per day as as much as their entire body weight.
Specimen Mass (538 kg). 2 (5378 x 50g)
Food Mass (0 kg). We need to generate about 130,000 insects per day.
- Reptiles (0 kg).
7,925 species feed on insects and mice.
Since they hibernate for 6 months and can go without meals for months they will be fed a large meal before boarding the ark.
After several months the rat and insect population will have increased and they will have food.
» Food By Design. The Amphibian and small reptile space is strategically located above the dung room which shares a mesh floor between them so that insects can fly through the grid but the animals cannot fall through.
Specimen Mass (3150.5 kg). 2(7925 x 0.997 x 198g) + 2(7925 x 0.003 x 454g) = 3128.9 + 21.6 kg
Food Mass (0 kg). Free insects and mice. Lizards eat about 20 insects per day. This is 320,000 insects daily.
» Limited Food (Hibernation And Gorging).
Some animals do not need to be fed every day because of a slow metabolism or hibernation. These are mainly reptiles.
Frogs, lizards and snakes do not eat all the time.
Hibernating animals include rodents, reptiles, lemur (7 months), bear (3 months), bats (6 months) frogs and turtles.
If the food is large enough, snakes do not have to eat for several months.
In addition a crocodile can spend up to 1 year without food and can also survive on only 1 kg meat per day.
Our plan is to feed all animals in the weeks before the flood to build up fat stores and give this special group of animals a very large meal prior to boarding the ark.
- Birds (536,392 kg).
Birds seem to eat 3-4% of their body weight in food.
647,975 kg of birds will eat 19,440 - 25,919 kg of seeds.
Using a bag of flax seed as standard, a 12 oz bag (336 g) measures (5x9x0.25) inches.
That is 77,381 bags with 26,000 kg of seeds in 14.26 cubic meters.
Scavengers and carnivores can get some of our free mice.
Specimen Mass Clean (7535 kg).
7 ((706 x 0.58 x 2300g) + (706 x 0.42 x 454g) )
Specimen Mass Unclean (24107.7 kg).
2 ((9294 x .5 x 80g) + (9294 x 0.44 x 2300g) + (9294 x 0.03 x 454g) + (9294 x 0.03 x 7711g) )
Food Mass (468,312 kg). 0.04 x (7535 + 24107.7) x 370
» Service Birds Requirements (1000 Hens).
A hen will produce about 1 egg every day if she is fed double the normal food or about 110-170 g each day.
These are the requirements for 50 extra hens (each weighs 2.3 kg or 5 lbs).
115 kg of chicken eat 3,145 kg of food for the year to produce 18,500 eggs/year.
They require a space of 200 feet3 (185,806 cc or 0.186 m3).
Service Hen Mass (2300 kg).
Hen Food Mass (68,080 kg).
Total Food Mass (536,392 kg). 468,312 + 68,080
The total is 4353 bushels of corn. This is 152 of our barrels occupying 1.88 units.
- Mammals (2,880,200.64 kg). The animals are grouped as follows.
We use the average adult mass which can be reduced by taking weaned children.
We can also take less food because of smaller animal size and reduced activity.
We will count only the mass of the actual food taken on board and the mass of the initial stock required to generate live food and to feed them.
We will not count the mass of the live food generated during the year.
- Insectivores (8325 kg). There is an additional 61,097 kg live food generated.
Moles live underground and the rest live above ground but dig for termites, ants and worms.
|Average Underground Dweller Mass |
|Animal||Species ||Mass (kg) ||Diet|
|Echidna || 4|| 10 ||Ant, termite|
|Pangolin || 7|| 10 ||Insects|
|Numbat || 1|| 0.50 ||Omnivore|
|» Sloth || 6|| 6 ||Omnivore|
|» Anteater || 4|| 12 ||Ant, termite|
|» Armadillo || 19|| 9.979 ||Omnivore|
|Wombat || 3|| 28 ||Grass, bark|
- 375 Moles (* 8,325 kg nuts). They eat earthworms and nuts.
Moles weigh about 120g and eat half its body weight daily.
Specimen Mass (90 kg). 2 (375 x 120 g)
Food Mass (16,650 kg). 0.50 x 90 kg x 370
This is 50% worms (8325 kg) and 50% nuts (8325 kg).
One 7 cm (2.75 inch) worm weighs about 3g. Therefore one mole will eat 20 worms each day.
375 pairs will eat 15,000 worms (7cm) each day or 3,000 worms (32 cm).
- 44 Underground Diggers (0 Kg). Estimate 6 to 10% food by body mass.
They eat mostly ants and termites which will be generated through our breeding stock.
Specimen Mass (937 kg). 2 ((4 x 10) +(7 x 10) +(1 x 0.5) +(6 x 6) +(4 x 12) +(19 x 10) +(3 x 28))
Food Mass (34,669 kg). 937 x 0.10 x 370
- 1100 Bats ( Kg). The average weight is 60g and they eat 30% of their weight in food.
Specimen Mass (13.2 kg). 2 x 1100 x 60g
Food Mass (14,652 kg). 0.3 x 2 x 1100 x 60g x 370
Omnivore (9776.88 kg). 734 pairs of bats eat 0.30 (734 x 2 x 60g) x 370 insects
Fruitarians (4875.12 kg). 366 pairs of fruit bats eat 0.30 (366 x 2 x 60g) x 370 fruit
|Clean Ruminantia Bovidae Mass |
|Cattle (lactating adult) || 7|| 750|
|Total Adult Females (x 3) || 21||15,750|
| Total Adult Males (x 4)||28 ||21,000|
|*Cattle (young) || 20|| 187|
|*Sheep (young) || 8|| 25 |
|*Goat (young) || 10|| 18|
|*Moose (young) || 1|| 100|
|Total Young Females (x 3) || 117||21,938 |
| Total Young Males (x 4)||156 ||29,250|
|*Tahr, other caprinae || 15|| 30|
|*Wildebeest || 10|| 40|
|*Deer antelope, gazelle || 34|| 6|
|* Reedbuck, oryx, rhebok+ || 19|| 27|
|**Duiker || 21|| 10|
|Cervidae: deer || 48||30|
|Musk deer + pronghorn || 4+1||4|
|*Chevrotain "mouse deer" || 6||5|
| Total Other (x 7)||1106 ||22,869|
| Total All||1428 ||110,807|
|**50% adult weight * 25% adult weight |
- Juvenile Large Herbivores (2,081,340 kg). 1,248,804 kg Hay and 832,536 kg grain.
Infant Large Herbivores (1,040,670 kg). 624,402 kg Hay and 416,268 grain.
Below, I calculated the mass of weaned infants who are between 20% to 50% of the adult weight.
The results yielded 14,074 kg of unclean herbivores and 110,507 kg of clean who eat a combined total of 1,040,670 kg of food.
I will double that.
» Clean Herbivores (936,522 kg Food).
There are seven of each species.
Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female.
(Genesis 7: 2)
I was not clear if seven clean animals or seven pairs of clean animals went on board the ark because if they were not pairs then a male would be without a female.
However, the text seems to list the total number of animals.
If there were two unclean, then the seven must also be the total clean.
The extra animal must have been reserved for sacrifice and is most likely a male.
And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
(Genesis 8: 20)
These herbivores eat 1.8-2.5% of their weight daily.
Alpacas eat 1-2%, cows eat 2.5% of their weight in hay. Lactating females eat 4%.
Cattle eat 20 lbs of hay (44 kg) per day, horses eat about 22 lbs (48 kg) of hay a day and a ewe will eat about 2 lbs (4.4 kg) of soybean hay per day.
Adult elephants in the wild eat 100-200 kg (220-400 lbs) per day while in the zoo they eat 57 kg (125 lbs) and drink about 30 gallons (113.5 liters).
» Lactating Family Mass = 36,750 kg = 15,750 (females) + 21,000 (males)
» Non-Lactating Family Mass = 51,188 kg = 21,938 (females) + 29,250 (males)
» Other Clean Animal Mass = 22,869 kg =
7 ((15 x 30) + (10 x 40) + (19 x 27) + (34 x 6)
+ (21 x 10) + (6 x 5) + (48 x 30) + (5 x 4)) = 7 x 3267
» Food Mass Lactating = 233,100 kg = 0.04 x 15750 kg x 370
» Food Mass Others = 703,422 kg = 0.020 x (21,000 + 21,938 + 29,250 + 22,869) kg x 370
Specimen Mass Clean Animals (110,507 kg). (36,750 + 51,888 + 22,869)
Food Mass (936,522 kg). (233,100 + 703,422)
The diet will be 60% long fiber hay and 40% grain. They need hay to avoid intestinal problems.
» Total Mass Clean Hay (60%) = 561,913 kg
» Total Mass Clean Grain (40%) = 374,608 kg
|Unclean Large Herbivore Mass |
|*Giraffe || 1|| 200|
|*Okapi || 1|| 50|
|*Elephant || 3|| 700|
|*Zebra || 3|| 80|
|*Horse || 1|| 120|
|*Ass || 3|| 90|
|*Camel || 2|| 200|
|*Llama || 4|| 40|
|*Rhino || 5|| 400|
|*Hippo || 2|| 360|
|*Tapir || 4|| 45|
|*Kangaroo || 4|| 20|
|*Wallaby || 46|| 4|
|*Wallaroo || 3|| 3|
|*Pigs || 18|| 12|
|*Giant forest hog || 1|| 40|
|*Peccarines || 4|| 6|
|*Ostrich || 1|| 20|
|*Emu || 3|| 8|
|Weight is 20% average adult || 7037|
» Unclean Herbivores (104,148 kg Food).
There is one pair of each species.
Specimen Mass (14,074 kg). 2 (7037)
Food Mass (104,148 kg). 0.020 x 14,074 kg x 370
» Total Mass Unclean Hay (60%) = 62,489 kg
» Total Mass Unclean Grain (40%) = 41,659 kg
- Special Diets (8720.6 kg). In addition there is 3,751.8 kg of live food.
Beavers and rodents and termites need to gnaw on sticks and barks.
Panda bears love bamboo and the koala eats the eucalyptus tree.
Platypus  Mass (1.45 kg). (450 + 1000) g
This is a water dweller who eats worms, insect and shrimp.
They are about 43-50 cm and weigh 900g (female) and 2000g (male)
Food Mass (51.8 kg). 0.10 x 1.4 kg x 370
Turtle  Mass (225.9 kg). 2 (450g x 251)
They are omnivores and weigh [142g - 817 kg]. We will assume an average mass of 450 g.
Food Mass (8,358 kg). (0.10 x 225.9 g) x 370
Tortoise  Mass (9.8 kg). 2 (100g x 49)
They are herbivores. Babies weigh 3-7 g and adults 400-550 g
We will carry 100 g babies.
Food Mass (362.6 kg). (0.10 x 9.8 g) x 370
Panda Bear  Mass (100 kg). 2 x 50 kg
Eats 99% bamboo in the wild but will eat honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas in captivity. Average adult is 100-115 kg and eats 10% of its mass.
Food Mass (3,700 kg). (0.10 x 100 kg) x 370
|Average Primate Mass |
|Animal||Species ||Mass (kg) |
|Lemur, Tarsier || 125|| 5|
|New World Monkey || 132|| 1|
|Old World Monkey || 135|| 50|
|Gibbons || 16|| 5|
|Great Apes || 6|| 100|
- 414 Primates (605,838 kg).
The average animal weight is estimated as half the adult because primates need to be with their parents longer.
They eat meat, plants, seeds, nuts, grain, fruits, leaves, insects, eggs, and small reptiles.
They eat 10% of their weight in food .
Specimen Mass (16,374 kg). 2 ((125 x 5 kg) + (132 x 1 kg) + (135 x 50kg) + (16 x 5 kg) + (6 x 100kg)) =
Food Mass (605,838 kg). 0.10 x 16,374 kg x 370
This will be 40% Protein (jerky), 50% carbs (potatoes, oats and apples) and 10% fat (nuts and oil).
|Average Rodent Mass |
|Rodent||Species ||(g) ||Diet|
|Myomorph || 1539||10-25 ||Omnivore|
|Sciuromorph || 323||300 ||Mixed|
|Castorimorph || 96||1000 ||Herbivore|
|Hystricomorph || 229||1500 ||Herbivore|
|» Capybara || 1||65000 ||Herbivore|
|Rabbit, hyrax ||87||600 ||Herbivore|
- 2275 Small Omnivores (75,624.5 kg).
These include the small rodents, rat, mice, hamster, gerbil, dunnart , bandicoot, colugo, guinea pig and gophers.
It also includes 87 herbivores (rabbit, hare, hyrax).
They eat 15% of their body weight.
Specimen Mass (1362.6 kg).
2 ((1539 x 18g) + (323 x 300g) + (96 x 1000g) + (229 x 1500g) + 65000g + (87 x 600g))
Food Mass (75,624.5 kg). 0.15 x 1362.6 kg x 370
We will feed them potatoes, oatmeal, carrot, eggs and meat.
- 351 Carnivore Species (95,072.54 kg).
These include 40 cats, 49 dogs and bears, 19 racoons, 11 skunks, 41 mongoose, 93 (weasel, civets and skunks and lingsang) and 98 (Possum , cuscus, Shrew).
We have live mice, fresh milk and pellets made with grain, oats, vegetables and fruit.
Dehyrdrated shrimp, dried shrimp paste and dried tuna.
|Average Carnivore Mass |
|Animal||Species ||(g) ||Diet|
|Large infants || 19|| 45300 ||Omnivore|
|Medium || 69 + 98|| 13590 ||Omnivore|
|Small || 165|| 4530 ||Omnivore|
The larger infant animals are 12 large cats and 7 bears.
Large cats eat 4-6% of their weight in food.
40 cats need fresh meat or milk for carnitine. We can supply 150 cups of fresh milk per day.
115 species of marine mammals such as dolphins, whales, manatees, dugong, seals, sea lions and walruses are not included.
Specimen Mass (6424 kg).
2 ((19 x 45.3) + (69 x 13.59) + 98 (13.59) + (165 x 4.53))
Food Mass (95,072.5 kg). 0.040 (6423.82 x 370)
- Humans (5,280 kg).
We will carry pasta, beans, lentil, rice, flour, apple and raisins.
We also have many sources of fresh food.
The fact that the floors were 15 feet high is circumstantial evidence that the creation were still giants.
The animals taken were based on genus and may have been about 3100 kinds of animals from the size of mammals to amphibians.
Since humans must carry clothes we will include this weight in the estimate of their mass as 300 lbs (660 kg).
They can reuse the cloth storage bags to make more clothes.
The actual body mass for the purposes of calculating food requirements is 200 lbs (440 kg).
Humans eat 4 to 8 times their body mass per year. We will assume 7 times.
Specimen Mass (24,640 kg). 8 (440 kg) X 7
Food Mass (5,280 kg). 8 (660 kg)
- Extinct Animals (0 kg).
Many extinct animals can be traced to species of living organisms so they are not included as separate passengers on board the ark.
Only the dinosaur must be considered because it is clearly different and because its size impacts the logistics.
In the theory of evolution dinosaurs became extinct millions of years before man, but in the six day creation environment dinosaurs coexisted with humans.
Since Noah was asked to take every specimen aboard we must either believe that the dinosaurs became extinct before the flood or because they were long-lived and continuously growing like alligators they achieved these sizes over hundreds of years.
So if they existed at the flood Noah might have had baby dinosaurs the size of cattle or Noah took a pair of eggs on board.
Most dinosaurs were the size of chickens so we could include them with the birds.
We can transport the eggs of the larger species so that we do not have the burden of feeding and caring for these animals.
The same option could be taken for all egg-laying species such as reptiles and other birds.
