The Wonderful Creation
And The Awesome Creator
"Explore Science. Meet your Creator"
|Adult | Contact | Become a Christian | Lessons | 700+ New Messianic Prophecies | Modern Science In The Bible|
|Creation Days||1. Light||2. Water-Air||3. Land, Trees||4. Sun, Moon||5. Fish, Birds||6. Animals, Man||7. Sabbath|
|Bible Science||Creation - Evolution||Geography Project||History||Maps||Games||Puzzles||School|
|Solar System||Atmosphere||The Weather|
|Mishkan Science||Camouflage||The Human Body|
|Nutrition||Water||Drugs and Alcohol|
Science and Technology
Science has a way of finding what might be truth in the physical universe. This is called the scientific method. With every discovery made by one scientist, other scientists must be able to do the following:
The fact is, evolution is based upon an interpretation of some observations. However, the quality of specimens observed are few and in poor condition and the evidence on which they base their conclusions are subject to many other interpretations.
For example, the difference in skeleton size of related animals is taken as proof of evolution. However, the same evidence could be used to show that they are just relatives (like different types of cats) or that they are built according to the same design.
Evolution requires millions of years for the theories to work.
Because they can make correct guesses about the unknown, such as the existence of objects in space, it is not proof that the theory of evolution works - it is proof that the physical laws of the universe are stable. Creationism does not discount physical laws, in fact YHWH is a God of law and order. Creation only disputes some of the meanings, theories and conclusions scientists place on what they observe especially when they try to extrapolate back to the past to say when and how the object was formed and how it behaved.
For example, if you go to a new planet one can expect to find a force called gravity because the planet has mass. Confirming the existence of gravity does not prove how or when the planet was formed, it proves that the theory of gravity is reliable.
How God created the world. Creationists and evolutionists believe different things about how the universe started. Evolutionists rely on the scientific method. Creationists claim that the scientific method is not good enough. It cannot measure the past accurately and it cannot measure some things that we cannot see. And God is so great, we cannot even think of a way to measure Him.
As we look at the wonderful things God created, I will try to point out facts that point to a creator.
|This symbol will appear whenever we want to suggest an argument in favor of creation.|
The Plan of Salvation
Before the world was created, God also designed a Plan of Salvation to recreate us and bring peace between earth and heaven when man sinned. This plan was encoded in the design of the creation and follows rules and laws just like any fundamental principles of science.
Light: The Foundations Of The Universe
|In the beginning there was nothing in our region of the universe but darkness. Then God spoke and the power of His voice produced electromagnetic waves that were the basis of all created things. When He spoke there was light.|
|Light||Where did the light come from if the sun was not created yet?
In the process called nucleosynthesis, hydrogen can be burned to produce all the elements up to nickel. In this process light is produced. So on the first day Hydrogen, Helium and light were produced. Nucleosynthesis takes only 3 minutes, so there was more than enough time.
|Our theory is that each day of creation corresponds to each period of the Periodic Table.|
Physics: Explore a Tiny Universe
|Physics||The study of the atoms and the basic laws of the universe that govern the relationship between different particles or bodies with mass.|
Sunlight is composed of a continuous stream of electromagnetic radiation. Those between 320-2000 nanometers reach the earth, while the short wavelengths below 320 are absorbed by ozone and the longer wavelengths above 2000 are absorbed by carbon dioxide, water vapor and ozone..
|Absorbed by CO2, H2O, Ozone||Light Reaches Earth (2000-320 nanometers)||Absorbed by Ozone|
|Nonionizing Radiation||Ionizing Radiation|
|Long wavelength||Red||Orange||Yellow||Green||Blue||Indigo||Violet||Short wavelength|
|100km - 1mm||30cm-1mm||1mm-750||680||660||580||570||460||430||410||400 - 10||10 - .003||<0.003|
|Radio waves||Microwave||Infrared||Visible Light (700-400 nanometers)||Ultraviolet||X-Ray||Gamma|
|Ears (sound)||Skin (heat)||Eyes (light, colors)||Invisible|
|Radio phone TV||Oven||Camera||Television, camera||Medical, military equipment|
|None||COBE||Spitzer||Hubble Space Telescope (HST)||GALEX||Chandra||CGRO|
Speed of Light. 186,287 miles / second (299,792 km)
Speed of Sound in Air. 761 miles per hour (330 meters per second).
Mach Number: Measures the shock wave generated by an object in relation to the speed of sound Mach 1 is the speed of sound.
Subsonic: < Mach 1
Transonic: 1 (Speed of sound)
Supersonic: > Mach 1
Hypersonic: > Mach 5
The distance that light travels in one year (5,878,625,373,183.61 miles) 9,460,730,472,580.8 Km.
It takes 499 seconds for light to travel from the Sun to the Earth.
1 MHz (megahertz) = 300 meters. 1GHz (gigahertz) = 30 centimeters.
|Physicist. Studies physics||Artist. Paints, sculpts, draws objects of beauty|
|Snooperscope. Instrument for viewing infrared radiation||Sonograph. Records and analyses sound|
|United States Radio Spectrum Allocations|
|Consumer Home Wireless||Infrared Remote||38 kHz|
|Garage door opener||40|
|Radio Controlled Toys||Walkie talkie||49|
|Cars, airplanes, boats||27 and 49|
|Advanced Models||72 and 75|
|Radio||AM Radio||535KHz - 1.7MHz|
|Short Wave Radio||5.9-26.1|
|Deep space radio||2290-2300|
|Old Analog TV |
|VHF Analog TV (2-6)||54-88|
|VHF Analog TV (7-13)||174-220|
|UHF Analog TV (14-69)||470-806|
|New Digital Services||Digital TV (2-13)||54-470|
|Digital TV (14-51)||470-608. 614-698|
|Mobile Phones (52-59)||698-746|
|Emergency Services (60-69)||746-806|
|Wireless Phone||Cell/Mobile Phone||824-849|
|900MHz Cordless Phone||900|
|Old Cordless Phone||40-50|
|Wireless Data Networks||WiFi (IEEE 802.11)||2.4 and 5 GHz|
|Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15)||2.402-2.48 GHz|
|WiMax (IEEE 802.16)||2-11 and 10-66 GHz|
|Wireless Business||Business Walkie Talkies||151-158; 462-469|
|Wildlife tracking collars||215-220|
|Air traffic control radar||960 - 1215|
|Satellite Bands||L||Inmarsat, meterology, sea and air traffic, OmniSTAR||1530-1650 MHz|
|Global Satellite Navigation Systems||GPS (NAVSTAR)||1227, 1575, 1176|
|GLONASS||1602-1615 and 1246-1256|
|Galileo||1176, 1207, 1278, 1575|
|S||XM, Sirius||2.3 GHz|
|Arabsat, Insat, Indostar||2535 - 2655 MHz|
|C||Communications||3700 - 4200 MHz|
|C||Military downlink||4500-4800 MHz|
|C||C band uplink||5900-7000 MHz|
|Ku-1||Direct to Home||FSS, Intelsat||10.7 - 11.75 GHz|
|Ku-2||DBS, Hotbird||11.75 - 12.5 GHz|
|Ku-3||Telecom||12.5 - 12.75 GHz|
|Ku||Telecom Uplinks||12.75 - 13.25 GHz |
|Ka||ACTS, Superbird, N-Star, Italsat, DFS Kopernikus||18.3 - 21.2 GHz|
|K||Future telecom||27.5 - 31 GHz|
|X||Military, NATO||7200-7750 GHz|
|X||Military Uplinks||7900-8400 GHz|
|UHF (300-3000 MHz) has the best coverage indoors and out especially 470-854 MHz. They travel farther and penetrate better in steel, concrete, large industrial or multi-story buildings. They are ideal for cellular phones|
FCC (Federal Communications Commission) manages and distributes the frequencies for commercial use in the USA.
IEEE manages global standards
Electromagnetic waves are the basis of all matter.
Depending on the wave length, it can either be seen, felt, heard or is totally invisible to the
Long waves (like radio waves) have low energy and are very harmless.
God created ears so that we could recognize them.
Human beings have also created other equipment that can decode these waves.
The shortest, higher energy waves are gamma rays. They are harmful and the ozone layer helps to keep them from striking the earth.
Humans have used the electromagnetic spectrum to invent all sorts of wireless communications applications. We send and receive information with signals using frequencies that cannot be interpreted by the eyes and ears. But the receivers can interpret these signals and convert them to frequencies that the human eye and ear can interpret.
Radio Waves. Radio waves are not as harmful to humans as other parts of the spectrum, but they have certain properties that make them ideal for transmitting information.
|Harnessing the Power of Creation|
|4||Sun, moon, stars||Light, navigation. Space exploration, energy|
|5||Fish, birds||Carrier pigeons|
|6||Animals||Transportation (horse, donkey, camel), military|
|Man has learned to harness the power of creation in reverse order.|
Consumer Appliances. Engineers have divided up the frequencies of the radio wave and microwave spectrum into different channels for sending and receiving signals in consumer applications. They operate like one way private roads. A broadcaster can send signals to a receiver along this private electromagnetic highway on one channel (lane) and receive signals along another channel. The receiver translates the signals to pictures, sound, text or instructions. e.g. radio, television, phone, garage door opener.
Law and Order.
We explored the application of the radio spectrum to demonstrate the creative power of law and order and organization.
Marconi harnessed the potential of these waves when he realized that he could use them to transmit language.
But if standards were not set about the use of these frequencies there would be interference and chaos and we could not have proceeded as far as we have done in making consumer applications that improve our daily lives.
It took a leap in thinking to realize that one can harness the power of electromagnetic waves and it took rules to make them work better by setting boundaries. And it took a naming and identification system to further increase the capabilities.
e.g. Boundaries allow us to broadcast on walkie-talkies without interference, but personal identification allows us to make private phone calls.
In the same way God set strict standards of behavior between human beings, without these there would be chaos and mistrust. The laws of God do not take away our freedoms. The laws of God create an environment where we can make great leaps forward to increase freedoms which make our lives much more happy and convenient. With these we can advance to a greater potential that is beyond our imagination. So if we embrace the basics of honesty, generosity, respect, contentment and faithfulness we can discover powers from God that we never thought were possible. God also gave names to each of His creation, setting up the possibility of personal communication.
So love can change things. Hope can see a future. Faith can also move mountains by talking to the personal God named YHWH.
Mishkan Bible Science: Quantum Physics And The Composition Of Matter.
The Bible models the relationships between the particles of matter better than all the current scientific theories. For years scientists believed that the electrons, protons and neutrons in the atom were the smallest objects in the universe. Now the Standard Model of Physics says that everything (all matter and radiation) in the universe is made up of 12 basic particles and 4 basic forces. However, they have not discovered the source of gravity or mass as of 2011.
|Mishkan Unified Model of Everything||Standard Model of Particle Physics|
The Mishkan Sanctuary Structure.
» Orientation. Walls on north, south and west. Doors on east.
» Most Holy Place. Three walls with 6 boards. The west wall has 2 boards supporting the corner.
» Holy Place. 2 Walls with 14 boards.