The Ship Weight.
|Wood ||Ark ||Dry Weight|
|Hard||Rupture ||Elastic ||Crush ||Properties |
|Lignum Vitae ||Frame ||1,350 ||★4,500 ||17,760 ||2,304,000 ||11,400 ||Strength|
|★Ekki ||Exterior ||1,125 ||3,250 ||★26,640 ||2,805,000 ||14,160 ||Strong, Insect, termite and teredo resistant|
|Jarrah ||Floor, Wall ||860 ||1,920 ||16,200 ||1,880,000 ||8,870|
|Teak ||650||1,070 ||13,940 ||1,570,000 ||7,770|
|Balsa ||Walls ||★175 ||90 ||2,740 ||478,000 ||1,750 ||Light|
|Black Locust ||Interior Walls ||825 ||1,700 ||19,400 ||2,050,000 ||10,200 ||Fluorescent, |
|Coffeetree ||675 ||1,390 ||10,500 ||1,420,000 ||6,600|
|Red Palm ||850 ||2,060 ||15,840 ||1,843,000 ||11,310 ||Strength|
|Bamboo ||Interior Walls ||500 ||1,410 ||11,020 ||2,610,000 ||8,990 ||Insect attack, decays in years|
|850 ||1,610 ||24,450 ||★2,900,000 ||★13,490|
|English Oak ||Walls ||680 ||1,120 ||14,100 ||1,544,000 ||6,720 ||Rot resistant|
|Douglas Fir ||Frame ||570 ||620 ||12,500 ||1,765,000 ||6,950 ||Strong, Hard|
|Cypress ||Frame ||525 ||510 ||10,600 ||1,440,000 ||6,360 ||Decay resistant|
Cross Section of 75 ft (22.86 m) (50 cubit) wide Ark
||Living Spaces (30'x10')
||Garden ||Corridor ||Bamboo
||Living Spaces (30'x10')
|| 10x10' || 10x10' || 10x10'
||2' ||2' ||4'
|| 10x10' || 10x10' || 10x10'
Cross Section of 450 ft (137.16 m) (300 cubit) Long Ark
||21 Living Spaces (Units)
||Water ||Ramp ||Water
||21 Living Spaces (Units)
- Structural Support Beams And Posts (2928.507 m3).
Border posts and beams are 12x12 inch (0.3048 x 0.3048 m) and set every 5 feet (1.524 m) apart.
- All Beams (1787.796 m3).
There are 3.75 floors and 1 roof (450x75 ft) 16 long beams on each level 5 feet apart.
However the beams will be throughout the entire floor.
» Horizontal (1014.873 m3). 16x5 beams = 80 x (1x1x448 feet) or 80 x (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 136.55 m)
» 91 x 15 x 5 Cross Beams (772.923 m3). 6825 x (1x1x4') = 6825 (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 1.219 m)
- All External Post Assembly (657.439 m3).
All posts span the entire height of the ark and are braced by the floors every 15 feet we will add braces in the middle of the posts for the top two floors.
Horizontal and corner braces are on each floor
The horizontal brace is a beam in the middle of two posts on each floor
It can be used as the top of a fence
» 210 Eternal Posts (273.135 m3). 2x90 + 2x15 [1x1x45 feet] = 210 (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 14 m)
» 420 Horizontal Brace (47.564 m3). 210 x 2 x (1'x1'x4') = 420 x (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 1.219 m)
» 2520 Short 4-Corner Diagonals (142.717 m3). 210x4x3 x (1'x1'x 2') = 2520 (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 0.6096 m)
» 630 Long Diagonal Brace (194.023 m3). 12"x9"x14.5' = 210 x 3 x (0.3048 x 0.2286 x 4.42). Extends 4 ft.
- All Internal Post Assembly (483.272 m3).
» 264 Internal Posts (44x6) (193.145 m3). 9x9 inch every 10 feet = 264 (0.2286 x 0.2286 x 14 m).
» 1056 Horizontal Brace (155.565 m3). 264 x 4 x (9"x9"x9.25') = 1056 (0.2286 x 0.2286 x 2.819 m)
» 4224 Short 4-Corner Diagonals (134.562 m3). 264x4x4 x (1'x1'x 2') = 4224 (0.2286 x 0.2286 x 0.6096 m)
- Hull: Exterior Walls (682.752 m3). All walls are 3 inches thick (0.0762 m). The posts are 12 inches. So the hull is 18 inches.
» Exterior Hull. (4 Walls) = 0.0762((2x137x14)m + (2x23x14)m) = 341.376 cubic meter
» Interior Hull. These are the same dimensions but may use a different material.
- Hull: Roof 32% Glass (326.54 m3 Wood and 150,089 kg Glass).
» Roof - 16% Glass (403.38 m3 Wood and 83,473 kg Glass).
» Roof - Double Layer Wood (480.21 m3 Wood and No Glass). 2 x (137x23) x 0.0762 = 480.21 m3
» Transparent Roof.
The roof is made with double layer of wood like the rest of the hull with a window.
Window (2 [137x 0.457] Sides + 2 [3.66x0.457] Back and Front + [137x3.66 m] Top) x 0.05 m thick)
Some can be replaced with glass 2 inches (5 cm) thick.
Quartz is transparent to translucent. It is strong, hard but not brittle.
The density of quartz is around 2.65 g/cc (2650 kg/m3).
The roof has a wooden lattice structure 5 feet square. If more wood is needed then the overall weight of the ship will be less because the density of the glass replaced by the extra wooden support is much more.
- Mass 16% Glass Roof. = (125.218 + 3.345 + 501.42) x 0.05 = 629.983 x 0.05 = 31.499 m3 = 83,472.8 kg
16% Coverage replaces (480.21 x 0.16) or 76.83 cubic meters of wooden roof.
This lights the central corridor only, 12 feet wide.
- Mass 32% Glass Roof. = 123.218 + 2 (3.345) + 2 (501.42) = 1132.748 x 0.05 = 56.637 m3 = 150,089 kg
32% Coverage replaces (480.21 x 0.32) or 153.667 cubic meters of wooden roof.
This 24 ft wide section lights the central corridor and 6 feet on either side.
- Hull: Ark Exterior Bottom (240.11 m3). (137x23) x 0.0762 = 240.11 m3
- Fasteners (Wood And Metal). This design assumed only pegs and joinery were used. The mass of the pegs would have replaced the amount of wood removed, so no addition consideration was made for this design.
However, since they had metal forging technology, they could have made nails and brackets to support the beams.
This will be evaluated. But the total mass so far would not cause the ship to sink to an extent that would compromise the integrity of the air, water and sanitary systems.
- Floor (873.86 m3).
The floor is sloping with 3 inch soft rubber over 3 inches of termite resistant wood.
- Ground Floor (245.51 m3). The heaviest animals, insects and special systems are located here.
» First Floor. (137x23) x 0.0762 = 240.11 m3
» First Floor Raised Border (28" x 0.5" x 1040' Perimeter). 2 (71 x 1.2 x 31699) cm = 5.40 m3 = 3511 kg of teak
Along the hull where a layer of hay is stored, the floor is raised up 12 inches high and 2 feet deep.
This prevents feces or water which washes the floors to wet the hay.
This will be for the two sub floors of the first floor. The feces on the other floors will be easier to clean up
- Top Floors (628.35 m3) . The lighter animals and no floor under the skylight.
» First Floor Second Layer (75%). (0.75 x 240.11 m3) = 180.08
» 2 Upper Floors. 2 x (137x21.47) x 0.0762 = 448.27 m3
|Option 1 ||Option 2 ||Option 3
|Wood ||Mass (Kg) ||Wood ||Mass (kg) ||Wood ||Mass (Kg) |
|Beams ||2928.507 ||Lignum Vitae ||3,953,484 ||Teak ||1,903,530 ||Cypress ||1,537,466 |
|Floor, 1 ||245.51 ||Jarrah ||211,139 ||Teak ||159,582 ||Cypress ||128,893 |
|Floor, Top ||628.35 ||Teak ||408,427 ||Teak ||408,427 ||Cypress ||329,884 |
|Hull ||1249.40 ||Ekki ||1,405,575 ||Teak ||812,110 ||Cypress ||655,935 |
|Subtotal ||5,978,625 ||3,283,649 ||2,652,178 |
|Metal Nails (Total, Length, Weight) ||Unknown ||To be determined. Current design assumes wood |
|Angle Bracket (Total, Size, Weight)) ||Unknown ||To be determined. Current design assumes wood |
|Interior Walls ||Teak ||99,025
Sewer Brass = 4,732 kg
Water Tank Brass = 9,841 kg
Bird's nest oak (53,500 kg) and hay (56,832 kg)
Subtotal of common items - 3,446,358 kg
* Luxury item
|Walls ||Tar ||157,882 |
|Walls* ||Balsa ||1,872,042 |
|Glass Roof ||Quartz ||150,089 |
|Sewer ||Teak, Brass ||7664 |
|Stairs ||Teak ||30,743 |
|Water & Food Ducts ||Teak, Oak ||66,954 |
|Floor ||Rubber ||914,379 |
|Bird Nests ||Oak and Hay ||110,332 |
|Water Tank ||Oak, Brass ||34,734 |
|Total ||9,422,469 ||6,727,493 ||6,096,022 |
- Rubber Bedding (914,379 kg).
It would be a lot of work and space to store and remove used hay for bedding. The ammonia created by urine is bad for the animals so it must be removed daily.
If the floors were slightly inclined towards the walls so that they could be washed and if the surface is rubber then we have a system which is soft and maintainable.
The ancients had that technology.
The ancient Olmecs and the Mayans boiled latex to make rubber balls.
Latex can be vulcanized with high pressure and temperature or sulphur to produce a stronger product.
We will use 3 inches (0.0762 m) of the hard rubber for the common areas and corridors and the softer rubber for the bedding areas.
All floors have this substance. In addition the space on 75% of the first floor will be divided into two so that the height of the rooms will be 7 feet.
Density of rubber (kg/m3) 1200 (hard), 1100 (soft) and pure gum (0.91-0.93).
Surface area padded for 3.75 floors = 3.75 (131 x 22) m - skylight area (2 x 131 x 1.5) = 10,414.5 * 0.0762 = 798.5849 cubic meters.
» Mass of Skyway = 35,935 kg
» Mass of Bedding (100%) = 878,443 kg
- Water Proofing (157,882 kg).
Apply a 0.25 inch (0.00635 m) coat of pitch on both surfaces of the exterior hull.
Surface area on one surface is 2 (137x23) Roof + 2 (137x14) Long Sides + 2 (23x14) Short Sides = 10,782 m2
Volume for both surfaces = 2 (10782) x 0.00635 m = 136.9 cubic meter.
Mass = 1153 x 136.9 = 157,882 kg (Tar density 1153 kg/meter cubed)
- Noise Reduction. Use design choices to manage noise from the pounding waves and screaming animals.
- Exterior Wall Balsa Insulation. It is very light and has excellent sound, heat, and vibration insulating properties.
This makes the ark much lighter, and muffles the animal sounds and the vibrations from the storm.
The space 12 inch (-0.25 inch tar) between the double hull can be filled with balsa which would also strengthen the wall.
Volume = Total Volume of surface - Volume of tar (one surface) - volume of Wooden posts - Volume of exterior Wooden Beams.
Volume(square meters) = 10,782 - 68.45 - (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 14) x #posts - (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 137) x 8 - (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 23) x 8 = 10,697.38
Mass Balsa = (10,782 - 68.45 - 1.30064 - 12.7277 - 2.13677) * 175 kg/cubic meter = 1,872,042.356 kg
- Exterior Wall Hay Insulation.
We can take advantage of our cargo by using strategic placement of supplies.
If we store hay along the perimeter of the ark it can serve as sound proofing material.
Rope netting retainers are used to hold them in.
The hay wall along the perimeter also serves as a cushion for a rough ride.
The first 40 days were the roughest.
- Barriers And Dividers ( kg).
Pure wooden walls or rail fence will add more weight than necessary. With certain animals we can accomplish our goals with much lighter materials or innovative solutions.
I am calculating the construction mass for a piece of fence or wall that is (3x6) ft= 18 ft2 which is (91x182) cm = 16,562 cm2 = 0.016562 m2.
The purpose is to evaluate the density of each type of wall that will be used to construct various barriers with teak, a washable, rot and termite resistant timber that is 650 kg/cubic meter.
|Sample Barrier Construction||Surface||6x3 ft |
|Wall or Fence ||Height |
|kg/m2 ||Mass |
|Single Plain Wall ||6x15 ft ||16.51 ||27.609 |
|Double Wall ||6x15 ft ||38.34 ||64.11 |
|Single Wall ||6x15 ft ||21.83 ||36.50 |
|Double 3' Wall ||6x3 ft ||42.19 ||70.55 |
|Post and 3 Rail || Height|
|20.182 ||33.744 |
|Post, 2 rail, rope ||20.836 ||34.837 |
|Post, rail, 2 rope ||21.489 ||35.93 |
|Post and 3 Rope ||22.143 ||37.023 |
|Chain Link Fence ||9 guage |
| (2x2") ||3.418 ||5.715 |
| (1x1") ||8.008 ||13.39 |
|13 mm ||108 ft || (4x4") 10cm||12.403 ||20.739 |
|13 mm ||72 ft|| (6x6")15 cm ||8.27 || 13.826 |
|5 mm ||216 ft|| (2x2") 5 cm ||3.54 || 5.925 |
|3 mm ||432 ft|| (1x1") 2.5 ||2.36 || 3.950 |
|Reptile || 0.2032 || 1.7 ||2.9685 ||4.963 |
|? || 0.0711 || 0.564 ||1.08878 ||1.820 |
|Insect || 0.0279||-||0.68842 ||1.151 |
» Interior Solid Walls.
These solid walls use 4"x4" posts, 6"x1" cross bars and 1" teak board as wall cover.
The wall sample is designed as the section from one post to the beginning of the next section where the next post begins.
A 15 ft 4x4" post weighs 30.676 kg [4.572x .1016x .1016] x 650
A 6 ft 6x1" bar weighs 4.6 kg [1.8288 x .1524 x.0254] x 650
A 6x15'x1" wall weighs 138.044 kg [4.572 x 1.8288 x .0254] x 650
These are 3 foot high fences which use 4x4 inch posts set 6 feet apart and 2x6 inch rails.
The ropes are 38 mm (1.5") diameter sisal.
- Plain Wall Cover (6'x1"x15'). 138.044 kg. It is used with the existing structural posts.
- Double Wall (6'x6"x15').
Post (15') 3 bars (6') 2 walls (6'x15')
= 30.676+3(4.6)+2 (138.044) = 320.564 kg
- Single Wall (6'x5"x15').
Post (15') 3 Bars (6') 1 Wall (6'x15')
= 30.676 + 3(4.6) + 138.044 = 182.52 kg
- Short Double Wall (6'x6"x3').
Post (3') 2 Bars (6') 2 Walls (6'x1"x3')
= 30.676/5 + 2(4.6) + 2 (138.044/5) = 70.553 kg
» Teak Post. 4x4x36" [0.1016x0.1016x0.9144 m] weighs 6.135 kg
» Teak Rail. 2x6x72" [0.0508x0.1524x1.8288 m] weighs 9.203 kg
» 38 mm Sisal Rope. 72" [1.8288m] weighs 10.296 kg
Since the wooden fence is lighter and it provides a broader surface area it should be a better barrier.
- Post And 3 Rail Fence (P3R). 6.135 + 3(9.203) = 33.744 kg
- Post, 2 Rail And Rope Fence (P2Rs). 6.135 + 2(9.203) + 10.296 = 34.837
- Post, Rail And 2 Rope Fence (PR2s). 6.135 + 9.203 + 2(10.296) = 35.93
- Post And 3 Rope Fence (P3S). 6.135 + 3(10.296) = 37.023
» Mesh And Netting.
We estimated the amount of rope for a 3x6 ft section of mesh.