» Roof. 4 layers of different materials.
Layer 1. 10 panels of blue linen (5+5)
Layer 2. 11 panels of Goat's hair (5+6)
Layer 3. Ram skin dyed red
Layer 4. Porpoise skin
» Bars and Rings. They hold the boards together.
» Doors. Columns and curtains On the east side.
Door 1 (Holy Place). 5 columns.
Door 2 (Most Holy Place). 4 columns.
|Creation. Did you know that over 3500 years ago Moses described a mathematical model of the objects and their relationships in the periodic table and the elements of particle physics in the Torah?|
» Fermions. There are two fundamental particles. The Most Holy Place is the nucleus and the Holy Place is the orbiting electrons.
» Bosons. There are four fundamental forces which hold the fundamental particles together. In the Mishkan, the forces look like the objects in the structure.
» The Mishkan Periodic Table. The Mishkan also models the Periodic table blocks and their size and properties.
One of the smallest items in the universe is an atom. Over 100 atoms have been discovered
and the smallest of these is hydrogen.
An atom is made up of a nucleus in the center, inside the nucleus are protons and neutrons. Circling the nucleus in orbit is the electron. The electron has a negative charge, the proton is positive and the neutron has no charge.
Light. Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic waves. These are made by photons. Photons are released when electrons move from one orbit to another.
Color. White light from the sun is made up of many colors. Seeing these colors depends on what the object does to the light that reaches it. The color of the object we see is the color of the light it reflects because the eye recognizes the primary colors of light. We see color by two methods:
Primary Colors. In all color schemes it takes three primary colors to make all colors. But primary colors cannot be formed by mixing other colors. How color is made depends on the color system or whether we are using pigments or light.
The additive and subtractive color systems are related. Two primary colors from one system creates a primary color in the other system. This is the combination of both.
|Imagine||Our visible light is a fairly narrow frequency band. Suppose God and the angels have the ability to operate at other frequencies so that we can not see them. God said that He has to separate Himself from us physically because close contact would destroy us. Do you suppose God normally operates above the gamma ray frequencies? Suppose He can change frequencies at will so that He can be visible and invisible as He chooses?|
|What do you think?||Since God created the sun, moon and stars on the fourth day, the light that He made on the first day may have been caused by photons.
But since God is a source of light, his presence may have caused the light. However, the universe is bathed in at least two other kinds of energy and it has a microwave background radiation. Are these or the microwave radiation the source of light on the first day? If so, then we have lost the ability to detect this energy with our eyes. Sin made us partially blind.
Forces of Attraction
Did you know that God used the science of color combination to illustrate the Plan of Salvation?
He will take us from darkness to light through the Word. The Word He spoke to implement the plan was Jesus Christ. He was also the One Who created the world and He will recreate it again.
Different types of forces are used to hold different systems together:
Electricity is produced when the atoms produce a flow of electrons in one direction.
A magnetic force is created in another direction when an electrical force is turned on.
Chemistry: Atoms and Molecules
One of the most important things in chemistry is the periodic table of elements. It helps us to know how the elements will react.
Periodic Law: When elements (atoms) are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight their properties are repeated periodically.
The periodic table is divided into 7 rows called "periods" and 18 columns called "groups or families".
|Chemistry||The process of combining atoms to form new solids, liquids and gases.|
|-||+1||+2||+3||(2-4)||(2-5)||(2-6)||(2-7)||+2 or +3||(1-2)||2||+3||±4||-3||-2||-1||0|
|-||S (7x2)||F||D Block (Transition Elements) (4x10)||P Block (6x6)|
|The Periodic Table of Elements||⚽ 2
| ⚽ 5
| ⚽ 6
| ⚽ 7
| ⚽ 10
| ⚽ 32
| ⚽ 33
| ⚽ 34
| ⚽ 35
| ⚽ 36
| ♼ 58
| ♼ 60
| ♼ 62
| ♼ 63
| ♻ 64
| ♼ 65
| ♼ 66
| ♼ 67
| ♼ 68
| ♼ 69
|Color Key||Box||Metals||Magnetic||☢Radioactive||Soft Metals||Metalloid||Non-Metals|
|Text||Solid Metals (Precious Metals)||Liquid||Gas||Life|
|♼ Paramagnetic (Unpaired Electrons)||⚽ Diamagnetic (Paired d-Electrons)|
|♻ Ferromagnetic||♺ AntiFerromagnetic||♽ Pemanent Magnet: NdFeB - SmCo - AlNiCo - Ceramic/Ferrite (FeO, BaCO3, SrCO3)|
Non-Metals: The nonmetals are located on the upper right side of the periodic table
Transition Elements: These are defined as those that have partially filled "d" orbitals either in the element or any of its compounds. These partially filled "d" orbitals are responsible for the color generating property of the transition elements.
Rare Earth Elements (Metals). They are special transition metals that are magnetic or radioactive.
Life Elements. These are necessary for living systems and have important cycles to replenish them.
The Sanctuary Chemistry. A pattern of the structure of the periodic table is in the sanctuary that Moses built.
Electrons. The number of electrons that orbit the nucleus are equal to the atomic number.
Group (New IUPAC Number). Number of electrons in the outer shells.
Block. They have the same orbiting shell and the same set of groups.
Shell. The electrons orbit singly or in pairs in different levels called shells. They are named by a series of four letters, "S", "P", "D", and "F". By looking at the periodic table you can tell which type of orbit is probably in the outermost valence shell. Metals are in the "S" block, transition metals are in the "D" block, non-metals are in the "P" block and the rare earth elements are in the "F" block. These shells are filled according to rules.
Transition Elements. The transition metals are the only elements that fill the "d" orbitals. They have the same arrangement of outer electrons, but the lower "3d" orbitals are different. The ten "3d" orbitals are filled before the lower "s" orbital.
|Gold Standards: 24 carat (karat) gold is 99.99% pure gold. 22 carat gold is 91.6% gold. 12 carat is 50% gold|
|Silver Standards: Fine silver is 99.9% silver. Britannia (95.84% silver and 4.16% copper). Mexican (95% silver and 5% copper). Sterling (92.5% silver and 7.5% copper). Coin silver (90% silver and 10% copper).|
|Other precious metals: Platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium. Radioactive : Plutonium, uranium.||
Metal Alloys: Mixture of metals that increases their hardness and durability.
Brass is a mixture of copper and Zinc. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin.
Iron. There are three basic grades of iron with varying degrees of brittleness and hardness.
Pig Iron. Hard, brittle, raw iron with about 3.5% carbon made by melting iron ore with limestone and coke.
Iron (90% or more), carbon (4-5%), manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon (roughly 3% in total).
Wrought Iron. This is a softer, pure iron with about 0.15% carbon and some impurities.
Cast Iron. Purified pig iron. 95% iron, 2.1-4% carbon and 1-3% silicon.
Steel is a mixture of iron and up to 5.1% carbon. Stainless steel also includes chromium and nickel.
| Chemist. Creates or applies chemicals for treating various systems such as drinking water, manufacturing.
Forensic Chemist. Crime scene investigation by analyzing chemical compounds.
Pharmacist. Dispenses drugs for health care.
Pyrotechnics. The science and art of making fireworks.
|The Periodic Table of Elements Electron Configuration|
|-||S (7x2)||F||D Block (Transition Elements) (4x10)||P Block (6x6)|
4s1 3d9 ?
Elements have magnetic properties based on the pairing of electrons in the outer shell. Unpaired electrons can spin in any direction and are attracted to an external magnetic field.
Temperature is generated by the movement of atoms. Absolute Zero (0ºK) (-459.67ºF and -273.15ºC) is the temperature when no molecular activity occurs and the volume of the "perfect gas" vanishes.
|Experiment||Bake a cake. The air bubbles that are released when the baking powder reacts with the flour causes the cake to rise. Cooking is chemistry.|
Two or more atoms form a molecule. Knowing how these will react is the study of Chemistry.
|Stereochemistry. Did you know that complex molecules can have a mirror image twin. They look the same and react differently. The body is able to recognize them because they are oriented in the wrong direction. It is like trying to put a left handed glove on the right hand. The body uses the left handed versions while laboratory chemical reaction always produces the right handed version. When we die, these chemicals change to the right hand versions.|
|So how did random chemical reactions in nature consistently produce thousands of impossible compounds needed for life?|
Color can be caused by many different interactions of light or heat with different elements. Metal ions, oxides, sulfides, halides and chlorides of metals and organic compounds are used as coloring agents. Metal oxides are generally used in glass and metal chlorides in fireworks.
The transition metals tend to be coloring elements because the electrons in their outer "d" orbit absorb light to move from one orbit to another.
|Color||Crystals||Glass||Fireworks||Artificial Organic||Natural Organic|
|Red||Cr3+, Mn3+, Mn2+||Cd||Au, Cu, Se||Sr, Li|| C20H6I4Na2O5H20 |
Erythrosine (Red 3)
| Lycopene (C40H56) |
|Pink||Mn2+, Ti4+||Mn, Li||Se, Co + borosilicates||-|
Allura Red (Red 40)
| C2952H4664N812O832S8Fe4 |
|Reddish Brown||Fe2+, Co2+||-||-||-|
|Brown||Fe2+, Ce3+ Pr3+ Nd3+||V, Fe||Carbon oxides, |
Iron oxides, S
|-|| C17H18N4Na2O9S2 |
| Tannin (C76H52O46) |
|Orange||Fe3+, Ce3+ Pr3+ Nd3+||Cd||Se||Ca||C16H10N2O7S2Na2 |
Acid orange (Orange G)
| Carotene (C40H56) |
Crocine (C44H64O24) saffron
|Amber||Fe3+||-||Carbon oxides, Fe, S||-||C16H9N4 Na3O9S2 |
Tartrazine (Yellow 5)
|Gold||-||-||-||Fe, C|| C18H9N Na2O8S2 |
Quinoline (Yellow 13)
|Yellow||Fe3+,Fe2+,Ni2+, UO22+||N,V,Cd,As||Se, Pb + Sb||Na|
|Yellow Green||Mn2+||Zn, Ni, Cd||Uranium||-||C37H34N2O10S3Na2 |
Fast Green FCF
| C55H72O5N4Mg |
|Green||Cr3+, Mn3+, V3+, Ni2+, |
|Cd, Li, Be||Cu, Iron oxide, |
Co + iodides
|Forest Green||-||Cr, Fe||-|| C27H25N2NaO7S2 |
Food Green S (Green 4)
|Blue||Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, VO2+, Ti3+||Cu||-||C37H34N2Na2O9S3 |
Brilliant Blue (Blue 1)
|Blue||U4+, Co2+||Cu, Ti, Be||Copper oxide||Cu|
|Dark Blue||-||S||Cobalt oxide||-||C16H10N2O2 |
| Anthocyanins |
|Purple||Fe3+||Fe||Mn oxide||K, Sr+Cu||-|| Anthocyanins |
|Silver||-||-||-||Al, Mg, Ti||-|
|Black||-||Iron oxide||Mn + Co + Fe||-||C28H17N5Na4O14S4||Hemerythrin|
|White||-||Titanium||Sb, Sn||Mg, Al, Ba||TiO2|
Isomers (Twins). Carotene and lycopene have the same chemical formula, but a different structure.