It can be used as safety barriers for the top two floors of the skylight corridor and they let light come in.
They are attached to the roof and the 3ft short wall which serves as the safety rail.
Smaller mesh sizes are used for the small birds and mammals.
» Interior Walls (99,024.97 kg).
- Corridor (2x2 Chain Link) (10,001 kg).
8[15'x210'] + 4[7.5'x210'] = (8(4.57x64) + 4(2.29x64)) x 3.418
- Solid Walls (16,872 kg).
» Compost And Dung Room (DW). 2[50x15'] + 2[10x15'] = 1800 ft2 = 6,411 kg = 5,522 kg
» Human Space (DW). 2 [30x15'] + 2 [40x15'] + 3 [10x15'] = 2,550 ft2 = 9,082 kg - 7,823
» Hippo Space (SW). Next to the dung room. 2(8x10)ft 2(2.438x3.048) = 245 kg
» Bamboo Boxes (SW). 2[210x3'] + 2[4x3'] = 1,284 ft2 = 2603 kg = 1,969 kg
» Vegetable Boxes (SW). 2[210x2'] + 2[4x2'] = 856 ft2 = 1736 kg = 1,313 kg
- Animal Fence (3,198.74 kg).
The 30 foot long 2x2" chain link fences are used to separate groups of animals, they are not placed between every unit.
» 30' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x 3']. 18 (4.572 x .9144) x 3.418 = 257.21 kg
» 30' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x30']. 1 (4.572 x 9.144) x 3.418 = 142.89 kg
» 20' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x20']. 7 (4.572 x 6.096) x 3.418 = 666.84 kg
» 20' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x20']. 5 (4.572 x 6.096) x 3.418 = 476.31 kg
» 20' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x20']. 2 (4.572 x 6.096) x 8.008 = 446.38 kg
» 10' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x10']. 27 (4.572 x 3.048) x 3.418 = 1286.05 kg
» Bat and Reptile Room .
[1.7x1.7] cm brass mesh allows insects to go into the rooms
through the floor of the bat and reptile rooms which is the ceiling of the dung and compost room.
The front screen and the last side is finer mesh that does not let insects through.
Floor 2[10x50'] = 2 (3.048x15.24) x 2.9685 = 275.78 kg
Sides 6 [30x15'] = 6 (9.144x4.572) x 2.9685 = 744.61 kg
Front Grid [60x15'] + Side [30x15'] = ((18.288x4.572) + (9.144x4.572)) x 0.68842 = 86.34 kg
» Insect Room . Front and Back 2[10x15'] + Sides 2[20x15']
= 2(3.048x4.572) + 2(6.096x4.572) x 0.68842 = 57.56 kg
» Large Reptile And Turtle Pond (446 kg).
» Mesh Underwater (223 kg). (30x10') = (9.144 x 3.048) x 8.008 kg/m2
» 4' Mesh Fence (223.176 kg). 3(6x10') water + 2 (4x10') land + (4x10) fish land barrier.
3 (1.8288 x 3.048) + 2 (1.219 x 3.048) + (1.219 x 3.048) = 27.869 x 8.008 = 223.176 kg
- Food Barriers (35,770.83 kg). Food is stored behind animals who do not occupy the entire unit.
» Animal (2588.42 kg). Food behind animal pods uses 2x2 chain link fence except with small animals.
Small Rodents - 1 Unit [10x15'] = (3.048 x 4.572) x 8.008 = 111.59 kg (1x1 chain link fence)
» Hay Wall Fence (33,182.4 kg). 3 floors (2 Walls [420x15'] + 2 Walls [60x15']) = 43,200 ft2 of 6x6" Sisal
Large Rodents, Hares, Weasels - 7 Units [10x15'] = 7 (3.048 x 4.572) x 3.418 = 333.42 kg
Apes, Cats and Dogs - 15 Units [10x15'] 15(3.048 x 4.572) x 3.418 = 714.47 kg
Birds 30 [10x15'] = 30 Units (3.048 x 4.572) x 3.418 = 1428.94 kg
- Bird Nests (110,332 kg Includes Hay).
Birds and small animals are kept in nests with open spaces for food and water.
These nests are 25% hay which is not replaced for the duration of the time.
Only the floors of the common areas will be washed.
All structures are made with teak (650 kg/m3).
Total Units. There are 4 designs based on the size of the creature.
» B1 - 616 nests room 20x6' - 1x1' nests 14 levels 9550 total pairs in 19 units 11,704 structures
» B2 - 154 nests room 20x8' - 2x2' nests 7 levels 1063 total pairs in 7 units 2141 structures
» B3 - 65 nests room 20x10' - 3x3' nests 5 levels 290 total pairs in 4 units 260 structures. 30 pairs in B2.
» HH (Hen House) - 1000 nests room 20x18' - 2x2' on 7 levels 1000 total in 3 units 1008 structures
» Feeding System (66,954 kg).
The feed and water bins are made of oak (680 kg/m3).
They are in the front against the barrier walls at the edge of the corridor of the 10 feet wide units.
There are 250 units, some with multiple levels.
- Hay Bedding (56,832 kg). The density of loosely packed hay is 0.003 kg/ cu in.
» B1: 11704 (1x1'): Hay 3". 11704 [12x12x3"] = 5,056,128 in3 x .003 kg/in = 15,168 kg
» B2: 2141 (2x2'): Hay 6". 2141 [24x24x6"] = 7,399,296 in3 x .003 kg/in = 22,198 kg
» B3: 260 (3x3'): Hay 12". 260 [36x36x9"] = 3,032,640 in3 x .003 kg/in = 9,098 kg
» HH: 1000 (2x2'): Hay 6". 1000 [24x24x6"] = 3,456,000 in3 x .003 kg/in = 10,368 kg
- Structure (53,499.88 kg).
There are 36 birds units. The pod style is designed in a "C" shape around 3 sides of the unit and opened in the front.
The nests are made with 1/2 inch (.027 cm) thick board and horizontal 2x2 supports attached to vertical rear support posts every 5 feet.
All bases use 44 feet of board (13.4 m). The base is the width of the pod with a length twice the length and width in the rear.
- Base (32,746.87 kg). The floor of the nest.
» B1: 13[44'x1'] = 13 [13.4 x .3038] = 19 (13 x 4.07 x .027 m3) x 650 = 17,642.84 kg
» B2: 6[44'x2'] = 6[13.4 x .6096] = 7 (6 x 8.17 x .027 m3) x 650 = 6,022 kg
» B3: 4[44'x3'] = 4[13.4 x .9144] = 4 (4 x 12.25 x .027 m3) x 650 = 3,439.8 kg
» HH: 3 pods/unit x 3 units x 6 floors/pod [16'x4'] = 54 [4.88x1.22x.027 m3] x 650 = 5,642 kg
- Walls (9,064.9 kg). Walls are made with 1/4 inch teak plywood (0.00635).
» B: 30 Side walls [20x15'] + Back Walls 30[10x15] = 30 [6.096x4.572] + 30 [3.048x4.572] = (836.13 + 418.06) x .00635 x 650 = 5,176.67 kg
30 walls 24 rope walls and 5 walls separating birds of prey and 1 solid wall next to the food stores.
Solid Back wall next to store rooms.
» HH: 2 Unit Sides[20'x15'] + Unit Back [60x15'] + 18 Pod walls [16'x15'] + 16 Nest Walls 9[2'x15']
= 2 [6.096 x 4.572] + [18.288 x 4.572] + 18 [4.8768 x 4.572] + 16 x 9 [.6096 x 4.572]
= (55.74 + 83.61 + 401.34 + 401.34) x .00635 x 650 = 3,888.26 kg
- Posts (11,688.11 kg). Units share common posts which are [2"x2"x15'] (.0508x.0508x4.572) x 650 = 7.67 kg per 15' post.
1 ft beam weighs 0.511 kg, 2ft weighs 1.022 kg and 3 ft weighs 1.534 kg.
Each "B" pod wall has 4 Vertical posts and each pod has 10 posts in the front of the nests.
There is one horizontal floor beam for each inner post that is the length of the nest.
» B (Vertical) 2853.24 kg: ((30 x 4) + (7 x 36)) x 7.67
» HH (Vertical) 759.33 kg: ((18 x 3) + (5 x 9)) x 7.67
» B (Horizontal) 1516.788 kg:
19 pods x 14 levels x 7 Beams x 0.511 = 951.482 kg
7 pods x 7 levels x 7 Beams x 1.022 = 350.546 kg
4 pods x 5 levels x 7 Beams x 1.534 = 214.760 kg
» HH (2' Horizontal) 322 kg: 9 pods x 7 levels x 5 Beams x 1.022
» Front (Nest Box) (6,236.75 kg and 9.595 m3). Front barrier is 50% of height made of 1/2 inch board (0.0127 m).
There is 44 ft (13.4 m) of barriers on every level and 30 feet (9.144 m) in the hen house.
B1 - 19 pods x 14 levels x (13.4 x 0.1524 x 0.0127) = 3.268 m3
B2 - 7 pods x 7 levels x (13.4 x 0.3048 x 0.0127) = 2.541 m3
B3 - 4 pods x 5 levels x (13.4 x 0.4572 x 0.0127) = 1.556 m3
HH - 9 pods x 7 levels x (9.144 x 0.3048 x 0.0127) = 2.230 m3
- Perch (1100 kg). 3 Perch Lines (300 ft) are located in front 8 inches apart and 12 inches below each other.
900 feet of rope (275 m).
1 inch (24 mm) diameter sisal rope weighs 0.4 kg/m and has a 5,760 pounds/ft breaking strength.
» Sewer System (4.51 m3 and 4732 kg Copper).
The system is lined with brass for easier cleaning and to kill pathogens.
All boards are one inch thick (0.0254 m) with 1/8 inch (0.003175 m) brass plating.
- Troughs (10,546 kg). They are dug outs one inch thick which are calculated as total units x volume (outer dimensions - core) x density of oak.
» 200 Large Water Trough [4'x1'x1'] (3794 kg). = 200 ((1.2192 x 0.3048 x 0.3048) - core) x 680
Alternative (4 Long Troughs). Long water trough in the rear on the first floor (Level 1 and 2).
» 50 Medium Water Trough [4'x1'x0.5'] (608.6 kg). = 50 (1.2192 x 0.3048 x 0.1524) x 680
» 100 Small Water Trough [4'x1'x 0.25'] (870.4 kg). = 100 (1.2192 x 0.3048 x 0.0762) x 680
» 350 Feeding Trough (5273 kg). Same as water bin.
- Ducts (56,408 kg).
» 12 Horizontal Water Ducts 2" Thick Oak (35,088 kg). 12 [210x1x1.5'] = (64.008 x 0.3048 x 0.4572) - core (63.9 x 0.2032 x 0.3556) = (8.92 - 4.62) = 2924 kg
These are wooden ducts along roof over the barrier walls which carry water to hoses.
» 150 Water Hoses (23.5 kg). Flexible leather hoses between every 2 units.
They are 6" round and 15' long and 1/8" thick (15.24 x 38.1 x 0.3175 cm).
90 ft2 and 11.25 ft3 which is (184.35 cc x 0.85 g/cc) = 156.7 g/ hose x 150 hoses) = 23.505 kg.
The density of leather is 0.76 - 0.95 g/cc.
» 190 Feeding Hose (31.3 kg). Between every 2 units. Flexible leather.
9" round, 15' long, 1/4" thick (15.24 x 38.1 x 0.635). = 368.7 cc x 0.85 = 313.4 g x 100 hoses = 31.3 kg
» 190 Feeding Chute/Hopper (21,265 kg). Attached to each hose is a room of food pellets with the holes over the hose.
Each is a 3 ft (0.9 m) square oak box 2 inch thick. 4 (0.9 x 0.9 x 0.0508) x 680 = 111.92 kg
» Buckets. 2 milk storage tanks, 8 milk pails and 8 food shovels.
» Ramps, Stairs, Ladders and Bridges (30,742.76 kg).
On each floor the 5' wide ramp with a slope of 9.26° extending from the center corridor and rises 3.75 feet over 23 feet to a 5'x5' landing in the back then turns and rises another 3.75 feet to the back storage rooms in middle of floor.
Then the third section rises to the front then runs parallel to the corridor to reach the next floor.
Ramps and bridges use hand rails.
- 4 Waste Shafts and 2 Special Dung Room Vent [2x1x45] ft [0.6096 x 0.3048 x 13.72].
8(Long Sides 2[13.72 x .6096] + Short sides 2[13.72 x .3048])
» Wood. 8 (8.364 + 4.182) m2 = 100.365 x 0.0254 m3 = 2.55 m3 wood.
» Brass. 0.318 m3 = 2671 kg of brass.
- 16 Covered Buckets [2x3x4] ft [0.6096x0.9144x1.219] m. Portable covered bins for dung and garbage fit under the shafts. They have a split lid that covers the open end.
16 (Long sides 2[0.9144 x 1.219] + Short sides 2[0.6096 x 1.219] + Top and bottom 2[0.6096 x 0.9144])
» Wood. 16 (2.229 + 1.486 + 1.115) x 0.0254 m3 = 16 x 4.83 x 0.0254 = 1.96 m3
16 x 4.83 x 0.003175 = 0.245 m3 = 2061 kg of brass.
- Reciprocating Displacement Pump And Bilge Holes.
Holes in the sides can be used to remove waste from below through a simple water lifting device or gravity from above water line.
» 1 ft (0.3 m) Section of Handrail. [12"x3"x2"] Rail + 4 Balusters [36"x1"x1"]
= (0.3048 x 0.0762x0.0508) + 4 (0.9144 x 0.0254 x 0.0254) x 650 = 2.3 kg
So the ramp is in four sections on each floor.
- Ramp (17,571.025 kg). It extends up 2.5 floors on one side in the mid section in an area 30' by 23'.
» Ramp Floor [23'x5'x 2"]. (7.0104 x 1.524 x 0.0508) x 650 = 352.78 kg
» 23 ft of Ramp Handrail. 23 x 2.3 kg = 52.9 kg
» Landing [5'x5']. (1.524 x 1.524 x 0.0508) x 650 = 76.69 kg
» Landing Rails. 15' for 2 landings is (15 x 2.3) = 34.5 kg
» Ramp Base Support.
Edges 2(23'x4"x4") + 12 cross rails (5'x4"x4")
= 2(7.0104 x 0.1016x0.1016) + 12 (1.524 x 0.1016x0.1016) = 216.78 kg
» 750' Posts/ Floor (6"x6"). Set every 5 ft (228.6 x 0.1524 x 0.1524) x 650 = 3451.12 kg
» 184' Cross Braces/Floor (6"x6"). (56.0832 x 0.1524 x 0.1524) x 650 = 846.67 kg
» Floor Ramp Structure (7028.41 kg).
4 Ramp Floors + 2 Landings + 5 Ramp Railings + 15' Landing Railings + Base support + Posts + Braces
= 4 (352.78) + 2 (76.69) + 5(52.9) + 34.5 + 4 (216.78) + 3451.12 + 846.67 = 7028.41 kg
- Bridges (4,877.25 kg).
» 20 Bridges (8').
Across skylight corridor [8'x5'] + 12 (16' of hand rails on 2 sides) + 8 on ends (8' of hand rails on 1 side)
= 20 ([2.4384 x 1.524 x 0.0508] * 650) + 12 (16 x 2.3) + 8 (8 x 2.3) = 3,042.93 kg
» 4 Bridges (23'). Joins Floor Between Ramp
[16'x5'] + hand rails on 2 sides.
= 4 ([7.0104 x 1.524 x 0.0508] x 650) + 8 (23 x 2.3) = 1,834.32 kg
- 8 Stairs (7,368.48 kg). A 15 foot stair with open risers requires 24 steps.
The stair on each floor is in two 7.5 ft sections with a landing for turning in between.
These are the requirements for each section.
Each stair well has 4 sections and 2 landings [4 (220.87) + 37.58] = 921.06 kg
- Stair Section (220.87 kg).
» 12 Steps [12"x42"x1"]. 12 (0.3048 x 1.0668 x 0.0254) m3 x 650 = 64.42 kg
» 2 Stringers [1'x 10'x 2"]. 2[0.3048x 3.048x 0.0508] m3 x 650 = 61.35 kg
» 2 Handrails [10'x3"x2"]. 2[3.048x0.0762x0.0508] m3 x 650 = 15.34 kg
» 48 Balusters [36"x1"x1"]. 48[0.9144 x 0.0254 x 0.0254] m3 x 650 = 18.41 kg
» Support Post [30'x4"x4"]. [9.144x0.1016x0.1016] m3 x 650 = 61.35 kg.
One side is suppported by existing posts.
- 2 Landings [42"x42"x1"]. 2[1.0668x1.0668 x 0.0254] m3 x 650 = 37.58 kg
- 12 Ladders (926 kg). 18 rungs 2 ft wide, 2 rails 20 ft = (76'x2"x 4") = (23 x .0508 x .1016 m) x 650 = 77 kg
- Structural Lighting. The materials for some of the following structural lighting requirements are included in other calculations.
- Skylight (Sun and Moon).
Moses also had a "window" which we believe is a skylight running down the length of the ship about one cubit higher than the roof.
This provides continuous ventilation and light.
If the area is an open atrium and the six segments of the ark end in an open meshed wall then each section will have access to light on all three layers because the ark extends only 36 feet on either side of the skylight.
A skylight along the 450 ft length of the ark over a three story 12' corridor.
How was this constructed so that light could continually flow or come by an action like opening the roof?
A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.
(Genesis 6: 16)
The roof was raised about 18 inches above to make the window.
- Raised Roof. There could be 18 inch windows on the sides which could be opened up when it was not raining. If there was sufficient overhang, these windows could stay open during the rain after the violent part of the flood had ceased.
- Transparent Roof. The roof could be made of transparent material.
- Night Light (Moon). Natural and artificial lighting are used.
- Bioluminescent (Black Locust).
Fireflies and bioluminiscent creatures can be used in the lower layers since animals have better sight than humans.
We have at least two bioluminescent species of wood that can be used on the back walls.
The upper half of the back wall panels could be made from fluorescent material, replacing the Ekki, jarrah or teak inner wall or it could be a veneer.
It could help some animals who can see these wavelengths and maximize vision for others if they had the technology to create black light from potassium chloride or blue glass filter.
- Oil. Since we have proper ventilation, the primitive wax, vegetable oil and wick or carbon fuel lamps could have been used.
- Biogas. Gas lamps from our biogas facilities.
- Strategic Design.
The animals and cargo that do not need light can be stored towards the rear.
With the use of mesh walls they should see daylight streaming down the 3 story open skylight area 30 feet away.
Nocturnal animals are in the back. Underground or thick forest dwellers are behind the bamboo garden.
- Corridor Walls. All living spaces have a common area that borders the skylight.
All walls parallel to the corridor are open (mesh or rope) so that maximum light reaches the back walls.
Units are the number of 30x10x15 foot space from hull to skylight where the pods are located. There are 42 on each side of the skylight for a total of 84 on each floor.
A pod is a type of habitat design.
|Floors ||Animal||Gen ||Species ||Design||Habitat ||Food ||Habitat Designs|
|# ||Section ||Name ||Kind ||Type ||Total||Pod ||Units ||Light ||Habitat ||Diet
|Pod A [30'x10'] |
|Pod||Floor ||Size ||Pair ||Grid |
|A||1 ||- ||* ||10'|
|A1||2 ||Small ||54 ||3'x3'|
|A1c||3 ||Small ||71 ||3'x3'|
|A1d||4 ||Small ||108 ||3'x3'|
|A2||2 ||Med ||36 ||3'x5' |
|A2c||3 ||Med ||54 ||3'x5' |
|A3||2 ||Large ||24 ||6'x5' |
|A3c||3 ||Med ||36 ||6'x5' |
|Water and Food |
|Pod B1 [20'x6'] |
616 Nests (14 Levels)
|84 [1'x1'] Nests |
|266 Nests |
|Pod B2 [20'x8'] |
154 Nests (7 Levels)
|28 [2'x2'] Nests |
|63 Nests |
|Pod B3 [20'x10'] |
65 Nests (5 Levels)
|15 [3'x3'] Nests |
|25 Nests |
|Pod E [10'x10'] 30 Nests |
|Pod||Floor ||Size ||Pair ||Grid |
|E1||3 ||Small ||15 ||2x3x4|
|2 ||Med ||9 ||3x3x4|
|1 ||Large ||6 ||5x3x6|
|Water and Food |
|E2||1-3 ||Small ||45 ||2x3x4|
|E3||1-7 ||Small ||175 ||2x2x2|
|E4||1-5 ||Small ||60 ||1x1x1|
|E5||1-5 ||Small ||500 ||1x1x1|
|EX||1-15 ||Small||1500 ||1x1x1|
|"W" = Water/pool in area |
|Pod W [20'x10'] |
|Pod||Floor ||Size ||Grid |
|Ww||2 ||Storage ||10x10x7|
|Wd||2 ||Land ||10x10x7|
|1 ||Dirt ||10x10x7|
|Pod HH [18'x20'] |
336 Nests (7 Levels)
|Chicken Run [18'x4'] |
|1 || E-G 9-12.l1 || Sheep, Goats || 2 || 33 || 10|| A2c || 12 ||Day || Land ||Clean |
|A-C 9-12.l1 ||Cattle, moose  || 2 || 28 || 7 || A3 || 17||Day || Land |
|A 9-12.l1 ||Wildebeest || 1 || 10 || 7 || A3 || 4||Day || Land |
|A 9-12.l1 ||Pronghorn musk deer || 1 || 5 || 7 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|E-F 1-5.l2 ||Deer || 1 || 34 || 7|| A3c || 9 ||Day || Land |
|F-G 1-5.l2 ||Cervidae || 1 || 48 || 7 || A3 || 10||Day || Land |
|A 3-5.l2 ||Chevrotain || 1 || 6 || 7|| A2c || 2 ||Day || Land |
|B 1-5.l2 ||Antelope || 1 || 19 || 7|| A3c || 4 ||Day || Land |
|C 1-5.l2 ||Duiker || 1 || 21 || 7|| A2c || 4 ||Day || Land |
|A 1-5.l1 ||Suina: pigs, peccary || 1 || 23 || 2 ||A3 || 2||Day || Land || Omnivore |
|B 1-5.l1 ||Elephant|| 1 || 3 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land ||Unclean |
|B 1-5.l1 ||Horse, ass, zebra || 1 || 7 || 2|| A3 || 1.5 ||Day || Land |
|B 1-5.l1 ||Giraffe, okapi || 1 || 2 || 2 || A3 || 0.5||Day || Land |
|B 4-5.l1 ||Hippo , rhino , tapir ||3 || 11 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|E 1-5.l1 ||Camel , Llama  || 1 || 6 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|E 1-5.l1 ||Kangaroo, wallaby || 2 || 61 || 2 || A3 ||2 ||Day || Land |
|E 1-5.l1 ||Ratites: ostrich, emu || 2 ||12 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|1 ||A 3 || Echidna, mole || 2 || 379 || 2 ||Wd || **5||Night || Burrow || Insectivore |
|1 ||A 3 || Edentata, numbat, pholidota || 3 || 37 || 2||Wd ||Night || Burrow || Insectivore |
|1 ||A 3 || Wombat || 1 || 3 || 2 ||Wd ||Night || Burrow || Herbivore |
|1 ||G 3-4 ||Tortoise  || 1 || 49 || 2 ||Ww || 1||Night ||Land || Herbivore |
|1 ||G 3-4.l1 ||Turtle , platypus || 1 ||252 || 2 ||Ww ||Night ||Water || Omnivore |
|1 ||G 1-2.l1 ||Crocodile, alligator || 1 || 23 || 2 ||Ww || 1||Night ||Water || Carnivore |
|2 ||A 2-6 ||Possum,cuscus,shrew || 3 || 98 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Day || Land |
|2 ||B 2-6 ||Racoon , Skunk [11}, mongoose || 3 || 71 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Day || Land |
|2 ||B 2-6 ||Weasel, civet, lingsang || 3 || 93 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Night || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2 ||Chiroptera (Fruit Bat) || 1 || 366 || 2|| E5 || 1 ||Night || Cave || Fruitarian |
|2 ||A 1-2 ||Chiroptera (Bat) || 1 || 734 || 2|| E5 || 1 ||Night || Cave || Insectivore |
|2 ||A 1-2||Frog || 1 || 6090 || 2 || EXW || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Lizard || 1 || 4470|| 2 || EX || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Snake || 1 || 2920|| 2 || EX || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Salamander || 1 || 615 || 2 || E5W || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Caecilicans (worm-like) || 1 || 189 || 2 ||Day || Land |
|2 ||E 2-6 ||Myomorph: Small rodents|| 4 || 1539 || 2 || EX || 1*||Night || Land ||Omnivore |
|2 ||F 2-6 ||Sciuromorph: Squirrel || 1 || 323 || 2 || E3 || 1*||Night || Land |
|2 ||G 2-6 ||Castorimorph: Beavers || 1 || 96 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Night ||Burrow ||Insect,seed |
|2 ||G 2-6 ||Hystricomorph: Capybara || 1 || 230 || 2 || E3 || 1*||Night || Land ||Herbivore |
|2 ||B 2-6 ||Rabbit, hare, hyrax || 2 || 87 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Day || Land |
|3 ||B 8-9 ||New world monkey|| 1 || 132 || 2 ||E2 || 3 **||Day || Land || Omnivore |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Lemur, loris, tarsier ... || 3 || 125 || 2 ||E2 || 3 **||Night || Land |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Old world monkey || 1 || 135 || 2 || E2 || 3 **||Day || Land |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Lesser apes (gibbons) || 1 || 16 || 2 ||E1 || 2 **||Day || Land |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Great apes || 1 ||6 || 2 ||E1 ||Day || Land |
|3 ||G 8-10 ||Insects, dinosaur eggs ||* || 2 || E || 1||Both || Land || Omnivore |
|3 ||BA8-9 ||Dogs, bears || 2 || 49 || 2 || E1 || 2 **||Day || Land || Carnivore |
|3 ||B 8-9 ||Cats || 1 || 40 || 2 || E1 || 2 **||Day || Land |
|3 ||A 3-6 ||Birds of Prey (Raptors) || 9 || 290 || 2 || B3 || 4||Day ||Land |
|3 ||A 3-6 ||Owls (Night Raptors) || 1 || 130 || 2 || B2 || 1||Night ||Land |
|3 ||A 3-6 ||Water Birds, cranes || 21 ||351 || 2 || B2 || 2||Day ||Land ||Omnivore |
|3 ||B 3-6 ||Cuckoo, roadrunner, ani || 3 || 126 || 2 || B2 || 1||Day ||Land |
|3 ||B 3-6 ||Swift, hummingbird, game || 10? || 650 || 2 || B1 || 1||Day ||Land |
|3 ||B 3-6 ||Other Small Birds || 33? ||3300 || 2 || B1 || 5||Day ||Land |
|3 ||C 3-6 ||Other Medium Birds || 5? || 456 || 2 || B2 || 3||Day ||Land |
|3 ||F-G 3-6 ||Parrots || 1 || 300 || 2 || B1 || 9||Day ||Land |
|3 ||F 3-6 ||Song Birds || 50? ||5000 || 2 || B1 ||Day ||Land || Vegetarian |
|3 ||F 3-6 ||Clean Birds || 8 || 300 || 7 || B1 || 4||Day ||Land |
|3 ||G 8-10 ||Hens for egg production ||1000 || 1 ||HH ||3||Both || Land |
|3 ||E 8-12 ||Humans|| 1 || 4 * || 2|| A ||4 ||Day || Land |
|1 ||A 1 ||Dung Room || A|| **5 ||Day || Land ||Dung |
|1 ||A 2 ||Compost || A|| **5 ||Day || Land |
|1 ||A 1-2 ||Worm, flies, dung beetle || A ||**5 ||Day || Land |
|* ||Storage * = number of 10'x10' space in front of or behind the living space in the 30x10' unit |
Floor Plan 1.
This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals and big "poopers" above. It allows for easy cleaning of feces and urine for those who produce great quantities.
The sewer goes directly to the chutes, emptying above the water line above the first floor.
The change in construction is to add 1716 kg /1800 ft of chain link fence at the corridors.
|Floor||Plan 1||Plan 2||Animal||Sewer|
|3||3a||2, 3 South ||Man, Primates, Cats, Dogs, Bears, Hens. Food, grain, storage||Rhino|
|3b||1a ||Sheep, Goats, Deer, Cervidae, Antelope, Chevrotain, Duiker [+ Fence]||Pigs|
|2||2a||1a, 1b ||Cattle, Horses, Unclean Animals. These cannot climb easily. Milk Kitchen [+ Fence]||Elephants|
|2b||3 North ||Birds (Water line is at this level) ||Snakes, bats, amphibians|
|1||1||2 ||Rabbits, weasel, rodents, possum, racoon, armadillo, sloth ... anteater, pond ||Dung Room|
Floor Plan 2.
This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals below. It allows for easy entry and exit.
| The First Floor Layout (Level 1) |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
Zebra, ass, horse
||armadillo sloth numbat echidna mole wombat anteater
||Tapir  Rhino
Hippo Pig 
Goat  Tahr 
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== |
Diggers: Armadillo, Numbat, Anteater, Sloth  Mole , Echidna  Wombat 
The floor is divided into 2 levels.
Food is stored above and the animals are on level 1.
This facilitates shoveling food into the space below and loading these large animals without the use of ramps.
These animals occupy the entire 30x10x7' space of each unit.
» Clean Animal. 63 half units
» Unclean Animal. 8 units
» Underground (Mole).
» Turtle. 2 units G (1-5) - level 1
Total Garbage Space: 24,000 ft3
» Dung. [50x30x8'] - A (1)
» Compost. [50x30x8'] - A (2)
The messiest poopers are next to the dung room.
» Garden Space.
Total Living Space: 153,700 ft3
Total Storage: 182,400 ft3
Level 1 (11 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (14 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (34 Half Units). 17 corn
Level 2 (30 Half Units). 15 oats
| The First Floor Layout (Level 2) |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
|| Chevrotain 
||Grain and Hay
||Grain and Hay
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== ||
The second level is for food to feed the herbivores below.
It is also the expansion space for growing herbivores as the food is depleted.
Most deer are kept on this level.
Space (G 9-12) on both levels is a possible location for a second compost room when the food in this section is used up.
» Dung Disposal On Landing.
While the boat is in transit, all the dung portholes can be used.
However, when the boat lands only those to the rear should be used.
In addition, while water still surrounds the boat for 2.5 months, dung should be stored in the dung room.
This ensures that the front half of the boat is not sitting in a pool of dung when the animals disembark.'
|The Second Floor Layout |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
||Acorn, Nuts, Wood
||Fresh Fruit ||Oats
|Fresh Fruit 
||-|| ||- |
||Fresh Fruit  (210x10 feet)
||Fresh Fruit  (210x10 feet)
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== ||
This space functions mainly as the food silos for the animals below.
Most animals are either nocturnal or hibernating or not fed regularly and live in section A-B row 1-6.
The bats and reptiles are fed through the mesh floors from the insects in the dung and compost rooms below.
Total Living Space: 48,000 ft3
[ 60x30x15'] A (1-6) - Cage
[ 80x20x15'] B (2-6) - Rodents
Total Storage: 327,000 ft3
[ 80x10x15'] B (1-6)
[ 70x30x15'] C (1-6)
[210x30x15'] E-G (1-6)
[420x30x15'] A-G (8-12)
This floor can be food only.