Stereoisomers (Chemical Identical Twins). Same formula and structure but mirror images
| Plant Source.
In the womb, all babies of all races have grey eyes. Eye color develops after birth when the melanin is exposed to light.
Hair And Skin Color.
Human skin color is due to melanin, but hair color is due to Eumelanin for black and brown colors and Phaeomelanin for red and yellow colors.
The low concentration or absence of either pigment causes gray or white hair.
Birds. Feather color is due to the structure of the feathers and the pigments. The feather scatters reflected light and affects the color because the distance between the melanin and air cavities is smaller than the wavelength of light. Blue and green color in animals is created this way. There are four types of pigments:
Fish. Color is achieved by the pigment cells and how many layers of skin in which they occur. These four chromatophores are melanin (black), xanthin (yellow), lipochrome (orange), and erythrin (red).
|Imagine||Will our skin, hair and eye color change with our emotions or at our will?|
Air And Water
On the second day God separated the land and the sky from the water, creating the sky and the sea. At this point the planet must have looked like a gaseous planet.
The theory of evolution cannot explain the source of water. Their theory is that the earth was bombarded for 400 million years with comets containing 5% water.
|Air and Water||On this day the elements of period 1 and 2 are available to produce water (H2O) and all the gases that produce air.
H2, He, O2, O3, CO, CO2, N2, CH4
Only fresh water could have been produced because there was no sodium.
With the presence of light, air and water, a rainbow could have been formed.
1500 miles (2400)
|1000 miles (1600)|
|800 miles (1286)|
|Ionosphere||400 miles (643 Km)|
|380 miles (610 Km) Hubble Telescope|
|200 miles (320 Km) Space station|
| Aurora Borealis |
150 miles (241 Km)
|Thermosphere||60 miles (97 Km)|
|Mesosphere||50 miles (80 Km)|
|Stratosphere||31 miles (50 Km)|
|Ozone (15-20 km)|
|Troposphere||11 miles (18 km)|
| Lithosphere |
|Surface to 200 m||Euphotic sea|
|200 m to 1500 m||Bathyal zone|
|1500 m to floor||Abyssal zone|
Astronaut. Travels to outer space. |
Pilot. Operates an airplane.
|Altimeter. Measures altitude (height).|
The air is made up of several layers.
Our weather is affected by the large amount of water exposed to the heat from the sun. Warm air rises and cold air falls, causing a cycle of flowing air. The combination of air mass, pressure, the flow of air, moisture from the oceans and lakes and ocean temperature creates our global weather patterns.
|Region||Water||Air Flow||Air Mass|
|25º||Trade Winds NE|
|5º-30º||Intertropical Convergence Zone |
|25º||Humboldt||Trade Winds SE|
|25º-35º|| Ocean |
|Barometer. Measures air pressure|
|Meteorologist. Predicts the weather|
Air Flow. Winds are named by the direction from which they flow.
Ocean temperature affects the weather by bringing moisture and changing the temperature of the air.
|High||Cirrus||White filaments|| Ice crystals. |
or 2,000-7,000 meters)
|Medium||Altocumulus||White, layered ripples|| Ice crystals and water droplets. |
or 5,500-14,000 meters)
|Altostratus||Thin, grey layer|
|Nimbostratus||Thick, low, dark with rain or snow|
|Low||Stratocumulus||White, layered rolls|| Water droplets. |
or 2,000 meters)
|Stratus||Grey, layered sheets|
|Cumulonimbus||Cauliflower shaped towers and anvil tops. Thunder storm, ice crystals, snow, rain|
|Pyrocumulus||Produced by fires, volcano and industries when they cause the air to heat up with a lot of moisture and no wind|
|March 25, 2000. The USA "IMAGE" satellite is the first weather satellite for space storms. It studies the effects of solar wind on the earth's magnetic sphere.|
Clouds bring much of the weather we experience.
There are different formations of clouds.
A cloud is a collection of water droplets or ice crystals.
They are formed when water evaporates from the surface of the earth.
As this moist air rises it expands and cools because of the lower pressure of the upper atmosphere.
Cooler air holds less water.
Clouds are named based on their appearance, contents and the altitude (height) at which they form. They have at least one of the following characteristics in their appearance.
Clouds are named by combining the descriptions of several of these features.
This is the name we created for the cloud that surrounds God.
It is a huge fire producing system of clouds that covers the earth and rains fire.
God always describes Himself as being surrounded with fire, clouds, rainbow, a blue floor and elements from the weather. He is His own gigantic weather system. Lightning and thunder come from His throne. This weather system can rain fire and stone.
What would you name it?
A cloud formation that has occurred since the twentieth century because of the burning of fossil fuels in cars and electric plants.
It is a mixture of exhaust gases, dust and moisture in the air that generally forms over big cities situated in valleys.
In these locations, the air is not easily refreshed by winds. The air remains trapped in the valleys because it cannot get over the high mountains.
So, since these clouds of pollution can travel thousands of miles, this same problem causes pollution to be trapped in the mountains, forests and national parks.
The air quality changes because of the amount of modern pollution in the atmosphere from automobiles and factories. This caused scientists to develop a system to measure the air quality. It was necessary because ozone damages the lungs and quickly affects the breathing of people with respiratory illnesses. On hot summer days when there is no rain, the air quality becomes the most dangerous. Five causes of pollution are measured.
|Air Quality Index|
|Green||1 - 50||Good|
|Yellow||51 - 100||Moderate|
|Orange||101 - 150||Unhealthy for sensitive people|
|Red||151 - 200||Unhealthy for all|
|Purple||201 - 300||Very Unhealthy|
|Maroon||301 - 500||Hazardous|
Over 69.4% is produced by industrial combustion. 3.7% is caused by transportation.
Oxides of Nitrogen. Transportation causes 43% of this pollution. Industry causes 32%
|Environmentalist. Protects the environment through public awareness and legal action|
|Human Rights Monitor. Protects exploited people through public awareness and legal action|
|Eudiometer. Measures air purity|
Climate Change: Pollution has contributed to several global effects on our planet.
|Greenhouse Gas||% Gas|
|The Body Earth|
|Ocean Conveyor Belt. Jet stream|| Circulatory |
|Tropical Forests |
As this information becomes more political than scientific, proponents offer up information that is designed to ignore the warming trend and stop efforts to start making personal changes before it is too late.
|Palmer Drought Index|
|Color Code||Rain fall||Category|
|Maroon||-4.0 or less||Extreme drought|
|Red||-3.0 -3.9||Severe drought|
|Orange||-2.0 -2.9||Moderate drought|
|White||-1.9 - 1.9||Near normal|
|Light Green||2.0 - 2.9||Moist|
|Green||3.0 - 3.9||Very Moist|
|Dark Green||4.0 +||Extremely Moist|
|Precipitation falls from clouds to the ground in several forms.
Ten inches (25 cm) of snow can contain 0.10 to four inches of water (.25-10 cm).
With strong winds, ten inches of snow contains about one inch of water.
|Hyetometer, Udometer. Measures rainfall|
There are three categories of cyclones based on the wind speed.
Funnel Cloud. A funnel cloud is a vortex of condensed water vapor and air spinning at high velocity.
Tornado or Twister. A huge, swirling vortex of rapidly rotating air that contacts the ground.
It is caused by a rotating storm system rather than by local wind rotation.
It is called a funnel if it does not contact the ground.
When it forms on the water it is called a water spout.
They are formed during a thunderstorm.
The storm is rated on the Fujita Scale. While hurricanes may be hundreds of miles wide, a tornado may only be 150 feet wide and move across the surface at about 0-60 mph for about five minutes causing damage to a path up to 100 miles (160 km).
|Saffir-Simpson Scale of Hurricane Strength||
F12 is the speed of sound.
|Estimates Property Damage and Flooding by Category|
|5||> 155||> 249||18 ft||Most roofs, curtain walls, all trees|
|4||131-155||210-249||13-18||Curtain walls, small home roofs|
|3||111-130||178-209||9-12||Mobile homes destroyed|
|2||96-110||154-177||6-8|| Doors, windows, roof material, |
|1||74-95||119-153||4-5||Trees, unanchored mobile home|
|-||35-73||56-118||0-3||Tropical Storm. Flooding, trees|
|-||< 35||< 56||< 3||Tropical Depression. Flooding|
|Jupiter. The great red spot on Jupiter is caused by a permanent hurricane. It is 340 years old and 2 to 3 times wider than earth.|
|Saturn. A storm 5000 miles (8000 km) wide, swirling at 350 mph (560 kph) with clouds between 20-45 miles (30-75 km) high was discovered at the south pole in 2006. It has a central eye and eye walls like a hurricane.|
|Mars. Dust storms can cover over two thirds of the planet and last for months.|
|On March 25, 2004 a tropical cyclone, Catarina, formed in the south Atlantic for the first time since satellite observations began. It struck Brazil on March 28. There has been only one other cyclone in the south Atlantic, and it stayed out at sea.|
Carpenter. Builds homes, furniture, wood structures
Mason. Builds structures using stone, bricks, cement
Plumber. Installs pipes and ducts to carry air and water
Electrician. Installs electrical systems and wiring
Architect. Designs houses and buildings
Interior Designer. Decorates with color, furniture
Sanitation Engineer. Garbage management
Civil Engineer. Designs roads and bridges
|Hazardous Weather Alerts|
|Warning||Conditions are occuring or will occur in 24 hours|
|Watch||Conditions are favorable for development in 24-36 hours|
|Advisory||Conditions are occurring, imminent or likely|
|Severe Weather Statement||Important information on the progress of the weather|
|Outlook||Hazardous weather may occur in several days|
|The Six Seasons||
|Tropical Climate||5||Wet |
(rainy, green, monsoon)
Follow the Sun.
When the sun is directly overhead, there are long days, hot summers, high humidity or rainy season.
Solstice. Sun is farthest north (summer solstice) or south (winter solstice) and hot weather occurs.
Equinox. Sun is directly over the equator. Day and night are equal length. This occurs in spring and autumn.
There are six seasons which are created by the action of the sun affecting temperature and rain. This mix of seasons is dependent on the heat cycles in three basic locations, the northern hemisphere, southern hemisphere and the equator.
Weather Instruments Meteorologists use many types of instruments to measure temperature, water vapor, pressure and wind speed and direction.
|Weather Satellites and Observatories|
|The map shows the continents, oceans, air flow that affects weather, tectonic plates and the ring of fire around the Pacific ocean|
Population : Annual growth rate = 1.3%
» 2007 = 6,602,224,175 (July)
» 2002 = 6,233,821,945
» Weight = 5,940 x 1018 metric tons.
» Circumference at the equator (40,066 km)
» Diameter at the equator (12,753 km)
» The earth orbits the Sun at (66,700 mph), (107,320 km per hour)
» The earth orbits the Sun every 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds
Surface Area (510,066,000 km2)
» Land Area (148,647,000 km2) 29.1%
» Water Area (361,419,000 km2) 70.9%
Ocean Water Volume (1.37 x 109 km3)
» Polar Ice Caps (3.3 x 107 km3)
» Glaciers (2 x 105 km3)
» Lakes (1 x 105 km3)
» Rivers (1.2 x 103 km3)
» Precipitation (2.2 x 105 km3)
The earth is divided into seven large bodies of land called continents.
Smaller areas are called islands.
There are five oceans. 70.9% of the surface of the earth is covered with water.
salt water (97%), fresh water (3%)
|Scuba. Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus|
|Geography Project: Build Pangea or the New Jerusalem land forms|
|Cartographer. Map maker|
|Earth Sciences||Geography is the study of the land. Oceanography is the study of the oceans. Geology is the study of rocks and minerals. Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere.|
|Great||9+||1 / decade|
|Major||7 - 7.9||17|
|Strong||6 - 6.9||134|
|Moderate||5 - 5.9||1319|
|Light||4 - 4.9||13,000|
|Minor||3 - 3.9||130,000|
|Very Minor||2 - 2.9||1,300,000|
The Largest Earthquake.
The Earth is recovering from a wobble.
By applying mathematical calculations that are based on causing a wobble in a spinning toy, it has been shown that this wobble occurred about 4000 years ago. Around the same time as the flood.
The wobble was probably caused during the flood by an asteroid striking the earth and breaking the crust. This broke the tectonic plates, tilted the earth and caused huge tsunamis.
|Seismologist. Studies earthquakes|
|Seismometer. Measures earthquake intensity|
Tsunami. A large tidal wave caused by an underwater earthquake exceeding magnitude 7.5, underwater landslide, volcanic eruption, impact from a meteorite, or the impact caused by large rocks falling from a mountain into the sea. Land slides from volcanic islands are the most likely of these.
Liquefaction. It occurs when soil behaves more like a liquid than a solid when it is saturated with water and loses it's strength and stiffness due to an earthquake or rapid increase in water pressure.
The source through which molten rock flows out to the surface of the earth in the form of lava. Volcanoes are a conical hill or mountain built around a vent that connects with reservoirs of molten rock below the surface of the earth. They are built by the accumulation of the particles that erupt from them. These are lava (melted flowing rocks), bombs (crusted over ash flows), and tephra (airborne ash and dust).
Lava exits the volcano through a central vein or through side fissures. Sometimes the lava solidifies in the side veins and form dikes. These support and strengthen the volcano. There are four types of volcanoes.
|Olympus Mons, on Mars, is the tallest volcano in the solar system. It is a shield volcano that rises 24 km (78,000 feet). The base is more than 700 km in diameter.|
|There are about ten active volcanoes every day around the world.|
|Volcanologist. Studies volcanoes|
Geology: The Earth
|Everything was still covered by water. On the third day God separated the water from the earth. He created the land and the trees. This includes grass, flowers, fruits and vegetables.|
|Sea, Earth (Clay) and Trees||
Sodium was available so salt could have contaminated the water.
Magnesium was available to make chlorophyll for trees.
Sodium aluminium silicates make clay (Al, Mg, Fe) SiO2, SO4.
Scientists actually observed this!
Surtsey Island. In November 1963, this island formed from a volcanic eruption and had mature beaches within months, not millions of years.
These under water mud flows show that the layers in the geologic column can form in minutes or days, not millions of years as evolutionists say.
They prove that the layers of the geologic column could have been formed by the flood.
| Geologist. Studies the earth and rocks
Archaeologist. Studies old buried objects
Spelunker. Explores caves
|Geology||The study of the earth and minerals.|
Scientists recognize three types of rocks.
|Granite - Genesis Rock|
|Dr. Robert Gentry studied granite rock and discovered that pleochroic haloes trapped in the rock were formed in less than three minutes. Probably 1.5 minutes. Therefore, he concluded that granite changed from a liquid to a solid form in less than three minutes.|
Granite rock did not cool over millions of years. It cooled in three minutes!
Evolutionists are hoping that they can find another explanation for this. Because, if granite is reheated it forms another type of rock called rhyolite when it is cooled. So all the granite we see is in its original form on the day it was made.
How did the sedimentary rock layers form?
The creationists claim that all we see is a result of the flood.
Evolutionists claim that all these layers were formed over trillions of years.
The discovery of turbidity currents changed this. They are only formed under water when large layers of mud slide across each other like an avalanche, building up layers in hours or days that scientists thought took millions of years.
Gems are rare and so they are expensive. They are also prized because of their beautiful color. Diamond is made from carbon, the same element as coal. But, the diamond forms a crystal structure while coal is a random formation of the element. There are three sources of natural gems (animal, plant and minerals):
Animal Sources. Organic source of pearl, coral and ivory.
|Agate||Blue stripe. |
|Iolite||-||Blue - purple|
|Palm Wood||-||Brown, Spotted|
Minerals. They are made from chemicals (atoms or molecules) which harden to form a crystal. There are several groups of mineral gemstones.
|Gem Family||Formula||Hard||Color||Gem Stones|
|2||Diamond||C||10||White, gray, black, blue||-|
|3||Corundum||Al2O3||9||Blue, red, yellow, brown, gray||
|3||Chrysoberyl||BeAl2O4||8.5||Blue green, brown, brownish green, green, gray||
|3||Topaz||Al2SiO4(F, OH)3||8||Colorless, pale blue, yellow, yellowish brown, red|
|3||Peridot||Mg2SiO4 (Forsterite)||7||Colorless, green, yellow, yellow green||
|4||(Mg, Fe)2SiO4 (Olivine)||6.5-7||Yellowish green, olive green, greenish black, reddish brown|
Mg3 Al2(Si3O12) (Pyrope),
Fe3 Al2(Si3O12) (Almandine),
Mn3 Al2(Si3O12) (Spessartine),
Ca3 Al2(Si3O12) (Grossular),
Ca3 Fe2(Si3O12) (Andradite),
Ca3 Cr2(Si3O12) (Uvarovite)
|4||Feldspar||(K, Na, Ca)(Si, Al)4O8||6-6.5||
|4||Jade||Ca2(Mg,Fe++)5Si8O22(OH)2||6||Green, green black, gray green, black||
|4||Turquoise||CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8•4(H2O)||5-6||Blue, blue green, green, green gray, light blue|
|4||Lapis Lazuli||Na3CaAl3Si3O12S||5.5||Blue, azure blue, violet blue, greenish blue|
|5||Zircon||ZrSiO4||7.5||Brown, reddish brown, colorless, gray, green|
Plant Sources. Organic source of amber, diamond and jet. Petrified wood is fossilized wood that has had its organic matter replaced by agate.
The Gems Of Heaven.
The walls of the city of New Jerusalem and the breastplate of the high priest are made of twelve different gem stones.
Some of these names are unknown, but some people have guessed which gem they might be.
Agate is usually striped blues or earth tones. Chrysoprase is apple green chalcedony. The shade of green is due to nickel.
Carbuncle is a red garnet. Carnelian is a red chalcedony.
The colors may be incorrect because some of these names are no longer used and because some stones have more than one color variety.
If the colors are correct, the walls of the city appear to have a green and blue foundation (or these are new colors that we do not know) then they progress in the order of the rainbow.
|#||New Jerusalem||Son||Breastplate of the High Priest|
The order of the stones is pictured from right to left since this is the order in which the Jews read and write.
Onyx - Two onyx stones called the urim and thummim were kept in the folds of the breastplate. They were used to receive answers from God.
Lapis Lazuli - The Ten Commandments were carved on a blue sapphire stone named Lapis Lazuli. It is one of the softest gemstones, making it perfect for writing.
|Pearl gates||Pink||2 Onyx (rainbow stripes)||Stripes|
What will your house in heaven look like?
Will it float? Will it be under water? Will the roof be one large diamond or clear so that you can see the sky?
Gold will be so common that the streets will be made from it. Precious gems are used to make walls.
Fossil Fuels and Hydrocarbons (Oil and Natural Gas)
Oil is called "black gold" because it is a mined resource that is highly prized. Most of our energy (81%) is produced by the three main sources of fossil fuels. These deposits of fuel are created from old trees and animals. Their existence points to their rapid burial and mass storage in fixed places by the catastrophic flood. But the bible also indicates that the region called Babylon (Iraq) had open tar pits before the flood.
Other sources of fossil fuels are heavy oils, tar sands, oil sands and oil shale, but they are more expensive to produce. The largest deposits are in Canada and in the Orinoco province of Venezuela.
Nuclear Energy. This is renewable, but it is not suitable for vehicles and the problems of radioactive waste and disposal are enormous. The contamination lasts for 24,000 years.
Green Fuel. These are friendly to the environment. They produce no known pollutants and are renewable. While other sources of energy are not practical for operating vehicles, or are seasonal, solar energy is clean, renewable, not labor intensive to produce and should be cheap. Most alternative fuels are designed to run mobile systems and take energy to produce. Only solar energy and electrical battery technology (stored energy) can run green power plants efficiently now.
Thoughts to Consider. How friendly is some of this "green" fuel?
If we rely heavily on geothermal and ocean thermal energy will we cool down or heat up the oceans and affect the thermohaline cycle, weather patterns and the marine ecosystem?
How does growing and burning biomass deplete the soil, pollute the air and drive up the cost of basic foods as farms compete to grow crops that give a higher profit?
Biofuels and Alternative Fuels used for automobiles are mostly made from high cellulose perennial grasses and plant material like switchgrass, miscanthus, HDSR megaflora tree, algae, rice and corn. They will produce pollutants because they are carbon based. Ethanol and vegetable oil are some of the most popular fuels used. They are useful for removing waste, but not as a permanent solution for mobile fuel.
» Megaflora Tree (HDSR). This is also called HDSR because of its high density and short rotation. It is a broad leaf tree that grows very big, very quickly. This tree grows to the full size of 60 feet (1829 cm) in 3 years and regrows from the stump after harvest. There is no need to plant again. It grows in poor soil and harsh climate and helps to reclaim damaged soil. So it is a very excellent source of biomass for fuel which does not compete with food crops.
The United States consumes 25% of the global oil supply. Yet it produces only 2% of the oil and is only 2% of the global population. The world will run out of this source of energy by the middle of the century.
Green Fuels. These are renewable, friendly to the environment and do not produce pollution.
Greenhouse Gases. Gases that trap heat. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and fluorocarbons
Photovoltaic Cell. A photovoltaic cell makes electricity from light, mostly red light dislodging electrons from silicon.