The insect eaters are on level 2 above the dung rooms and the rest on level 1 of the first floor.
|The Third Floor Layout |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
||Seed (210x10 feet)
||Seed (210x10 feet)
||Lemur, loris 
||Nuts (210x10 feet)
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== ||
All bird space has a 10x10x15 feet space behind the pods for food storage.
Pod "B" also has a 4 x 20 x 15 foot space from back to front and Pod "C" has a 2x20x15 foot space.
All pods have a central space and front balcony for flight, water, food and perching trees.
Total Living Space: 132,000 ft3
» Birds. 30.5 [2/3] units
» Carnivores. 4 [1/3] units
» Primates. 11 [1/3] units
» Egg-Laying Hens. 1 Unit
» Dinosaur eggs. Closet.
» Humans. 4 Units
Free Flight Space [30x10x15']
» 4 Units. (C 1-6)
» 8 Units. (E 1-6)
Total Storage: 246,000 ft3
Food Space Behind Animals
» 30.5 units [10x10']. (A-E 1-2)
» 15 units [20x10']. (B-C 10-12)
» Dry fruit & Vegetables
17 units. (E-G 8-12)
6 units. (A 8-12)
Flood Science Criticisms: Stolen Legends.
I heard these arguments on the Discovery Channel production about Noah's ark in December 2005.
While searching for this broadcast in July 2013, I found a BBC documentary from 2003 with the same arguments.
Undermining the Bible, the BBC documentary immediately labeled Noah as a drunk of questionable character and concluded that the story of Noah in the Torah was stolen from anicent Sumerian mythology about a local flood.
The story was embellished and made up by Jewish priests living in captivity during the Babylonian exile as a cautionary tale about disobeying God.
They concluded that the Sumerian Noah was a trader on the Euphrates who got caught in a local flood with his cargo of animals and beer. All had to drink beer to survive for the 7 days the boat was adrift in the Persian Gulf.
Settling on the local Mesopotamian flood as authentic, it went on to say that the ark was a small boat carrying only 260 animals that were found locally.
They arrived at these figures from the list of clean and unclean animals in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14. These are 10 species of clean animals and about 30 unclean animals and the birds.
Flood Science Criticisms: The Animals.
- 30 Million Species, Not Enough Time Or Space.
They said that it was impossible to find and load so many species in seven days.
For thirty million species,
Noah needed to load 50 pairs per second. It would take 30 years at a more realistic loading rate with a fleet of arks.
In 30 years it takes 2,740/day or 114/hour or 2 animals per minute.
Assuming Noah rested on Sabbath, it would take a rate of 58/second to load 30,000,000 in 6 days.
Their statements are so grossly misleading and in fact it is deliberately dishonest.
They forgot to mention factors such as, multiple queues, fewer large animals and fewer species and did not exclude species that were not in the ark.
They forgot to mention that even their own science says that all the species of cats evolved from one pair and what that could mean for the number of different species in the past.
No matter how many small creatures there were, If there were ten thousand or the current estimated thirteen million species of tiny creatures, they could crawl in on their own at any time during the 120 years and require no maintenance.
- Single File.
Their math assumes loading one pair of every specie at a time in a single queue.
A pair of ants did not crawl in, single file, behind a pair of elephants.
- 13.6 Million Species.
Second, they use an inflated figure. We have named 1.4 million, the best estimate is that there are 2 to 100 million creatures. 13 million is simply the scientist's estimate of the correct number, but no one has seen them.
So 30 million estimate used by the documentary may be another estimate in the 2-100 million range or it is a result of taking 13.6 million pairs of creatures and allowing for seven or seven pairs of clean animals.
But in the worst case there are not that many clean animals.
So the key fact is that even if there are 12 million more unseen and unidentified creatures on earth almost all will be microscopic and possibly only 100 will be of any size larger than a mouse. Practically none will be as large as a horse.
Of the 13 million, most were never manually loaded on the ark by Noah because they were too small or they were not air breathing.
If they were in the ark they were microscopic hitchhikers.
4,676,000 were never loaded and 8.75 million could hitchhike. So 13.426 million were not handled, leaving 174,000 viable candidate species.
Only 50,000 are vertebrates and only 5,000 are mammals.
These facts reduce the critical problem of volume to solve substantially.
Even if we found the upper range of 100 million species (98 million new), all the species found would be microscopic or plants and would not affect our ark loading and capacity.
- Maybe Insects and Arachnids (8.75 million). These could crawl in at any time, not single file.
- No Bacteria (1,000,000) or Viruses (400,000) or Nematodes (400,000). They live in the intestines or on surfaces.
- No Fungi (1,500,000) or Protozoans (200,000). They could survive outside.
- No Fish (106,000) or Mollusks or Crustaceans (350,000). Sea creatures were not taken.
- No Algae and Plants (720,000). No plants were taken. If they were, then seeds would be better.
It takes a few hours to fill a stadium of 10,000. Noah could load 500,000 creatures in seven days.
- Loading The Ark In Seven Days.
Noah had only seven days to find the animals and load the ark.
This is not true.
Noah did not collect AND load the animals in 7 days.
Noah only loaded the animals who migrated to him. He could also have been collecting animals nearby in land cleared of timber for the construction.
Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.
(Genesis 6: 20)
- Noah's Zoo.
Migration, a force which we observe today, probably drove them towards the ark.
God Initiated The Instinct To Migrate.
There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
(Genesis 7: 9)
Sealed By God.
And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in.
(Genesis 7: 16)
However, in the last years or months before the ark was completed, Noah and his sons could have started collecting animals near by on the clear-cut land which would now be pasture land.
Then they were herded in quickly.
- Extinct Species. We will cancel out the effect of extinct creatures with current new variations.
- Large Animals Only. Their arguments did not make a distinction between the types of creatures.
Noah did not load insects, microscopic creatures and most marine creatures. He loaded larger air breathing animals.
» Undiscovered Species.
Scientists assume that most undiscovered creatures are insects or bacteria, not large creatures.
Therefore our ark capacity will not be substantially affected if we had to load hundreds more new creatures the size of mice.
- "Kinds" Of Animals.
Noah loaded pairs of every "kind" of animal. What does this mean?
Animals within the same species can breed. So the "Kinds" of animals may be equivalent to the Genus or Genera.
Within the potential of breeding pairs in a species is the ability to produce thousands if not millions of variations.
In the 1800's only about 40 species of dogs were recognized until Queen Victoria popularized the breeding of dogs through techniques learned from the Chinese.
Over 400 breeds emerged.
It is believed that all dogs are related to the wolf.
So "natural selection" only produced about 40 species in 6000 years and human intervention produced 400 in less than 100 years.
Noah could have taken only one pair of dogs. If this is the case, then the number of genera is significantly less than the number of species.
Flood Science Criticisms: Constructing The Ark
|Construction Schedule |
|Age ||Project ||Activity ||Workers |
|480 ||Gather |
|Cut trees and replant ||Hired Workers |
|Make fasteners (nail, pegs) |
|Make tools and replacements |
|490||Saw wood into planks, dry and cure and position supplies around the ark work site |
|500 ||Sons Born |
|520 ||Assemble Frame ||Children |
|530||Assemble base and frame |
|540 ||Each Deck |
|Construct exterior walls+floor |
|Construct Interior walls |
|Construct stalls and storage |
|Prepare more wood |
|550||Deck 2 ||Construct Deck 2, food silos |
|560||Deck 3 ||Construct Deck 3, frame roof |
|570 ||Special |
|Make fish pond, bamboo grove |
|Make dung and compost rooms |
|Roof||Cover roof (wood and quartz) |
|580 || Duct ||Water, Sewer, Feeding ducts|
|Collect resin for pitch and rubber|
|Apply pitch (Several Coats)|
|Apply rubber floor beds|
|Storage||Make 1359 food, 26 water tanks|
|Fence||Make rope and wire fence|
|590 ||Bags||Make 5,316 food storage bags ||Women |
|Food ||Gather grain, nuts, seeds, hay|
|595 ||Lamech dies (1651) |
|598||Bamboo ||Establish grove, garden |
|Insects ||Start termite and ant hills|
|Start dung beetle, worm colony|
|Fish Pond ||Prepare pond. Shell fish filter|
|Zoo ||Temporary zoo in clear-cut area|
|Prepare Food || Dry fruit, grain, nuts, seeds, flour|
|Dehydrated food, pellets, flour |
|Intense Evangelism ||All |
|600 ||Methuselah dies (1656) |
|Make temporary water duct |
|Gather animals (Migrate), eggs ||God |
|Month ||Pre-Load |
|Fill food and water bins |
|Assemble entry/exit ramp |
|Week ||Load |
|Feed large meals to reptiles |
|Week ||Load all Animals |
|Load entry/exit ramp |
|Week||Wait ||Shut door ||God|
- Construction Tools.
The most basic wood working tools such as a saw, a hammer, knife, rope, bucket and ladder are are all that are needed.
However there is evidence that they had very superior technology.
They built great cities and 100 years after the flood they were building the Babel sky scraper.
So cutting, hauling and raising logs may not have been a problem.
- Construction Material.
Critics say that a boat of that size would have to be constructed of steel because a wooden boat would collapse under the work load and the stress.
» Response (Superior Natural Fibers). The ark was made of "gopher wood". No one knows what the properties of this wood are like.
They leave the impression that natural fibers are not strong. So let us examine the lowly silk thread.
Ounce for ounce, silk is stronger and tougher than steel although it is one fifth the density of steel.
It is more ductile with the ability to stretch four times its length without breaking.
So it is difficult to fracture.
Only kevlar is stronger but not tougher than this steel.
However, the silk from the species Caerostris darwini is twice as tough and is even tougher that kevlar.
So extremely light weight bullet proof vests could soon be made from silk!
So never underestimate the properties of natural fibers.
If the fibers of gopher wood are made like silk, then millions of bundles of these interlocking fibers would be better than steel.
» Cross Laminated Timber (CLT). It is as strong as steel, lighter than concrete when thick layers are glued together at 90° and bonded with adhesives.
So perhaps "gopher wood" is not a lost species of wood but a method of treating and applying wood to make it behave with the strength of steel.
The bees have chosen the hexagon as a building cell for their combs to achieve the maximum strength to store their food.
A comb of 100 g weight can hold in it up to 4 kg of honey.
This is a man-made material using wood pulp (paper) or saw dust saturated with water and frozen.
The material can be used to make a boat in cold waters. It can be as strong as 2 inch (3 cm) thick plywood.
» Lumber Size. Silly critics trying to make their case limit the lumber to the 20 ft lengths available for sale in modern construction.
However, as late as 1918, 140 ft (43 m) length lumber was available for sale.
Lumber size is only restricted by the height of trees.
» Float. Engineers have discovered that the ratios of length:width:height of the ark is perfect for an object that needs to float and remain stable in rough seas without pitching and rolling constantly.
» Final Ark Design.
I use laminated wood for the double hull and honeycomb timber framing to build the ark.
When did Noah find the time to preach and build the ark?
If we assume that the population was centrally located in the unbroken land of Pangea, then Noah could be centrally located so that he could regularly visit key cities in all directions.
- Passive Evangelism. Noah preached while he worked or conducted his other business.
- Tourist Attraction. The ark itself must have been a Mecca for scoffers, the curious and all sorts of people who wanted to see the crazy man who was building a giant boat for nonexistent rain.
It had never rained and water from below sprinkled the earth.
A Global Natural Sprinkler System.
And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.
But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.
(Genesis 2: 5-6)
Noah must have used this opportunity to preach to the people and to use on site signs, billboards, displays and literature to explain his cause.
- Location, Location.
His cause would be best served if he was building the ark along a popular route and near a popular attraction or on an exposed face of a mountain.
- Advertising. He could have a constant reminder of the flood by staging billboard displays at central locations and routes.
- Tricked Out Cart. His mode of transportation could be a loud travelling billboard as he hauled supplies. His donkey had bells.
- Active Evangelism.
Noah took time from the construction project to preach in other locations.
- Regional Market Places. He could have scheduled appearances at central locations or popular events. For example, he could visit the central market place, schools, government institutions and appear at popular gatherings and annual festivals.
- Planned Mass Evangelism. He could set up a presence at any time in any place to conduct a week long crusade.
This type of evangelism could be best conducted near the end of the 120 years when he wanted to tell people when to come to the ark.
- Papyrus Evangelism. Printed or handwritten notices.
- Third Party Evangelism. The actions of others publicized the message.
- Word Of Mouth. The critics spread the message as Noah became the butt of jokes.
- Supporters. At some time he may have had friends and supporters who gave up after much ridicule or much waiting or death. Methuselah and Lamech must have preached until they died.
- Construction Crew.
Not enough people to make the ark.
- Noah. He gathered tools and supplies until his sons were old enough.
- Mrs Noah, Her Young Sons And Her Daughters-in-Law. They planted, prepared dried food, preserves and milled flour for years.
She must have saved seed, woven cloth and made supplies for the years after the flood.
- Three Sons. They helped when they were old enough and assisted in evangelism.
- Relatives. Noah's father, grandfather, cousins and siblings must have helped.
His grandfather, Methuselah, died the year the flood came (1656). His name means "when he dies it shall come".
His father Lamech died five years earlier (1651). Six of the patriarchs were alive in by the time Shem was born.
God let many of the righteous die just before the flood.
They helped with others who died before the flood and also provided financing.
- Supporters. Some must have believed for a while until peer pressure made them abandon their faith.
- Hired Hands. He could hire people to cut and haul trees and saw wood. There is not much to sabotage.
- A Bargain Contract For Hire (Property Transfer). If Noah had the deed to all the property of the righteous and if he needed extra help, then all he would have to do is sign over the deed to the property, to be transferred one month after the ark was closed if a flood did not come.
In addition, to begin compensating helpers he would give them a rent-to-own or lease-to-own properties and houses that they could possess so that they have immediate use of the property.
Part of the trade in work being done is to grow and prepare food needed and construction.
The property not being occupied is the location of the ark. For those, no immediate occupation of houses and lands would be transferred until the time expired.
Everybody is compensated. If they convert and die then no loss. If no flood comes then they win and Noah would be evicted from the last property.
Furthermore, if the greedy who possess the property are in charge of compliance then whoever does not fulfill the contract for work to be done by Noah, then some other greedy potential owner could make a grievance that would be satisfied if Noah agreed.
If Noah initiates the grievance, then the compliance officers must agree and Noah chooses a replacement.
- Gate Crashers.
Why did the people not break down the ark with axes to get in?
A sizeable crowd must have gathered in curiosity to see the animals come to the ark.
Then, with peer comfort the unexpressed concerns must have turned to mockery.
- The Smell.
Noah would have been dumping sewer waste daily, making the surrounding environment very inhospitable. After 2 hours of this they would have left.
Who would stand around watching poop splatter for 7 days?
- No Crowds.
The ark was closed for seven days. At first they must have continued their scoffing and they must have given up by the seventh day, ready to come back and ridicule Noah the moment he was forced to come out in shame and disgrace.
So they were mostly at home when the flood struck and the ark was far away.
- Flash Flood.
The soil was saturated due to a natural mist, so flash flooding was inevitable.
Flash floods can occur within a few minutes to less than six hours of excessive rainfall.
- Weather Conditions.
Fear of the new phenomenon of the heavy rain, lightning, earthquake and strong winds would have delayed any action until their homes started to flood and staying inside would be just as risky as going to the ark.
The violence of the convulsion and the flash flooding and the force of water would have prevented any of them from reaching the ark by the time they discovered that the water was flooding their homes and would not stop.
Therefore, such an assault was unlikely.
If any managed to reach the ark, then the sheer force of water would prevent them from doing little more than pounding on the ark.
- Slippery, Muddy Slope.
The area around the ark must have been clear cut and with construction traffic it would have been dirt. With a flash flood this would turn to mud, making it difficult to walk through.
- Loading The Ark. Here is a possible schedule for loading the ark.
Assuming that as the area around the construction site was clear cut, that it became pasture land that supported a temporay zoo staging area.
While the animals are outside and the door is open hired hands could take care of the feeding and loading.
A week before the loading some species can be placed in portable cages (insects, reptiles and amphibians).
- Hay. This can be loaded in the ark several months in advance.
Hay is placed in the walls of the completed decks. Since it did not rain anything could be stored out in the open.
- Food And Supplies. Load preserved food in the weeks before.
- Animals. They are stored in the order that requires less work, using paid helpers.
- Hibernating And Self-Sustaining. These are loaded the previous week.
» Self-Sustaining Habitats (840+). 750 moles, 88 underground dwellers and insects
» 2200 Bats. Fattened for weeks. Some can hibernate 6 months.
» Amphibians (12,000). They also hibernate.
- Reptiles (16,000). Reptiles fed large meal and will not be feed for 6 to 12 months.
- Birds. 20,000
- Clean Birds. 5,000 and 1000 laying hens
- Animals (4550 Small). Rodents, rabbit (4550)
- Animals (1264 Medium). Carnivores (664), turtles, tortoises, platypus (600)
- Large Mammals (2418). Primates (818), carnivores (38), clean (1358) + 202
» Food And Supplies. Load fresh food. Noah signs over his property as payment.
- Sabbath. No Work.
- Other Strategies. There are other strategies to reduce the workload or save resources.
- 12,000 Amphibians. They could be stored as tadpoles or eggs which hatch in 2 to 20 days, then released down the sewer chute after the 40 days of wild weather.
They survive on flies and floating debris.
- Water Reptiles. Those who live in the water can be fed and off loaded. Ground reptiles are kept.
- The Ark Will Sink.
The weight was too much and the ark is too fragile so it would not float for 370 days.
- Stable. The ratio of the external dimensions (30 : 5 : 3) represents the optimum design for stability, comfort and strength in rough seas.
It was designed to withstand wind generated waves.
Critics claim that a wooden boat that large would fall apart.
Cheng Ho (born 1371) built 444 feet wooden ships.
The "Spruce Goose" is an airplane built of wood (218 ft 8 in (66.65 m) long, 320 ft 11 in (97.54 m) wide and 79 ft 4 in (24.18 m) high).
Large Roman boats were found with heavy cargo.
- Tethered Ark.
The water went 15 cubits above the mountains (Genesis 7: 20) and the ark was 30 cubits high. So if the ark was above this spot it would not sink because it was 15 cubits higher.
Five months after the flood, it settled on Ararat and stayed there for seven months.
If the ark was built on top of the mountain, then neither weight nor navigation would be an issue, only water proofing.
If the ark landed while the water was receding then all levels would be available for drainage access for a full 7 months.
- High Launch Site. Ideally, on Mount Ararat, high on a mountain near a water fall which can resupply water during the seven days when the ark is closed.
If the canopy theory is correct then the humid planet did not have the temperature extremes and this location could be much warmer.
- Cargo Mass.
The total mass of the cargo and the ark is 13,696,920 kg. The volume of the ark is 44,114 million cubic centimeters and the density of fresh water is 1 gram per cubic centimeter.
This means that the ark can displace 44,114,000 kg of fresh water before it is covered.
The density of salt water is 1.025, giving a displacement value of 45,217 million kg.
There is 31% displacement in fresh water and 30% in salt water. So one third of the ark will sink up to the first floor.
Those who claim that the boat was underwater have not addressed the issue of having air to breathe.
Flood Science Criticisms: There Was No Technology To Build A Wooden Ship
|Longest Wooden Ships Over 300ft |
|Name ||Size (LxW) ||Owner ||Purpose |
| ||Santiago 1899–1918 ||324 X 46 ft ||America ||Great Lakes Barge |
| ||Belyana 1916 ||328 X 50 ft ||Russia ||River logging barges |
| ||Wyoming 1909–1924 ||329 X 50 ft ||America ||Schooner |
| ||HMS Orlando 1858 |
HMS Mersey 1875
|335 X 60 ft ||British ||Warships |
| ||Caligula's Giant Ship c. 37 ||341 X 66 ft ||Rome ||Transported obelisks from Egypt to Rome |
| ||Syracusia c. 240 BC ||360 ft ||Greek ||Transport ship by Archimedes' design |
| ||Leontophoros c. 280 BC ||360 ft ||Greek ||Warship, built for Lysimachos. 1600 oarsmen |
| ||Thalamegos c. 200 BC ||377 X 46 ft ||Egypt ||River boat for Ptolemy IV Philopator |
| ||Treasure ship 15th c ||416X170 ft ||China ||Ming Dynasty |
| ||Tessarakonteres c. 200 BC ||420X58 ft ||Egypt ||Ancient references. |
Largest human powered ship
| Well Documented || Historical References |
|Only body size counted. Not jib boom to spanker boom |
- Ancient Technology.
They did not have the technology to build such a large ship.
We cannot explain how they built the pyramids or the large patterns seen in the South American landscape.
So what we think should be possible for them is arrogant.
Metal could have been used to strengthen the joints.
- Tools. Hammer, ax, shovel, saw.
- Ropes, Pulleys And Oxen. Lifting.
- Food Preservation. Salt, honey (sugar).
- Ramps And Levers. An inclined plane
- Metallurgy. Gold, silver, bronze, iron.
- Displacement Pump. Water lifting device.
- Rubber. Olmecs and Mayans boiled latex.
There was naturally occurring glass such as obsidian and hardstone carving of clear quartz (rock crystal).
Evidence of glass making has been dated to at least 3500 BC from Mesopotamia to Egypt.
- Glue. Tree sap, tar, beeswax, bone and grain.
- Construction. Carpentry, joinery (mortise and tenon), weaving.
- Metal (Nails and Angle Brackets). They had metal forging technology to make fasteners for the support beams.
- Ship Building Technique. Frame first, shell first, peg-mortise-and-tenon, sewn and lashed-plank.
- Pitch (Bitumen).
Noah could not possibly use pitch to cover the ark because tar came from buried forests supposedly caused by the flood.
Petroleum reserves are not the only source of pitch.
It can be made by collecting and boiling resin from the pine tree, making charcoal out of the tree and then boiling the powdered charcoal in the resin.
- Known Ships.
Wooden ships of this size cannot be built.
In the chart on the right are ships verified by sight and ships documented by the ancient empires.
Several other wooden ships have been recorded. Most other ships are made to be moved and navigated by power using sail or crew, not floating aimlessly like the ark.
So the practical, navigable ships topped out at around 300 feet.
Barge designs worked better just as transport even if it is towed.
» The Tessarakonteres ("Forty"). In this case the size became a problem not for the ship but for the crew to navigate.
This ship, built for Ptolemy IV Philopator, had 400 crew, 4000 oarsmen with 40 men on each column of oars and transported 2850 soldiers and other men beneath decks.
According to Plutarch, the ship was difficult and dangerous to move during the tests.
These ships were built quickly.
Noah's ship (450 x 75 x 45 feet) was built carefully over 120 years, allowing the timber to cure and settle. It was not designed for oars, living on deck, or navigation. The integrity of the hull was not breached by the design.
Flood Science Criticisms: Conditions On Board The Ark
- Space And Animal Size.
I removed critics arguments that appealed to space hogging requirements.
- Animal Size. The animals spent one year in the ark. If young animals came in the ark, then they must have come after weaning. So the youngest age may be about 2 years old at the time the ark landed.
- Water. We only need about 30 tanks since fresh water is available by rainfall.
- Hay Bedding. We used soft washable rubber bedding, solving two problems, space and cleaning.
They were travelling in a floating coffin with minimum supplies. They could not possibly manage to maintain a healthy environment.
- Lighting. Many sources of natural and artificial light are available (skylight, lamp).
- Temperature. Since the ark was high the temperature was cooler and it was insulated with hay.
- Ventilation (Vent Ball).
The same system that is used to vent the lamp room in lighthouses could have been used.
The ventilation ball is a chimney which has a series of holes that removes excess heat and exhaust fumes and is specifically designed to keep water outside. It allows warm moist air to be drawn outside while fresh air is pulled in.
These could be placed along the length of the skylight.
On the level where humans lived were the animals that did not produce a lot of waste.
The dung room is located on the first level in the corner opposite the human quarters.
It has a separate ventilation system.
» Air Exchange. Floating high the air temperature outside would have been very cold while the air inside would be warm.
This sets up to perfect conditions for air flow to take place.
- Air Quality And Odor Control.
We need to produce oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, eliminate sources of bad odors, neutralize and remove the odors that escape.
The main contributors of bad smells are urine and feces (ammonia and skatole).
We have ventilation but there are other measures to improve air quality.
The dung and compost rooms are mostly sealed, reducing bad odors.
Sunlight kills microscopic organisms that would thrive in dark, musty places.
Vinegar, eucalyptus oil, charcoal and baking soda will also neutralize odors while disinfecting.
If stalls are cleaned with soap and rinsed with mild vinegar scented with essential oils solution we can control the source of most odors.
Plants provide oxygen while removing carbon dioxide and some are a natural air filter.
Bamboo is one of the plants that improves air quality by removing ammonia.
We have live bamboo and we could also grow herbs at the base of the bamboo trees and bring scented dry herbs and eucalyptus oil on board.
Weeping fig, peace lily and lady palm will also remove ammonia created from urine.
Copper and its alloys also kill microbes which will improve air quality.
- Sanitation And Infection Control.
Control of microorganisms will control air quality.
One natural way to do this is to use copper or brass lining in the ventilation, water and sewer systems.
Ventilation balls are made of brass. Water tanks and sewer chutes are lined with brass.
Brass is used on all surfaces and for the handles of utensils.
Vinegar (stale alcohol) is a product that the ancients can make and it can be used in 5% washing solutions.
It kills bacteria (99%), mold (82%) and viruses (80%).
» Cleaning Stalls. This is a problem with the herbivores. They produce large amounts of dung throughout the day.
Alpacas poop in a designated pile while hippos fling dung every where as a way of marking their territory.
So the hippo will be in a room with full walls.
On each level there are spare rooms and the 30x23 ft space opposite the ramp which are used as temporary transfer stations to place animals while their stall is being cleaned.
Long-handled scrapers or a wide scraper like a spatula can be mounted on wheels to push the garbage towards the sewer chutes.
Bird poop that accumulates on the floor can be removed weekly.
- Waste and Garbage.
The proper design of cages will allow for the action of gravity to move waste material. Proper bedding and straw will trap this also. The ark was waterproof on the inside.
After the first forty days, they could regularly wash out the compartments every three months and the large herbivores daily.
|External Hull or |
Internal Moon Pool
» Compost Pit. To build this system we need worms, beetles, flies and dirt.
We have a separate dung room and a compost room to process the garbage and the slurry from the biogas digester in the dung room.
- Sewer. Vast quantities of poop and urine are produced.
» External Collection.
All floors are on a slight incline for water to drain towards the sewer channels along the 2 long walls.
We have three-story sewer chutes that empty into the dung room or into portable storage bins on the first floor or that can be wheeled into the dung room.
The animals with the largest and messiest poop are on the upper floors.
The dung of other animals are much harder and smaller and can be swept up in to the portable dung bins.
» Moon Pool (Wet Porch) Internal Collection.
It is an opening in the floor or base of the hull, platform, or chamber giving access to the water below.
Moon pools can be used in chambers below sea level and their design requires more complex consideration of air and water pressure acting on the moon pool surface (Wiki).
Our hull designs can be transferred internally, protecting the integrity of the hull, yet keeping access to the moon pool above the water line
» Port Holes.
We can use them to dump waste water, urine and excess dung since the lake in which the ark rests will not be used for drinking water.
Above the water line the channels drain into the port hole.
» Screw Pump. It can be used to push waste below the water line out of the bins through the port holes.
» Construction. Sewer chutes and catch bins are lined with brass for better cleaning.
Copper alloys like brass kills bacteria and is resistant to corrosion especially in marine environments.
If properly annealed it will resist damage from ammonia in the urine.
» Dung Beetles.
Cows drop 10-12 patties per day.
Research in the African Savannah shows that a 1.5 Kg pile of elephant dung attracted 16,000 dung beetles who ate or buried the dung in two hours.
» Compost (Vermicomposting). A useful sewer management system turns dung and garbage into food for plants and insects for certain animals.
Sewer system insects include, dung beetles, worms, fly larvae on the dung and garbage piles and shell fish like clams oyster, shrimp in the fish pond.
Some fast methods can produce compost in 14 to 21 days if the material is finely chopped.
Noah could create a screw-auger system which has a blade at one end to chop up the used hay and turn over the compost material periodically.
All the animal food can be made by reconstituting pre-cooked, dehydrated food without additional cooking.
Only human food needs to be cooked by adding warm water.
We do not need to bring wood. We have two options which both use the vast quantities of dung that will be generated.
- Dung. Dried camel, bison and cattle dung can be used for fuel.
- Biogas (Methane). Dung can be easily processed to make methane.
By simply mixing cow dung with water and letting it ferment without air, methane is produced.
Although unnecessary, the impurities can be removed by passing it through a series of cleaners to remove carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water.
The remaining solid left over is an enriched fertilizer that is sent to the compost room.
» Production Quantities.
About one cubic foot of gas may be generated from one pound of cow manure.
Its heat value is about 600-678 B.T.U.'s per cubic foot.
This is enough gas to cook a day's meals for 4-6 people.
||Cow Dung Slurry
225 cubic feet of gas equals one gallon of gasoline.
The manure produced by one cow in one year (11,250 lbs) can be converted to 11,250 cubic feet of methane which is over 50 gallons of gasoline.
So one cow can produce enough gas to cook for 8 people for 23 years.
We have 7 each of cows, bison, deer, elk and 2 elephants and camels and many other large dung producers. We have enough fuel to cook and light the ark.
|Work Schedule |
|Time ||Job ||Activity ||Workers |
|Milk 21 cows (4-6 AM)
|Gather eggs, boil water || Mrs Noah |
|Mix nectar, potatoes, crush fruit |
|Scramble eggs, crush shells |
|People breakfast |
|Cut Bamboo ||Noah |
|Feed herbivores |
|Feed primates || Men |
|Feed cats, bears, dogs |
|Feed rodents, turtles |
|Feed birds |
|Feed insects, hens 1x ||Mrs Noah|
|10-12 || Clean || Clean floor, large animals || Men |
|12-3 ||Rest ||Personal Time, weekly chores ||All |
| Dinner || Repeat most AM tasks || All |
|Gather eggs, fruit, vegetables ||Mrs Noah|
|Feed cats, bears, dogs || Women|
|5-8 ||Staging ||Refill food Hoppers ||All |
|Daily||- || Resupply salt, water plants || Women |
| Weekly || Dung ||Stir compost (MWF) || Men |
| Clean || Clean bird floors (TTh) || Women |
| Clean ||Laundry (F) || Women |
| Monthly || Feed ||Reptiles (Sunday, Week 4) || Men |
| Month 9 ||Hatch ||Incubate dinosaur eggs ||All |
It is an impossible task for 8 people.
Hibernation would reduce the need for food and the work required to distribute food.
But a water supply system can be easily designed to reach all cages and stalls by filling one central station which flows to the feeders.
The same can be done for grain. But since this does not flow as easily as water, it will require more filling stations, but this is also manageable.
All feeding stations are visible from the front of the sections so that they can easily be inspected.
Feeding troughs are filled from the storage rooms behind or above the living quarters.
The animals must have been in very cramped conditions without any way of moving around. without exercise their muscles will waste away and they will die.