Solar Thermal Mirrors. Curved mirrors concentrate the rays of the sun and heat a tube of liquid which creates steam and moves turbines to produce electricity.
|Energy Source||Type of Energy||System||Conversion Path|
|Sun||Light||Radiant||Solar Panels |
|Light||Radiant||Photosynthesis||Sugar Alcohol Heat|| Turbines Electricity
Turbine. A rotary engine in which the kinetic energy of a continuous stream of moving fluid is converted into mechanical energy by turning the shaft attached to rotating blades. Water, steam, wind and gas can cause this rotation.
|Heat||Thermal||Solar Thermal||Stored heat|
|Heat||Kinetic (Motion)||Wind||Mechanical energy|
|Earth||Chemical||Electromagnetic||Fossil Fuels||Chemical Heat|
|Atom||Chemical||Electromagnetic||Fuel Cell||Mechanical energy|
|Sources of Energy||Systems|
|C1-C4||Natural Gas (22.9%)||Methane (CH4), Ethane, Propane, Butane||Pollution, global warming, limited supply, not renewable||-2-5||5||Y|
|C3-C4||Liquid Natural Gas (LNG). Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)||-2-5||Y||Y|
|Petroleum (38.1%)||Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) (C3H8)||---5||Y||Y|
|Bottled Gas. (Propane, Butane)||-2-5||Y||Y|
|C5-C7||Petroleum Ethers||Very volatile||----||-||-|
|C6-C12||Gasoline (38.1%)||Petroleum (crude oil, heavy oil, tar sands, oil sands, bitumen, oil shale)||---5||Y||Y|
|-||Coal (23.2%)||Coal mining||-2-5||-||Y|
|Garbage dump||Natural Gas (Methane) (CH4)||-2-5||5||Y|
|Industrial waste||Sawdust, nut shells, plant waste||-2-5||5||Y|
|C16-C20||Lubrication oils||Pollution, not renewable||----||N||N|
|C25-C30||Greases, Petroleum jelly, Parrafin wax, solids||----||N||N|
|Biofuels||Dung (poop)||Dried cow dung, manure burned like wood||Supply||-2---||-||-|
|Biogas||Cow Power. Manure makes methane||Supply||-2-5||Y||-|
|Ethanol||Corn, sugar cane, beets (CH3CH2OH)||Food supply, volume, weather||---5||Y||Y|
|Biomass (2.9%) |
|Hay and other high cellulose perennial plant. Algae, switchgrass, miscanthus, megaflora (HDSR), rice||---5||Y||Y|
|Methanol (M85)||Wood alcohol (CH3OH)||---5||Y||Y|
|E85||85% corn ethanol and 15% gasolene||---5||Y||Y|
|Biodiesel||Vegetable and animal oils and fat||Volume||---5||Y||Y|
|Cooking oil||Recycled cooking oil||Volume||---5||Y||-|
|Whale oil||Whale. Used in the 1800's before kerosene||Volume||12---||-||-|
|Solar Photovoltaics (.006%)||Sun. It is the biggest nuclear power plant creating light and heat which can be converted to energy. Heat can be stored||Darkness||123456||5||Y|
|Solar Thermal mirrors||-||123456||5||Y|
|Wind (0.1%)||Using wind with speed greater than 12 mph (19 kph)||Weather||123456||5||Y|
|Hydroelectric (2.7%)||Water height differences||Drought||123456||5||Y|
|Geothermal (0.3%)||Natural steam or heat sources. Hot springs, geysers||Regional||12-456||5||Y|
|Aquafer||Natural cold water sources to cool buildings||Regional||3||-||N|
|(OTEC) Ocean thermal||Ocean thermal energy conversion. Ocean layer temperature differences of 20ºC (36ºF)||Regional||123456||5||Y|
|Hydrogen Fuel cells||Hydrogen + Oxygen = Water + energy||Supply||123456||Y||Y|
|Microbial Fuel cells||Soil bacteria + garbage + dirt = Soil + heat||Supply||1--5||N||N|
|Water (Hydrogen)||Water + solar energy = Hydrogen fuel cell + Oxygen||Supply||12345||Y||Y|
|Sound||God used this energy to create the world||Science research|
|Battery||Secondary source of energy that can be charged by any primary source. This may solve the disadvantage of mobility and availability of energy from green fuels||Volume, size||1234-||Y||-|
|Nuclear||Uranium Atoms (8.1%)||Nuclear reaction||Radioactive waste||123456||5||Y|
Fossil Fuel Independence (Alternative Fuels).
|Old Supplier||Green Energy Supplier||Consumer Energy Demands||Green Homes|
Alternative Fuel Infrastructure.
|Oil||Germ||Ethanol Plant |
|Bran|| Dry Distiller's Grain |
|What if?||Since oil, coal and diamonds are carbon products created under pressure, is it possible that the oil fields have diamonds? And does the presence of diamonds indicate oil near by?|
| Energy Development. The key to our future energy needs is the development of
reliable solar energy. Therefore, one major problem to resolve is the development of small batteries that can store large amounts of energy for long periods of time or long distances and can be recharged in minutes.
One other possible breakthrough is the development if solar panels that can be shaped and colored so that they are pleasing to the eye and blend in with existing roofing material.
Portable Emergency Energy. Why are there no solar generators?
| Hydrosphere |
|Ecosystem||Temperature||Water||Light||Features and Location|
|Desert||Hot, cold||Dry|| |
|North Africa, Arabia, Australia, Central and South America|
|Tundra||Cool||Dry||Barren and treeless land. They are like deserts in cold climates. They are located in the northern hemisphere near the arctic ocean|
|Scrub||Dry summer||Wet winter||Florida|
|Grassland, Savannah||Windy||Dry||Mostly grass areas between deserts and forests. They are found in central Africa, South America, India and Australia|
|Coniferous Forest||Cool||Dry||Also called taiga or boreal forest. They are a continuous belt of coniferous trees in North America and Eurasia|
|Deciduous Forest||Cool||Wet||Regions where leaves change into many colors and lose leaves in autumn. Europe, Eastern North America|
|Temperate Rain Forest||Cool||Wet||Heavy rain. Areas with evergreen conifers and broadleaf deciduous trees on the western edge of north and south America|
|Tropical Rain Forest||Warm||Wet||Jungles with broadleaf evergreen trees, vines, found around the region of the Equator at 10º North and 10º south latitude below 3000 feet|
|Rhizosphere||Cool||Fresh||Hypogean||The region where soil interacts with roots|
|Karst||Cool, humid||Fresh||Formed by the underground erosion of rocks such as limestone, marble dolomite, gypsum and halite. It includes caves, sinkholes, springs, aquifers, underground streams|
|Anchialine||Cool, humid||Fresh, salty||Inland system near coastal groundwater in caves with no surface connection to the sea but affected by marine tides. Australia (Bundera sinkhole), Christmas Island|
|Ground water||Cool||Fresh||Aquifers and ground water in the water table|
|Lakes, rivers, ponds||Cool||Fresh||Intertidal Zone (Littoral) ||Shallow to deep. Flowing or still in land pools of water|
|Wetlands, swamps||Humid||Fresh||Shallow, warm wet land with large trees|
|Temperate ponds||Cool||Fresh||Shallow, inland pools of water|
|Mangrove Forests||Warm||Shallow, salty, fresh||Found mostly in the Indo-Malayan region. They catch sediment and alluvial materials promoting sediment build up in tidal areas|
|Estuaries||Warm - cool||A semi-enclosed coastal body of water that has a measurable salinity gradient from its freshwater drainage to its ocean entrance|
|Mud Flats||Warm - cool||Fresh, salty||Mud and sandy mud exposed between the extreme high tide and extreme low tide marks. They form from the deposition of mud in sheltered tidal water, particularly in estuaries where there is a large sediment supply|
|Tidal Marsh||Warm - cool||Fresh, salty||Marine intertidal areas with soft substrate, colonized predominantly by grasses. They occur only where there is regular flooding and nearby sources of fine sediment|
|Coastal Ocean||Warm - cool||Shallow, salty||10% of ocean area closest to land with 90% of species|
|»||Intertidal Zone||Warm - cool||Tidepools. Submerged in high tide and dry at low tide|
|»||Coral reef||Warm||Equator, tropics, shallow water near land|
|»||Kelp Forests||Cold||Neritic Zone |
|Brown algae growing in clear, shallow, cold coastal water|
|»||Fast Ice||Cold||Ice attached to the land|
|»||Pack Ice||Cold||Floating drift ice assembled in a single mass found in the Arctic and Antarctic|
|»||Benthic||Cool||Shallow, sea bottom not exposed to air but exposed to tidal currents|
|»||Continental Shelf||Warm - Cool||Shallow||Gentle slope to 200 m, soft sediment, photosynthesis|
|Pelagic Zone||Warm||Shallow, salty||Sunlight Zone||Epipelagic zone (Euphotic zone) (0-200m 660 ft)|
|»||Open ocean||Warm||Warm water, plants, light, photosynthesis|
|»||Deep Sea||Cool||Deep, salty||Twilight Zone |
|Mesopelagic zone (Dysphotic) (200-1000 m 660-3,300 ft). High pressure, low light, no photosynthesis, no plants|
|»||Polar Ocean||Frigid||Found near the arctic and antarctic circles|
|»||Aphotic Zone||Cold 2ºC|| |
Deep, salty, sulfur
|Bathypelagic Zone (Aphotic) (1000- 4000 m 3300-9800 ft) Cold, dark, bioluminescence, high pressure (3 tons/inch2)|
|Cold Seeps||Cold||Cold sulfide rich ocean water|
|Benthic Zone||Ocean Floor and Trenches|
|Conrad Discontinuity (7.5-8.6 Km)||Hadal Zone |
|Seismic waves travel at a different speed above and below|
|Hydrothermal Vents||Hot||Dense, cold waters in the deep trenches (6000-11000 m). Cracks in the ocean floor where hot, sulfide rich ocean water meets cold water and creates precipitates|
|(Moho) Mohorovic Discontinuity||32 Km [20 miles]||The boundary between the lower crust and the upper mantle. 75 Km thick at the continental shelf and 5 Km thick at the mid-ocean ridges|
Kola Peninsula. The deepest bore hole is over 12 Km deep (12262 m).
Water slows the speed of seismic waves. Perhaps the Moho is evidence of deep oceans or saturated rocks.
|Florist. Arranges flowers for beauty||Farmer. Grows plants for food. Read about organic gardening here|
Trees and Flowers
|Botany||The study of plants.|
God created some very interesting plants.
As the branch grows, it send down shoots that eventually reach the ground. They become so big that they look like a tree trunk. So the tree spreads by creating these new trunks from its branches.
|Corpse Plant||It has a giant flower 6 to 9 feet tall found in Sumatra. The flower blooms every 1 to 3 years and dies after just 2 days. It smells like rotting garbage, rotten eggs or a dead animal from up to half a mile away.|
|Male and female tree||Most trees have flowers that contain separate male and the female parts in close proximity. These trees can reproduce by themselves. But dioecious trees grow as a separate male and female tree. The ginkgo and date palm are examples of these trees.|
|Carnivorous plants|| Some plants like the venus flytrap and the pitcher plant eat meat! They lure insects to their death with pretty colors and a sweel smell.
The venus flytrap has leaves that are shaped like a jaw and they snap shut when an insect walks in.