This claim is a bit melodramatic. We leave immobile grandparents in nursing homes all the time where they do not move or move in place and they hang on for years.
However, we have designed a series of common areas where the animals can move.
Their quarters are not cramped. As the storage spaces are emptied the growing animals fill these places.
- Clean Water.
Critics say that the weight of food and water and space requirement for a year is too much.
They dismiss using the water outside because it was salty and argue for bringing all the fresh water they would need on board.
The elephant requirement alone makes this seem impossible.
At any given moment they may need to have only a days supply on hand.
Since they were sitting in a resovoir of water outside they did not need to carry any.
The earth was covered with water, there must have been regular, normal rainfall after the forty days of continuous rain.
When the salt water evaporates to form rain clouds no salt is included.
So rain water is NOT salty.
The ark could have been designed to collect water from the roof to supply the ark through pipes that can be closed during the storm.
When the ark stopped, it could have been near a lake of fresh water with periodic rainfall.
We have designed a series of wooden, brass-lined water storage tanks to supply each section of the ark.
Pathogens would kill the animals under these conditions.
Most of these can survive outside. Others are found in the lining of the stomach, intestines and mouth or on the body.
Bacteria does not affect the healthy body when their colonies are low, so there is no reason to believe that all the pathogenic organisms would kill the animals who were healthy and in near perfect condition.
We have included antibacterial surfaces in our design as well as good hygenic protocols.
Flood Science Criticisms: Other Issues.
||150 Days (Water)
||150 Days (Wind)
||Calmer Seas (253 Days)
||Incubation (77 Days)
|Trees and Forests
||Trees Destroyed and Submerged
||Olive Tree Grows
||1 Year (370 Days + 7)
- Birth Control.
Species which mature within that year and then could have gestation and live births before they exited the ark should have males and females separated.
- Animals. There are multiple rooms so we will designate some as male and others for females.
- Birds. They do not need to be separated. We can take their eggs for food.
|Incubation Periods (Days) |
|Animal ||Period||Average||Start |
|Turtles ||65-110||80||Adar 1 |
|Snakes ||52-104||60||Adar 17 |
|Birds ||12-81||60||Adar 17 |
|Dinosaurs ||Same as birds||Adar 17 |
|Pigeons ||10-18||18||Iyar 1 |
- Egg Incubation.
If eggs are used to populate some species then incubation could occur after they exited the ark.
If not, the temperature in the incubation chambers should increase around the ninth to the twelfth month so that the babies will hatch by the time Noah exists the ark.
Dinosaur incubation periods are estimated to be the same as birds. Their egg sizes range from 19 inches (48 cm) to a tennis ball.
Incubation could begin during day 1 to 17 of the twelfth month for the 70 days they waited before exiting the ark.
I have not found informaion on storing eggs longer than 14 days before incubation.
- No Uniform Marine Sediment.
A scientist declared that he has searched throughout the world and found no evidence of the sea covering the continents.
There is evidence of marine sediments and life in places it should not be, but is is not lying in nice pristine layers. Instead it is broken, pushed up, pulled down because of the shifting mud and violent upheaval of the earht.
Structures like the grand canyon are evidence of layers of mud.
Marine life on top of mountains are evidence of the mountains being under water as is or later thrust up during the violent upheaval of the earth at that time.
Seashells are on top of Mount Everest at the 26,000 foot level.
10,000-16,000 feet on the Andes
- Noxious Sulfur Gases.
When the fountains of the deep broke up noxious sulfur gases from geysers were released and would have killed Noah.
This assumes that there are pockets of sulfur gases under every square foot of planet earth and that such gases existed in large quantities at the time of the flood.
Perhaps the process after the flood created these gases from decaying wood as they made oil and coal.
Sulfur dioxide gas reacts with water to produce sulfuric acid in the form of acid rain.
So, long before the gases reached the atmosphere it would have been converted to very diluted acid.
- Drowning In Air.
After 40 days so much moisture was in the air that it would have drowned Noah.
Noah was in a sealed boat with air flow that would not have been penetrated by water.
- Exiting The Ark.
The ark rested on Mount Ararat on Nisan 17 and they exited the ark 7 months later.
The earth was dry 5 month after it rested but they stayed inside for 2 more months.
Without careful planning they could have exited in a sea of poop.
Depending on where the door was located, Noah could have used only the poop chutes at the other end, especially during the last two months when water could not distrubute the waste around the ark.
He could have released dung beetles all around the ark for those 2 months.
Finally, the dung room also has enough capacity to store extra dung.
I believe that all creatures of that time were giants. If so, how did they fit into the ark?
The measurement was based on the cubit which was the length from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. In the days of the Hebrews this was about 18 inches (regular cubit) to 22 inches (king's cubit).
Noah's cubit would have been in proportion to his size so the ark would have been proportionately bigger.
So the issue that remains is if the beams that are proportionately larger would have supported the structure or if we need more beams.
A hexagonal structure uses the least material to create a lattice of cells within a given volume.
Flood Science Criticisms: The Flood.
Critics also claim that it was not a global flood because there is no evidence of a global flood and there is not enough water to cover the earth.
- No Evidence Of A Global Flood.
Creation scientists argue that the entire planet is evidence of a massive geological disaster.
The vast oceans, layers of sediment, the Grand Canyon, the geological columns and flood basins with petroleum deposits are the visible proof of the soil settling in layers under water.
Every time I hear the opposition say there is no evidence of a global flood, they just simply state that phrase without addressing the evidence that creationists use.
This technique is effective because the audience assumes that there is no evidence, just "blind faith".
- Not Enough Rain.
If it rained 12 inches per hour (31 cm) for 40 days that is only about half a mile of water.
The tallest mountain is 5.5 miles above sea level.
This would not cover the earth.
The flood was not only caused by the rain, it was also caused by water coming out of "the fountains of the deep"
and also sinking the land.
Sea creatures have been found on top of mountains including Mt. Ararat.
- Not Enough Water.
Our evidence also challenges the statements that there is no evidence of the global flood and not enough rain water.
Below we will show that using only the water in oceans, while leaving other water in other phases of the water cycle that this is not true.
Using a model of the earth as one land mass over an aquifer, without mountains, the ocean water can cover the earth to a depth of 2.6 km (1.64 miles).
With 50% of the surface covered with mountains 2.6 km high, the flood waters would rise to 3.05 km (1.9 miles).
This does not cover either Ararat or our highest peaks but they are very high mountains.
These high mountain peaks are volcanic and probably emerged under pressure after the flood through the cracked plates.
So working with the current shape of the earth, there is a scenario which will allow us to cover these high mountains.
Flood Science Evidence: Enough Water.
The planet is 71% water on the surface area. But they claim that this is not enough water to cover the tops of the mountains.
However, the Bible claims that the surface of the earth was very different before the flood.
It did not rain because the surface was mostly land floating on water. The entire planet was land floating on an aquifer with rivers, springs and small lakes above ground.
The planet probably did not have huge mountains, miles high but smaller hills.
If so, then these could have easily been inundated by the water below as the earth sank below the water and displaced it.
So it is not only a problem of water rising to cover the highest point of land, the land probably sank below the water.
|Mountain Height||Height Flood Waters ||Earth Surface|
| # ||Base ||(km) ||A. [Km (mi)]||B. (km) ||Mountain Coverage |
| ||0|| 0 || 2.6176 (1.636)||5.14 ||0% - Flat surface |
| || 866|| 2.6176 || 2.678 (1.674)|| 0 ||24% of current land |
| || 1226|| 2.6176 || 2.826 (1.7665)|| 0|| 24% of surface |
| || 2046|| 2.6176 || 2.966 (1.8535)|| 0|| 40% of surface |
| || 2556|| 2.6176 || 3.0527 (1.908)|| 0|| 50% of surface |
| || 2046|| 4.00 || 3.149 (1.968)|| 0|| 40% of surface |
| || 2046|| 5.137 ||3.300 (2.063)|| 0|| 40% of surface Ararat |
| || 2556|| 5.137 ||3.471 (2.169)|| 0|| 50% of surface Ararat |
| || 4086|| 5.137 || 3.983 (2.489)|| 0|| 80% of surface Ararat |
| Mountains Covered
|| Mountains Not Covered
As the earth dried in the following year, the force of water goughed out huge canyons and reshaped the surface of the earth for over one hundred years after.
» Methodology. I decided to use the volume of spheres. If I take the sphere of the earth and place it inside the sphere in which the water will cover the earth, then the volume of the water (or water + mountain) is the difference between the volumes of the two spheres.
» Limitations (Bald Earth).
I will first make the calculations for a smooth earth without mountains with the water as an aquifer underneath.
I will not account for the flood goughing out the soft earth or the forces pushing up the earth to build taller mountains.
Instead I want to see what would be the size of the mountains that would be covered by the volume of water currently in our oceans.
I will not be concerned about "undiscovered" or "unknown" water below the surface since the answer to all these problems only makes my case stronger.
Either there would be more water to cover taller mountains, or taller mountains appeared after the flood.
I used two different models for my calculations.
- Calculation "A".
I used a worst case scenario for the diameter of the earth.
I assumed the diameter was the earth without mountains and then all mountains rose above.
- Calculation "B". All water and mountains fit within the diameter of the earth.
This is the depth of the ocean water which covers the earth without mountains.
Radius Of Earth + Water. = Cube root [Volume (Earth+Water)/pi * 3/4] = 6379.112 km
Radius of Water. = (Radius Of Earth + Water) - (Radius of Earth) = 6379.112 - 6376.5 = 2.6176 km (1.636 mi) (8638 ft).
This is the minimum height of the water without mountains.
Currently, mountains cover 24% of the land so I will use this as the baseline for what is reasonable.
» Mountains Displace Water.
I was encouraged to calculate the possible height of this water that rose 15 cubits above the top of the mountain.
The problem is that I do not know how tall the highest mountain was or how many mountains there were to displace the water.
So instead I decided to take the current volume of water and determine how high it would go with various amounts of mountains and see if the story is unreasonable.
Any mountain 1.6 miles high will be covered. In addition, the more mountains we add to our bald earth model, the more water will be displaced so that taller mountains can be covered.
I will calculate the volume of a mountain by using the formula for the volume of a pyramid.
If I add the volume of the mountain to the volume of the earth and water I will have the volume of the new sphere which represents the new height of the water + earth + mountain.
Use this to calculate the new height.
There is not enough water to cover the 5,137 meter mountain which we believe is Ararat.
However, there is enough water to cover mountains between 2.6 and 3 km (1.6 and 1.9 miles) including the 15 cubits of water over the top (23-28 feet).
It is possible.
Calculation "B". All structures fit inside the diameter of the earth.
The minimum height of the earth without mountains under the water is 6373.88 km.
This gives only a small advantage unless we use another model of mountain building other than filling the space with mountains which will displace water beyond the diameter of the earth.
The Basin Model.
The earth is squished in on the side in the northern hemisphere. Let us work with this shape.
Let us take a model of the earth with one land mass on top of an aquifer with very low mountains.
Suppose the water covered the southern hemisphere with low hills only 0.10 km and then the majority of the water collected in a basin of mountains in the north or in a narrower northern hemisphere.
- Natural Basin.
The difference in radius between the poles and the equator is 20 km (12.5 miles). This is double the size of the highest mountains!
So our northern hemisphere basin can fit our tall mountains.
» Pear Shape.
The shape of the earth in the north already creates a 9.8 km radius depression.
It is slightly pear-shaped, bulging at the equator and narrower in the northern hemisphere.
The narrow end is in the Arctic and the broad base in the Antarctic.
Most of the land mass and most mountains are in the northern hemisphere.
The south is mostly water, deserts and grass lands and the high mountains are nearly all volcanic.
- Flood Basins.
The mountains exist in the Eurasian and North American Plate Basin.
My theory is that they exist in a basin that has been carved out or eroded by the tremendous force of the flood waters.
These are valleys and low lands and even the sea where the mountains were washed off, pushed up, folded and goughed out as the force of the mud and debris after the flood carved a way out to the sea.
In its wake are fold mountains, valleys and low lands leading out to the sea.
- Canadian Basin. The 8,000,000 km2 Canadian Shield is an area which is north of the Great Plains.
- North American Basin.
The Great plains [3200x800] 1,300,000 km2 is between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains.
The Grand Canyon cuts through the Rockies and is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and a depth of over a mile (6,000 ft / 1,800 m).
Colorado plateau 337,000 km2
The Gulf Coastal Plains empty out in the south to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coastal plain empties from the Appalachian mountains to the Atlantic ocean.
- South American Basin (km2).
The Andes mountains empty into the Pacific ocean in the west and into the flat lands of the
Amazon river basin (7,050,000 km2) and the Pampas (750,000 km2 lowlands) on the east coast of Uruguay, Argentia and south Brazil.
- European Basin. The European Plains stretch from the Pyrenees to the Urals.
The Scandinavian Shield is a rocky region that has been ground down by the flood debris until granite was exposed.
It stretches from the Kjolen mountains to the European plains.
The Alps drain into the European plain and the Po river valley (46,000 km2), the Venetian plain and the Sesia valley.
The West European Plains (? km2)
Eastern European (Russia). Covering 10% of the land on the earth, the vast Siberian Plain (14,894,000 km2) under the shadow of several major Asian mountains.
The East European Plain (west of Urals) is 4,000,000 km2.
- Asian Basin.
The Himalayan empties to the north into the vast Siberian plains and east into the Wei Valley and in the center into the Tarim Basin (906,500 km2).
In the south it empties into the Indus valley, Mekong delta and Bangladesh.
- Middle East Basin. The mountains in Turkey and the Zagros mountains in Iran empty south into the Mesopotamia Valley and the Nile river valley and the entire Arabian peninsula (3,237,500 km2)
- African Basin. The flat lands include the Sahel (3,053,200 km2), the Congo Basin (3,600,000 km2) and the Sahara desert (9,065,000 km2) and the Kalahari desert plateau (259,000 km2).
The Great Rift Valley is 1470 m deep depression 6,400 km long, extending from the Middle East to Mozambique.
- Australian Basin. The Lake Eyre basin and the vast desert in the central region.
- Polar Basins. Both poles have high volcanic peaks which seem like blow outs at both ends of a balloon that has been punched in the middle.
- Four Corners.
The earth has four points shaped like a pyramid where the surface of the earth bulges slightly.
They are 220 feet higher than they normally would be in the ideal shape and the low areas between are 253 feet lower than expected.
These corners are in Ireland going towards the north pole, and in the oceans near Peru, South Africa half way towards Antarctica, and New Guinea across the equator to Japan!
Let us use these coordinates to form the borders of a deeper basin.
The top triangle would lie within the pear shape and a deeper terrain.
|Flood Data|| Test Case A|| Test Case B|| Test Case C|
|South Hemisphere||Round shaped, low hills, grasslands and 33 - 58 story building|
|a »||Flood Depth (Km)|| 0.10 (330 ft)|| 0.16 (0.1 mi or 528 ft)|| 0.80 (0.5 mi)|
|b »||Volume Of Flood Water (km3)|| 25,546,874.813||40,874,615.285|| 204,352,565.654|
|North Hemisphere||Pear shaped, deep troughs (9.8 km) and mountains (8.85 km) |
|B||Volume Of Flood Water (km3)|| 1,312,453,125.187|| 1,297,125,384.715|| 1,133,647,434.346|
|A||Flood Depth (No Mountains)|| 5.141|| 5.08|| 4.44|
|C(1)||Basin Depth (5.4 km Mountains)|| 0.26 (858 ft)|| 0.32 (1056 ft)|| 0.96 (0.6 mi)|
|C(2)||Basin Depth (6.5 km Mountains)|| 1.36 (4488 ft)|| 1.42 (0.888 mi)|| 2.06 (1.29 mi)|
|C(3)||Basin Depth (8.9 km Mountains)|| 3.76 (2.35 mi)|| 3.82 (2.34 mi)|| 4.46 (2.79 mi)|
Earth (Sphere): 4/3 π r3
| - || Earth || -|
Earth (Hemisphere). Volume = 2/3 π r3
Mountain (Cone): 1/3 π r2h (Pyramid): 1/3 (base area) h
Metric Conversion: 1.6 km = 1 mile
Radius at the Equator: 6376.5 km = 3985 miles**
Radius at the Poles: 6356.75 km = 3949.9 miles
Volume of Earth: 1,086,014,693,963km3 (Calculated)
Volume of Earth: 1,083,210,000,963km3 (USGS)
Volume of Sea Water: 1.338 x 109 km3 = 96.54% of total
Surface Area: (510,066,000 km2)
» Water Area: (361,419,000 km2) 70.9%
» Land Area: (148,647,000 km2) 29.1%
» Mountain Area (On Land): (35,675,280 km2) 24%
Volume of Earth + Ocean Water = 1,087,352,693,963 km3
Volume of Earth - Ocean Water = 1,084,676,693,963 km3
- South: Flood Depth ("a"). Arbitrarily established as the height of the low hills in the south.