The pitcher plant has a lid that can be closed when it traps an insect. mmmm soup!
|Male trees give more pollen. Most cities are planted with them||Botanist. Studies trees and plants|
This is the science of managing crops without using artificial seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. Adam was the first organic farmer. God gave him the task of caring for the animals and the garden and to farm the land.
|4||N||Nitrogen||Soil, urea, green manure||Leaf, stem|
This does not mean that the entire field should be planted with only one crop every year. The field can be divided into different sections that grow a variety of crops, but each section must be rotated every year. Legumes make nitrates, cereals use nitrates so they should be rotated in sequence. Rotate crops by the type of family, nutrient use and depth of root system (deep or shallow).
|Year 1||Year 2||Year 3||Year 4||Year 5||Year 6||Year 7|
|Cereal||Three Year||Rye||Barley||Fallow||Rye (winter wheat), barley (spring oats)|
|Vegetable Crops ||Two Field||Beans||Corn||Beans||Corn||Beans||Corn||Beans|
|Five Field||Grain, corn||Root||Leafy||Legume||Fallow||Green manure||Grain|
|Other||Bean, corn||Leafy||Root||Green manure||Bean||Leafy||Root|
|Seven Year||Bean, corn||Root||Cabbage||Peas||Tomato||Pumpkin||Fallow|
|Bean, peas||Corn||Peppers||Green manure||Carrot||Legume||Fallow|
|Fruit Crops ||Fruit|| Fruit do not deplete the soil easily. But cover crops can be rotated near them and compost added. Too much nutrients may promote leaf growth instead of fruit.
The first flowers are usually male. Pollination must occur for the female flower to produce fruit. So a fruit farm requires bees or butterflies.
Plant Families: Legumes (beans), cereal, grain, pumpkin, tomato, tarot (root), cruciferous (leafy).
Cabbage Family. Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale.
Green Peppers. They are immature peppers of the colorful varieties.
Scallion (Green Onion). Immature onions.
While some plants can be planted near each other, other plants should not be planted close to each other or rotated in the same field in successive years.
Sweet Potato. The enemies are not known.
|Experiment||Grow a bean in a cup. If you split open a bean you will see a tiny baby tree inside. It has a leaf and roots.|
The Tree of Life in heaven grows on both sides of the river of life.
Maybe it grows like a walking banyan tree.
This tree grows twelve kinds of fruit. There is no other tree like this on the earth. Every month it bears a different fruit. Its leaves are edible and maybe its trunk smells nicer than the Allspice tree. Maybe it has a different smell every month.
The Sun, Moon and Stars
|God created space on the second day and filled it with the planets in our solar system on the fourth day. The Bible says "He made the stars also". This could mean that He made the stars that same day, or it is simply saying that He made the stars that we can see from our earth. I believe that He made them on that day. Because He is so incredibly awesome!|
|Sun and Moon||God filled the fourth day with the creation of the first day. Since nucleosynthesis by burning hygrogen ends with nickel, God needed another source of light and He created the sun. The sun burns hydrogen and helium in the same process of nucleosynthesis to produce light.|
x10 22 (kg)
|Sun||0||0||1392000||19891 x10 4|
|The Asteroid Belt|
|Eris 2003 UB313||68||18000||2600||?|
|1 astronomical unit (AU) is the distance of the earth from the sun or 149,597,870.691 Km. (92,955,807 miles)|
|Geography Project: Build a three dimensional landscape of the Moon or Mars.|
Cosmologist. Studies the solar system. |
Astronomer. Studies the stars and planets.
|Telescope. Instrument for viewing distant objects|
|Astronomy||The study of the stars and planets and other objects in space.|
A planet is an object that orbits a star and has enough gravity to maintain a spherical shape. It must not be a star or the satellite of another planet and it must dominate its vicinity.
Planets in our solar system are divided into these groups:
Exoplanets. Planets found outside our solar system.
Moon (Natural Satellites)
Many of these planets have other natural satellites or objects (moons) that orbit them. Some of these smaller moons have only been discovered since 2002.
Our Moon is 384,403 Km (238,857 miles) from the Earth. It has a diameter of 3476.2 km and weighs 7.347673 x 1022 kg. It takes 27 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes to go around the earth.
Only Triton and Titan have an atmosphere.
|Planet||Year||Day||Natural Satellites (Moons)||Rings||First Space Vehicle|
|Mercury||87.97 days||59 days||0||0||0||Mariner 10 (March 29, 1974)|
|Venus||224.7 days||243 days||0||0||0||Venera 1 (February 12, 1961)|
|Earth||365.22 days||23 hrs. 56 min.||1||Moon (Luna)||0||Sputnik (October 4, 1957)|
|»||Moon||27 days 7 hrs. 43 min.||Luna 1 (January 2, 1959)|
|Mars||686.98 days||24 hrs. 37 min.||2||Phobos, Deimos||0||Mariner 4 (July 14, 1965)|
|Jupiter||4,332.7 days||9 hrs. 55 min.||63||Ganymede, Callisto, Io, Europa, Himalia, Amalthea, Thebe, Elara, Pasiphae, Metis, Adrastea, Carme, Lysithea, Sinope, Anake, Leda||4||Pioneer 10 (March 3, 1972)|
|Saturn||10,759 days||10 hrs. 39 min||56||Titan, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Janus, Epimetheus, Hyperion, Phoebe, Prometheus, Pandora, Helene, Atlas, Telesto, Pan, Calypso||14 named||Pioneer 11 (September 1, 1979)|
|Uranus||30,685 days||17 hrs. 8 min.||27||Titania, Oberon, Umbrial, Ariel, Miranda, Puck, Portia, Juliet, Belinda, Cressida, Desdemona, Rosaline, Ophelia, Bianca, Cordelia||11 named||Voyager 2 (January 24, 1986)|
|Neptune||60,190 days||16 hrs. 7 min.||13||Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus, Triton, Neried. Five other moons were announced in 2004.||9 named||Voyager 2 (August 24, 1989)|
|Pluto||90,800 days||6 days||3||Charon, S/2005P1, S/2005P2||0||-|
|Sedna||11,487 years||20-50 days||0||2003 VB12 was found on November 14||0||-|
Apollo 11 (July 20, 1969). Neil Armstrong was the first human to walk on the Moon. Edwin Aldrin was the second.
Echo 1A was the first communications satellite. It was launched in 1960.
Sputnik 2 (November 3, 1957). A dog, Laika, was launched and it became the first modern creature in space.
Neptune Rotates on its side.
Chariot 1 (922 B.C.). Elijah became the first creature from Earth to travel to space in a vehicle. (2 Kings 2: 11) But Enoch and Moses travelled before him either by vehicle or by whole body transportation with clouds (rapture) like Jesus
|Large Megellanic Cloud||Irregular|
|Small Megellanic Cloud||Irregular|
|Triffid Nebula (M20)||Irregular|
|Lagoon Nebula (M8)||Irrugular|
|Orion Nebula (M42)||Orion||Irregular|
|Horsehead Nebula (Omega, Swan) (M17) (IC 434)||Irregular|
|Flame Nebula (Christmas Tree)||Irregular|
|Butterfly Cluster (M6)||Irregular|
|Crab Nebula (M1)||Taurus||Elliptical|
|Pleiades (M45), seven sisters||Irregular|
|Hercules Cluster (M13)||Hercules||Irregular|
|Virgo A (M87)||Virgo||Elliptical|
|Andromeda Galaxy (M31)||Andromeda||Spiral|
|Whirlpool (M51)||Canes Venatici||Spiral|
|Sunflower Galaxy (M63)||Spiral|
|Pinwheel (M101, M102)||Ursa Major||Spiral|
|Cigar Galaxy (M82)||Irregular|
|Winecke 4 (M40)||Double star|
|Owl Nebula (M97)||Irregular|
|Bode's Galaxy (M81)||Spiral|
|Southern Pinwheel (M83)||Hydra||Barred|
|Ring Nebula (M57)||Lyra||Circular|
|Beehive Cluster (Praesepe) (M44)||Cancer||Irregular|
|Triangulum Galaxy (M33)||Triangulum||Spiral|
|Blackeye Galaxy (M64)||Coma Berenices||Spiral|
|Dumbell Nebula (M27)||Vulpecula||Irregular|
|Little Dumbell, Cork, Butterfly (M76)||Perseus||Irregular|
|Eagle Nebula (M16)||Serpens||Irregular|
|Wild Duck Cluster (M11)||Scutum||Irregular|
|Ptolemy's Cluster (M7)||Scorpius||Irregular|
|Meteor, comet, Gaspra asteroid, Milky Way, Pleiades, Phobos (moon of Mars), Large Megellanic Cloud, Deimos (moon of Mars), Andromeda (M31), eclipse, Shoemaker-Levy comet, M32, Saturn, Venus and the Pinwheel.|
They used to be called Nebulae because of their cloudy appearance.
Galaxies are huge collections of solar systems circulating in one of three definable shapes.
They have a central nucleus and rotate like a solar system.
The three known shapes are:
The sun is the closest star to the earth. It is a giant ball of hydrogen and helium gas that is expected to burn another five billion years and end its life by becoming a red giant when it loses its hydrogen. It will expand in size to engulf Mercury and Venus and possibly the earth. The earth will get hotter. Then it will become a white dwarf. This process might take only a few minutes! Then the earth will get darker. After it cools it becomes a black dwarf.
Stars are classified by their temperature and color. There are seven main types.
|O||Blue||> 30,000K||60||15||10 Lacerta, Zeta Puppis, Hatysa, Alnitak|
|B||Blue-white||10000-30000K||18||7||Rigel, Spica, Alnilam, Achernar, Pleiades|
|A||White-Blue||7500-10000K||3.2||2.5||Sirius, Vega, Altair, Deneb|
|G||Light Yellow||5000-6000||1.1||1.1||Sun, Capella, Alpha Centauri|
|K||Orange-Red||3500-5000||.8||.9||Arcturus, Aldebaran, Pollux, Atria|
|M||Red||< 3500||.3||.4||Betelgeuse, Antares, Proxima Centauri|
|Sun||Milky Way||Morning and Evening Star. They are not stars. It refers to Venus and sometimes Mercury which can be seen near the sun at sunrise and sunset.|
The Navigation System with Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR) Global Positioning System (GPS), is a series of 24 satellites launched at 20,200 km circular orbits between 22 February 1978 and 9 March 1994. By 17 November 2006 there were 31 satellites.
It was developed by the US Department of Defense to provide all weather continuous navigation capabilities for military ground, sea, air forces and civilian applications.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A set of three satellite constellations used for navigation systems which includes GPS, GLONASS and Galileo. GLONASS is the Russian system and Galileo is a European system which will have 30 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites.
Rigel. Blue super giant and brightest star in Orion.
Theta. A giant blue star. The brightest star in the Trapezium in the Orion Nebula.
Betelgeuse. Red giant in Orion.
Belt of Orion. Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka
Sword of Orion. NGC1981, C Orionis, Orion Nebula and Hatysa.
Polaris (Cynosura). The north star. It is at the tail of the little dipper.
Sun. The brightest star in the sky. A yellow dwarf.
Sirius. The brightest star in the sky. A binary star. Sirius B is a white dwarf.