The difference in the diameter at the equator and between the poles is 19.5 km (12.34 mi).
This is 9.8 km radius.
It is already enough to cover the highest mountain in the north (8.850 km)
because in our model we have accounted for a coverage of water for a sphere the size of the equator.
» Test Case A. = 0.10 km
- South: Flood Volume ("b"). Calculated as the difference in volume of hemispheres.
1/2 volume of earth - Volume of earth in south (2/3 π (6376.5 - flood depth "a"3))
» Test Case A. (0.5 * 1,086,014,693,963 km3) - (2/3 π 6376.43)
- North: Flood Volume ("B"). Total volume of sea water - calculated southern flood water volume.
» Test Case A. 1,338,000,000 - 25,546,874.813 = 1,312,453,125.187
- North: Flood Depth ("A"). 6376.5 - [cuberoot ( (1/2 volume of earth - north flood volume) /pi * 3/2)]
» Test Case A. 6376.5 - 6371.359 = 5.141 km
- North: Flood Depth With Mountain Height "x" ("C(x)").
Once the height of the water has been established, we create taller mountains by digging troughs. The water height remains the same because the dirt removed will be relocated to other places under the water.
These troughs are the major valleys and flat fields near the mountains which were goughed out by the flood debris.
We showed under what conditions higher mountains than the minimum height established (2600-3000 m) can be covered across the entire surface of the earth.
However, under special circumstances, a depth of 0.10 km in the south leaves enough water to cover most peaks in the north (5140 m).
The higher peaks are obtained by digging larger basins through the force of the receding flood waters emptying out into the oceans through the vast plains.
Just in case you believe these basin depths are unreasonable look at the Great Rift Valley (1.4 km) and the Grand Canyon.
The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and over a mile deep (6,000 feet / 1.80 km) (Wiki).
It even shows evidence of layers of soil above what is now miles of open space being washed away.
All mountain peaks except the Himalayas would be covered (6.94 km) with basins of this depth.
|Mountain Ranges||Test Case A|
|Continent||Country||Mountain||Major Valley ||Type ||Height [m]|
|North America||Alaska||McKinley (Denali)|| Brooks Range ||Volcanic || 6,194 || |
|Canada||Mount Logan (Yukon)||Canadian Shield ||Fault-Block ||5956 || |
|USA||Mt. Whitney (Sierra Nevada)|| The Great Plains |
|Fault-Block ||4421 || |
|USA||Elbert (Rocky Mountains) ||Fold ||4401 |
|USA||Mount Rainer (Cascades) ||Volcanic ||4394 |
|USA||Navajo Mtn, Utah ||Dome ||3166 |
|USA ||Black hills, SD (Harney Peak) ||Dome ||2208 |
|USA||Mt. Mitchell (Appalachian) ||Fold ||2037|
|USA||Adirondack, NY (Mt. Marcy) ||Dome ||1629 |
|USA||Catskills, NY (Slide Mt.) ||Plateau ||1274 |
|Mexico||Pico de Orizaba || Yucatan||Volcanic ||5636 || |
|Europe, Western||France|| Mont Blanc (Alps) || European Plains|
|Fold || 4,870 || |
|Norway||Kjolen ||Fold ||2469 || |
|Germany ||Harz ||Fault-Block ||1142 || |
|Russia|| Elbrus (Caucasus) Georgia ||Volcanic || 5,633 || |
|Russia ||Narodnya (Ural) ||Fold ||1895 || |
|Asia ||Tibet/Nepal ||Everest (Himalayan) || Siberian Plain||Fold || 8,850 || |
|Japan||Mount Fuji ||Pacific Ocean||Volcanic ||3776 || |
|Middle East||Turkey||Ararat|| Arabian Peninsula ||Volcanic ||5137 || |
|Iran||Zagros ||Fold ||4548 || |
|Africa|| Tanzania|| Kilimanjaro ||Congo Basin |
Great Rift Valley
|Volcanic || 5,895 || |
|Oceania||Hawaii||Mauna Loa || Pacific Ocean||Volcanic ||4,170 |
|Hawaii||Mauna Kea ||Volcanic ||4205|
|Borneo||Mount Kinabalu ||Volcanic ||4095|
|New Guinea||Jaya Peak ||Volcanic || 5,030|
|New Zealand||Mount Cook ||Plateau ||3754|
|Australia||Australia ||Kosciusko ||Lake Eyre Basin||Fold || 2,230 |
|South America||Argentina|| Aconcagua (Andes) || Amazon Basin|
|Fold ||6,960 |
|Ecuador ||Cotopaxi ||Volcanic ||5897|
|Antarctica ||All||Vinson Massif ||West Antarctic Ice Shelf||Volcanic || 5,139 |
Northern Mountains: Covered
In Basins (8.9 km)
South Mountains (0.10 km)
Evidence For The Flood
Evidence of the flood can be seen in the structure of the soil near these mountains.
When viewed from this perspective, the earth can be seen as one giant flood basin with the bottleneck regions where the debris flowed the longest showing more scarring.
These petroleum rich basins can be found near every major mountain.
The force of the rushing water might have been precipitated by the dams bursting into the sea
and the collapse of the land in the south formed the great seas and drained the water from the north, goughing a path between the continents through the mid Atlantic ridge and the pacific.
- Fossilization. It only occurs with rapid burial causing lack of oxygen. It creates organic molds or fossilized material.
- Bent And Wrinkled Rock. Layers of wrinkled rocks show that the layers were soft before they were pushed by forces into the shape and pattern they have in the solid form.
- No Erosion. There is no erosion or blending between rock layers that are supposed to be millions of years apart.
- Polystrata Fossils. Organic material like trees and bones should disintegrate when exposed to the air and thousands of years of weathering. The pesence of trees penetrating many layers of these rocks proves that the layers existed in a soft form before the tree rotted.
- Coal. Buried forests mostly located in the USA, Europe and Siberia probably covered after the dams of mud burst.
- Oil. Buried forests that may have been outside the major dams which were covered later by turbidity currents after the organic material settled.
- Shale and Tar Sands. These are the initial spill ways of the basins, showing violent mixing of mud and trees.
Dirt (sedimentary rock) constantly mixed with organic material that yields oil and combustible gas.
Oil shale countries are Sweden, Estonia, Canada, China, Turkey, Morocco, Israel, Jordan Syria, Australia , Thailand, Russia,
USA (Ut, CO, WY, TN, KY) and Brazil.
- Breach And Spillways.
Iceland is full of the evidence of the great upheavals and scouring of rocks which shows that it was a point of breach where flood waters poured out of the dam.
The great basins and shields were the spillways that led to breaches into the sea.
Mountains Of Evidence
The volume of the earth + water as high as Mount Everest = 1,090,542,840,622 km3
Volume of water needed to cover Everest = 7,332,839,659 km3 (7.3 x 109km3)
So there is not enough water to cover Everest if we believe that the total water on earth is 1.4 x 109km3
Although I believe most mountains achieved their height after the flood due to uplifting and volcanic activity under the soft earth, nevertheless I created a model based on the existing conditions in the north.
But this model proposed that the post-flood volcanic and tectonic activity created the volcanic mountains in the southern hemisphere.
There are about four different types of mountains on the land. All can be formed by the tectonic or impact activity pushing through the soft earth.
Two of them show signs of being formed very quickly and it is these two that form the highest mountains in both hemispheres.
- Fold Mountains. These were formed after the flood when layers of mud were deposited. Tectonic activity pushed the soft earth up into the folds and layers that are characteristic of these mountains.
|Mountain Sizes |
|Mountain||Peak (m)||Size (LxW)||Base (Km2)|
|Urals|| 1895|| 2500 x 150||375,000 |
|Caucasus|| 5633|| 1100 x 160|| 176000|
|Alps|| 4167||1200 x || 192,000 |
|Pyrenees|| 3404 ||491 x 38? || 18,658|
|Atlas|| 4167||2500 x || - |
|Himalaya|| 8850||2400 x 150-400 || 960,000|
|Andes|| 6960|| 7000 x 500 || 3,500,000|
|Cascades|| 4392|| 1000 x 129 || 129,000|
|Appalacian|| 2037||2400 x || 1,908,865|
|Rocky|| 4401||4830 x 110-480 || 2,318,400|
|Sierras|| 4421|| 640 x 110 || 70,400|
|Total Area|| 9,648,323|
- Volcanic Mountains. These are formed from lava and volcanic products piling up. They tend to be in the southern hemisphere.
» Paricutin Cinder Cone Volcano. Between 20 February 1943 and 1952 a cornfield in Mexico erupted creating a volcanic cone 411 m (1350 feet) high.
The cone was 100 feet (30.5 m) by the first day and 450 feet (137 m) in two weeks, reaching 75% of its height in one year.
When the eruptions finally ceased in 1952 the cone had risen to 1,350 feet (411 m).
Lava flows had reached six miles and buried the villages of Paricutin and Parangaricutiro.
Suppose a hard shell covered the magma beneath. If the shell cracked and water poured in quickly then steam under pressure would be generated forcing open these magma chambers.
Then imagine a softened earth with the pressurized magma underneath having mimimum resistance. If they grew at the rate of 300m per year then the Himalayas could be formed in 30 years.
Over the next 9 years Paricutin grew at the average rate of 45m per year. At this rate the Himalayas would have been built in 200 years.
These rapidly growing volcanic mountains explain why layers of dead creatures from the flood are found on top of mountains (e.g. Himalayas, Everest, Andes, Alps, Rockies (Burgess Shale), Manzano ...).
So a slower growth rate over 1000 years of earth hardening would not be unreasonable.
- Dome Mountains. These are formed by magma and volcanic activity.
- Fault Block Mountains.
They are formed at a weak spot where plates meet.
So other mountains were simply thrust up (uplifted) by the subterranean forces.
Olive Tree Evidence.
After 5 months of drying the dove finally returned an olive branch.
What does this fact tell us?
The root system is capable of regenerating the tree even if the above ground structure is destroyed.
So they can sprout back to life after the flood.
Olive trees tend to grow in warmer climates at lower elevations with long, hot and dry summers and cool winters.
| ||69107 ||-68.66||-55.92|
|29035 ||Mount Everest|
|Dead Tree ||10||-12.22|
|Fatal Temp ||15||-9.44|
|Dead Branch ||17||-8.33|
| ||10000 ||23.3||-4.83|
|8638 ||Water Line|
|Sea Level |
Sustained cold below 15 degrees can be fatal.
Branches die back at 17°F and the tree is killed back to the ground at 10°F.
This limits the location of the olive tree to a height below 12000 feet (3658 m).
Although we have no idea about the configuration of the pre-flood ecology or the hardiness of the plants, if we assume that it is relatively the same as it is today then the tree grew at the most at around 10,560 feet (2 mi or 3218 m).
This is circumstantial evidence that the tallest mountains may have been about 2 miles which is close to the depth to which the total estimated amount of water can cover the earth with rogue waves.
So we maintain that the mountains were not as high before the flood.
The waters we have could still cover very high mountains in support of this story.
Notice that the total volume of the major mountains is only about 7% of the total land area while the estimate is that 24% of the surface is covered with mountains.
The remaining amount must be the smaller mountains and elevations.
The size of the major mountains indicate the volume displaced in our theoretical basin.
Reasons For The Flood
Through the visions of a prophet, Seventh Day Adventists believe that the people before the flood had technology that was far superior to ours.
The reason for the flood was because they had become too wicked and powerful through their knowledge.
So God destroyed them and wiped out all traces of their technology.
One heinous crime was their biological experiments.
They were beginning to amalgamate man and animals.
Large buildings like the pyramid testify to ancient building technology and other buildings show advanced astrological knowledge.
Independent verification of other ancient technology comes through Hindu writings.
Sanskrit text, such as the Mahabharata, show evidence of great technological knowledge among the ancients.
Much of this can be dismissed as the fertile imagination of an early futuristic novelist.
But the description of the results of a nuclear blast are too realistic to dismiss.
Ancient Military Technology.
» Flying Machines.
The Puspaka car that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravan; that aerial and excellent car going everywhere at will.... that car resembling a bright cloud in the sky.
".. and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent car at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere."
» War Planes.
"Gurkha flying in his swift and powerful Vimana hurled against the three cities of the Vrishis and Andhakas a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe.
» Ancient Nuclear Weapons.
" ... (the weapon was) a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as the thousand suns rose in all its splendor. An iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. The corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable.
» Radioactive Contamination.
The hair and nails fell out, pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white ... after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected .... to escape from this fire, the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment ..."
Evidence of what might be a nuclear blast are in skeletons excavated in the ancient Rishi City of Mohenjodaro.
They were as radioactive as those in Hiroshima.
In another city, clay pots melted under intense heat and were changed to glass.
» Modern Science in the Bible.
Since writing this article, God has shown me a model of the Periodic Table and a model for particle physics in the Old Testament.
He obviously obscured this knowledge with Moses because He would use it in the end of time to shut the mouths of scoffers, but suppose the people before the flood knew all this science?
I am convinced that Satan did not know about the science models in the scriptures, but perhaps the ancients knew enough science to build all this technology like we do without believing that God had it encoded in scripture.
"Come now, and let us reason together," Says the LORD, "Though your sins are as scarlet, they will be as white as snow; though they are red like crimson, they will be like wool.
(Isaiah 1: 18)
Man's Wisdom Is Foolishness.
Therefore, behold, I will once again deal marvelously with this people, wondrously marvelous.
And the wisdom of their wise men will perish. And the discernment of their discerning men will be concealed.
(Isaiah 29: 14)
|Time: 5 Hours
Print: 42 pages
This File First Created : 21 December 2008. Split by Science Topics: June 2015
No permission is given to use this material at this time. Quoting of this material is strictly by the author's permission (Jeremiah 23: 30).
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editors: Patterson (February 2009-2011 and 2015). Peer Review: None
Global Biodiversity. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_biodiversity
How much water is there on, in, and above the Earth? URL: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch.html
Largest Animals. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Largest_organisms
Food and Sizes. URL: http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/
The pitch for Noah’s Ark. Dr. Tas B. Walker. URL: http://creation.com/the-pitch-for-noahs-ark
Ancient Preservation Methods. URL: http://wctu-sd.org/literature/books.asp?Id=53
Sisal Rope Strength. URL: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/wire-rope-strength-d_1518.html
Asexual Reproduction. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asexual_reproduction
Australian Dung Beetle Project. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Dung_Beetle_Project
Facts about dung beetles. http://www.thaibugs.com/?page_id=139
Noah's Ark The Real Story. BBC Documentary (2003). URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NZu3GXoKXU4
Longet Wooden Ships. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_longest_wooden_ships (listed in 2015)