Proxima Centauri. The sun's nearest neighbour, a red dwarf, 4.2 light years away.
Aldebaran. Orange giant that forms the eye of Taurus.
Capella. A yellow binary star.
Algol. Blue dwarf star in Perseus.
Arcturus. The third brightest star in the sky.
Life Cycle Of A Star.
|Sun to Earth||Vulcanoid||0.4 AU||Hypothetical. In the orbit of Mercury|
|Apoheles||<1 AU||Within the orbit of Earth|
|Arjuna||1 AU||Orbits similar to earth|
|Earth Trojans||Earth-Sun L4-L5||-|
|Earth to Mars||Near Earth Objects||1 AU||Aten|
|1.017 - 1.3 AU||Amor|
|Mars-Crosser||-||Orbits cross Mars|
|Mars Trojan||-||None confirmed|
|Mars to Jupiter||The Asteroid Belt||Most asteroids exist in this region|
|The Main Belt||2 - 4 AU|
|I||2.3-2.5 AU||Hungarias, Phocaeas, Floras, Nysas|
|II||2.5-2.706 AU||Alinda, Pallas, Marias|
|IIIa||2.82-3.03 AU||Koronis, Eos|
|Beyond Jupiter||Damocloid||Asteroids in this region and beyond may be composed of ice or other volatile substances and are similar to comets|
|Centaurs||A class of icy planetoids that orbit the sun between Jupiter and Neptune. Some Centaur asteroids are: Asbolus, Nessus, Pholus and Chiron.|
|Neptune Trojans||-||2001 QR322|
|Trans-Neptunian Objects||>30 AU||Kuiper Belt Objects and the Oort cloud|
|1||Kuiper Belt Objects||30-50 AU||Icy asteroids|
|>100 AU||Scattered disk objects|
|2||Oort Cloud||50,000-100,000 AU||Hypothetical cloud of comets|
Eclipses occur when the light from the sun or the moon is blocked by the shadow of the moon or the earth.
A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the Earth and the sun and the moon casts its shadow on the earth.
A lunar eclipse occurs when the earth casts its shadow on the moon.
Many small objects wander around the universe, sometimes in a long orbit and other times by gravitational pull. Periodically, these objects from space interact with the earth. There are three types - comets, meteors and asteroids.
Asteroids are large, solid pieces of rocks greater than 50 meters wide that may be hundreds of miles long. They are little planets that mostly originate in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Objects less than 50 meters wide are called meteoroids. One classification of asteroids is the distance at which they orbit (Orbital radius). This classification helps to see which asteroids might impact the earth.
Modern Asteroids. In modern times several asteroids and fireballs have struck the earth.
Tunguska Event. On July 30 1908, a massive explosion of an asteroid above the forests of Russia destroyed 1000 square miles.
In 1947 another struck Siberia.
On August 10, 1972 a large fireball appeared over Canada and the Eastern United States.
In 1992 a fireball was observed over Florida.
In 2001, one appeared over Washington D.C.
On July 8, 2004, a 100 Lb meteor came over the south central USA (Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri)
Chelyabinsk. February 15, 2013. an 11 ton meteor strikes Chelyabinsk Russia. 725 injured, buildings damaged.
Ancient Asteroids. Asteroids have been blamed for the destruction of the dinosaurs. This is partly correct. During the flood, the earth was struck with something with such force that it broke up the surface and tilted the orbit 23.5 degrees. Ever since that time, we have had different seasons, the land mass was separated and the oceans dominated the surface.
|2004 FH||30m||Aten||Passed 43,000 km by earth on March 18, 2004|
|1999 KW4||1.2 km||Aten||NEA. Has a 400m moon that orbits every 16 hours.|
|1950 DA||1.1 km||-||Has a 1:300 chance of hitting earth on March 16, 2880|
|Asclepius (1989FC)||30m||Apollo||March 23, 1989 it missed earth by 400,000 miles. It crossed where earth had been 6 hours before|
|Sisyphus||10 Km||Apollo||Largest Apollo asteroid|
|Hermes||Two 300-450m||Apollo||Binary asteroid|
|Eros||33x13x13Km||Amor||NEAR spacecraft lands here|
|Ganymed||32 Km||Amor||Largest Amor|
|Ceres||1003 Km||Alinda||Largest asteroid|
|Pallas||608 Km||Alinda||Second largest asteroid|
|Vesta||538 Km||Alinda||Third largest asteroid|
|Gaspra||19x12x11Km||Floras||First fly by of an asteroid|
|Chiron||170 Km||Centaur||It is a comet and an asteroid|
|Hektor||116 Km||Trojan||Largest Trojan|
|Achilles||370 x 195 Km||Trojan||First Trojan discovered|
|The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft landed on Eros on February 14, 2000 after a 4 year trip|
Near Earth Objects
Asteroid can be classified by their average orbital diameters. This is reported in astronomical units (AU). This is the distance from the Earth to the Sun. But only three of these groups are near Earth asteroids (NEA) that actually cross the path of the earth.
As of April 2004, there are 708 of these that are over one km wide. Objects that large can destroy the earth. As of November 2006 there were 831 potentially hazardous asteroids (PHA) discovered.
|Shoemaker-Levy 9||17.8||1994||Lost July 1994, hit Jupiter|
|Faye||7.34||1999||(2006) Discovered November 23, 1843|
| Halley's comet has appeared at the conquest of some famous political leaders and nations.
44 B.C. - Julius Caesar
66 A.D. - Masada
451 A.D. - The fall of Atilla the Hun
530 A.D. - Church
1066 A.D. - Battle of Hastings
Comets orbit the sun. There are over 100 known comets but there may be thousands more. Comets are dirty snow balls with a bright head and a long tail. They were called "broom stars" by early observers because of their shape. They are called "dirty snow balls" because they are believed to be made of ice and dirt. The tail is formed when the ice melts and a separate tail can be formed from the trail of dust and water.
This trail of dust causes a meteor shower when the dust eventually reaches the atmosphere.
Meteors are the temporary bright streaks of light that sometimes appear in the night sky at an altitude of about 100 Km. They are small particles that are normally the size of a grain of sand. They enter the atmosphere at speeds of up to 70 Km/second. A large number of these occurring at the same time are called a shower. The most famous are the Leonid Meteor showers which show increased activity every 33 years. The famous showers on the night of November 12-13, 1833 started interest in astronomy and led many people to believe that the world was ending.
Meteor Showers. Meteor shower activity can be linked to the passage of comets. They are caused by the dust trails from the tails as they burn off. This appears as a shower several years later. Sometimes the trail of dust can take up to six years to become a shower.
|Meteor Shower||Active|| Rate |
|Quadrantid (Bootes)||January 2-4||20-100||2003 EH1|
|Delta Leonids||Feb 15-Mar 10||2||-|
|Pi Puppids||April 15-28||13-40||26P/Grigg-Skjellerup|
|Lyrids||April 21-22||8-15||Thatcher 1861 I|
|Eta Aquarids||May 5-6||20-50||1P/Halley|
|Bootids||June 26-July 2||-100||7P/Pons-Winnecke|
| Southern Delta |
|Alpha Capricornids||July 30 - Aug 1||3||Unknown|
|Kappa Cygnids||August 3-25||3||-|
|Northern Iota Aquarids||August 11-31||3||-|
|Alpha Aurigids||Aug 25-Sept 05||10||Kiess|
|Epsilon Geminids||October 14-27||2||-|
|Alpha Monocerotids||November 15-25||5-400||-|
|Phoenicids||Nov 28-Dec 9||3-100||-|
|Geminids||December 13-14||40-120||Asteroid 3200 Phaethon|
|Coma Berenicids||Dec 12-Jan 23||5||-|
Other Events and Structures
Some of these are predicted to exist, while others are descriptions of what is observed.
|Ursa Major Constellation |
|Journey through your imagination||
Imagine your trip through heaven at the Second Coming. What would you like to see?
Do you think we will have a series of meteor showers like fireworks all the way home?
After the earth is recreated, we will not have a sun or moon. What do you think will be in space?
It is possible that there will be a sun and moon but that we cannot see them because the light from God is so much brighter.
Have you ever thought about how infinite the universe is? Not just in terms of the size of space but in the number of possibilities.
Everything that we can see, hear, touch and measure is based on one underlying concept, the electromagnetic spectrum.
Suppose there are other building blocks, not based on electromagnetic waves?
That is your limitation. We are handicapped by our current knowledge and what we think is possible. How can you possibly think outside the box when everything in your set of building blocks depends on electromagnetic waves.
God has many objects in His tool box, look what He created with just one tool!
Constellation Families :
|Constellation Families Star Chart|
|Locations are approximate|
|Hercules||Heavenly Waters||Perseus||Orion||The Bayer Group||La Caille||Ursa Major|
| Canes venatici
| Corona Australis
| Canis Major
The Big Dog
| Coma Berenices
♥ Berenice's Hair
| Ursa Major
The Big Bear
The big dipper
| Canis Minor
The little dog
| Corona Borealis
| Leo Minor
Orion. Includes the Pleiades (M45) and the Orion nebula (M42 and M43). This is the region to watch for the Second Coming.
Belt. Three stars (Alnitak, Alnilam, Mintaka).
Sword. (Hatysa, M42, M43, NGC1981).
The Little Horse
|The Ecliptic|| Lupus
The goat - fish
♥ The Rabbit
♥ Southern Fish
♥ The Centaur
♥ The Altar
♥ The River
(The lesser water snake)
Bird of Paradise
The sword fish
The flying fish
| Triangulum Australe
There are 61 constellations visible in the northern hemisphere, 48 were known by the ancient Greeks.
In 150 A.D., the Greek scientist Ptolemy listed 1022 stars arranged into 48 constellations in a book named "Almagest".
Argo Navis (Ship of Jason and the Argonauts). Carina, Puppis, Pyxis and Vela were part of one constellation. Volans and Columba are also associated with the ship.
♥ These were known by the ancients. But Coma Berenices was a part of Leo and Columba was a part of Canis Major.
These and some of the southern constellations were named after 1600 A.D.
|Did you know that God used the constellations and the seasons to illustrate the timetable of the Plan of Salvation?|
Fish And Birds
|On the fifth day God filled the ocean and the skies with living things. He created fish and birds and everything that flies.|
|Fish and Birds||The creatures of the fifth day fill the creation of the second day. Fish and birds were made to fill the sea and sky and both are filled with color.|
|Biosafety Hazard Level for Microorganisms|
|1||No disease in the healthy||Bacillus subtilis|
|2||Not serious||Available||Dengue, pox|
|3||Lethal||Available||West nile, yellow fever, smallpox|
|4||Lethal||Not available||Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, junin|
In an epidemic, pandemic or an active season for a germ, the government issues a report on the geographic activity of the germ concerning human to human transmission.
Over 40 trillion bacteria live in the human body!
|An epidemic is a regional spread of disease.|
A pandemic is a widespread or global spread of disease.
The worst case is a level 3 or 4 pathogen, level 6 activity and level 5 severity.
|A pathogen is an organism that causes disease.|
Microbiologist. Studies microbes.
Virologist. Studies viruses.
Pathologist. Examines tissues for diseases
|Microscope. Magnifies small objects|
Did you know that God used the concept of quarantine to illustrate the Plan of Salvation.
In 1865 Dr. Joseph Lister used the biblical principles and introduced handwashing and sterile techniques to the medical community. Death rates dropped from 40% to 3%
|Biology||The study of living creatures.|
Living things are fascinating.
A living thing grows and reproduces. Living things also protect themselves, we will see how they do this and the clever way they search for food.
Germs and Microscopic Organisms
They are the smallest living creatures that cause diseases.
Some antibiotics work by damaging the cell wall. Since viruses do not have a cell wall antibiotics have no effect on them.
Genes, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Genetic material or genes are made up of two strands of material called DNA. Every cell in the body, except the red blood cells, has a copy of the DNA in the nucleus. DNA, inherited from the mother, is also found in the mitochondria. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one strand of DNA is inherited from each parentand the last pair determine gender. DNA is made up of a sugar and phosphate backbone with one of four chemicals attached (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine). Adenine pairs with Thymine with two hydrogen bonds. Thymine and cytosine are paired with three hydrogen bonds. Three base pairs of genes make about twenty amino acids and a chain of amino acids make proteins.
Inheritance. Any physical traits that we have are governed by a pair of genes. We inherit one gene from each parent. Simple inheritance of a trait is represented as a combination of two similar letters, one from each parent. However one trait may be more likely to be expressed than another.
|List of Human Chromosomes|
|A||1||2968||Connective tissue,Rh blood,collagen||Porphyria. Gaucher, Glaucoma, prostate cancer, Alzheimer's|
|Collagen type 3, 4 and 5||ALS, harlequin ichthyosis, Ehlers-Danlos (EDS), Waardenberg|
|Eyes, ears, heart||Usher Syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau, long QT syndrome|
|Wound healing, nerve||Wolf-Hirschhorn, FOP, Huntington's, Parkinsons, narcolepsy, achondroplasia, Ellis-van-Creveld|
|Bones, muscle, face, collagen proteins||Cri-du-Chat, Treacher-Collins, Ehlers-Danlos, asthma, Cockayne, Crohn|
|C||6||1963||Collagen, blood vessels||Parkinsons, diabetes mellitus, hemochromatosis|
|Collagen type 2, circulatory, blue eye color, bone||Williams syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis, Ehlers-Danlos, diabetes, obesity, Pendred syndrome|
|Immunity, thyroid, nerves, lipase||Werner syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma|
|9||1299||Urea, collagen type 5, ABO blood||Citrullinemia, galactosemia, Ehlers-Danlos|
|10||1440||Cell division, PTEN gene||Cowden syndrome, Gyrate atrophy, Refsum, Crohn|
|Hemoglobin||Ataxia Telangiectasia, Cancer (ATM), sickle cell|
|Growth||Russel Silver syndrome|
|Bone, cartilage, collagen||Parkinson, phenylketonuria, excessive growth|
|Cell division||Retinoblastoma, breast cancer (BRCA-2), Wilson, deaf|
|14||1098||Lipid, thyroid||Niemann-Pick, Alzheimer|
|15||1122||Fibrillin, blue-brown eye||Angelmans, Prader-Willi, Marfan, Tay-Sachs|
|ATP, COQ7, red hair||Crohn's, autism, polycystic kidney, alpha thalassemia, FMF|
|1576||Myelin, cells, collagen type 1||Neurofibromatosis (elephant man), Ehlers-Danlos, Cancer: ovarian, breast (BRCA-1), Marfan|
|Lipids||Edward's Syndrome, Tourette, Niemann-Pick|
|Absorbs iron, green-blue eye||Hemochromatosis, hypercholesterolemia|
|20||927||Brain, prion, immune||CFJ, SCID (immunodeficiency)|
|Biotin enzyme||Down's Syndrome, ALS, early onset alzheimers|
|22||288||Supress tumor (CHEK2)||Neurofibromatosis, DiGeorge|
|Y. Male Gender||Jacobs (XYY), Klinefelter (XXY)|
|X. Female Gender, iris color, red and green eye color||Triple-X (XXX, XXXX, XXXXX), Turner's (XO), Midas, Goltz, hemophilia, color blind, duchene muscular dystrophy|
Chromosomes are numbered 1 to 22 from longest to shortest.
They are also arranged in seven groups based on size and centromere location.
Centromere. Each strand of a chromosome pair is joined or constricted at one location creating two arms. The short arm is called "p" and the longer "q arm".
Satellite. A small segment separated by a secondary constriction.
|#2 has two fused genes and 2 centromeres|
|G||21-22*, Y||Acrocentric||Very Short|
|* Short arms of 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 have satellites|
Homeobox Genes (HOX). These are responsible for the body plan. There are four chomosomes in humans with this gene cluster.
Chromosome Banding. Chromosomes with the same size and centromere location are further identified by the banding pattern of light and dark regions they make with certain stains.
Each chromosome has a unique banding pattern that is like a bar code.
|Chromosome Banding Techniques|
|R||Heat, Giemsa||Deletions, translocations|
|R||Acridine Orange||Deletions, translocations|
|T||Giemsa or acridine orange||Telomeric banding|
|NOR||Silver nitrate||Acrocentric satellites|
|DAPI/DA||Distamycin A||Y autosome translocations, breaks, small chromosomes|
An unrepaired error in DNA is a mutation.
Genetic disorders or mutations occur when there are missing, excess or malfunctioning genes.
These result in a change in the manufacture of a protein.
Anomalies occur when only one of the pair is inherited (monosomy) or three copies are inherited (trisomy) or substitutions or deletions in the chromasome occurs.
The number of chromosomes is not related to the similarity, size, complexity or intelligence of the organism.
Forensic DNA Analysis. DNA is used to uniquely identify a person or to determine genetic relationships. There are several DNA tests.
|Common External Features|
|Ear lobes||Free (70-90%)||Attached (25%)|
|Tongue rolling||Roll in a "U" (65-81%)||Cannot roll|
|Front teeth||Gap (5%)||No gap|
|PTC sensitivity||Taste (70%)||Cannot taste|
|Blood type||A-40%, B-11%, AB-4%||O (45%)|
|Rh factor||Positive (85%)||Negative (15%)|
|Hair line||Widow's peak||Straight|
|Hair whorl||Clockwise||Counter (6%)|
|Hair color||Not red||Red (2-6%)|
|Eye color||Brown /other||Blue (8%)|
|Thumb||Curved (Hitch hiker) (25-36%)||Straight thumb (64-75%)|
|Mid-digital hair||Hair on knuckles||No hair|
|Index finger Vs Ring finger||Shorter in males||Longer in males|
|Hand clasp||Left thumb on top (55%)||Right on top (44%)|
|Big toe length||Shorter (10%)||Longer, equal|
|Dominant hand||Right (70-90%)||Left handed|
|Note that the dominant gene is not necessarily more prevalent in the population|
DNA Database. Different systems choose a set of DNA markers to identify humans. Each lab hopes theirs will be the global standard. As a result several majar standards are in existance.
CSF1PO, TPOX, D5S818, D7S820, D13S317,
FGA, TH01, VWA, D3S1358, D8S1179, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11 and AMEL
FGA, TH01, VWA, D3S1358, D8S1179, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, D2S1338, D19S433 and AMEL
Cells And Cloning
DNA is found in two places in the cell. In the nuclear DNA of the nucleus and the mitochondrial DNA in the mitochondria outside in the cell body. Regular cells have all the genetic material, but the reproductive cells contain one half. When the egg combines with the sperm, each contributes one half of the nuclear genetic material. Then mitosis (cell division) occurs after this reproductive cell has all the DNA. So, the child has half the nuclear DNA from the mother and father and 100% of the mitochondrial DNA of the mother.
|Female Egg||Male Sperm|
|Cloning removes the material from the nucleus of the embryo of one animal and places it in the egg of another animal.|
|Recombinant DNA technology involves switching sections of the gene of an animal with the genes of another animal or plant.|
To survive, animals need to do several things:
Animals use two basic mechanisms to accomplish these:
Creation. Did you know that over 4000 years ago Jacob described a process that models the DNA double helix and the DNA replication process?
The Spotted And Striped Stick (Genesis 30: 37-41). He took a stick and carved spots and stripes in it, then set it in a trough of water where the animals of a single color came to drink and mate. When they looked at the stick as they mated their children looked like the stick with spots and stripes and circular stripe pattern (ringstraked).
The Spotted And Striped DNA. The DNA double helix looks like a stick with spots and stripes. It even has an -OH molecule at each end. Since it carries the genetic desription of our outer appearance, when our parents mate we will look like the instructions carved in the DNA.
Another "silly and unscientific" Bible story described DNA process 4000 years before Watson and Crick discovered it.
Camouflage is the art of blending into the surroundings so that you cannot be seen. It is based on the fact that the eye tends to look for patterns and to fill in the gaps.
The four methods used to blend into the surrounding environment are:
Stick bug 1
Stick bug 2
Too much life
Speed of Light
|Bee and Ant|
|Teacher and Professor. Experts who share knowledge by teaching others about a particular subject|
85% of all living creatures on earth are insects from over one million species. Insects have six legs, hard outer shell (exoskeleton) and a three part segmented body (head, thorax and abdomen). Arachnids have eight legs and two body parts. They include spiders, scorpions and mites in about 73,000 species.
Bees are social creatures that live in hives ruled by a queen.
There are three different kinds of bees in a hive who divide the work by them:
Apiology. Study of bees
Entomology. Study of insects, arachnids
Biologist. Studies living things
Zoologist. Studies animals
Ornithologist. Studies birds
Communication. Some bees use pheromones, sound and dance to communicate. The bees have two dances to indicate the location of food. A circle dance indicates food without any reference to distance. When the food is far away (over 300 feet) the bees do a "figure eight" dance. In the dance, they waggle their bodies to tell the distance and direction of the food in relation to the sun. As the sun changes its location, the information in the dance must change. This indicates intelligence and mathematical ability.
Other experiments show that if the information seems to be impossible, then the hive will not go after the food.
Ants also live in social colonies like bees but with millions of members, with the same division of work structure by three types of ants.
|Queen. Winged female ants. The only ant who can have children|
|Workers. Sterile, wingless females. They collect the food, feed the nest and larvae, build and clean the nest.|
|Soldiers. Large sterile females who defend the colony, raid other colonies and capture slaves|
|Drone. Winged male ants who fertilize the queen and die|
| Myrmecology. The study of ants.
Go to the ant, you lazy bum. Consider her ways, and be wise" Proverbs 6: 6
|Carpenter Ants||They construct nests in wooden structures.||
|Honey Pot Ants||During the rainy season, storage ants fill their abdomens to the size of grapes with nectar and hang from the ceiling until there is famine. When the food gets low the colony gets nectar from them. They sometimes capture hostages from other colonies and raid a colony to kill the queen and enslave the workers.|
|Leaf Cutter Ants||They are gardeners who gather leaves, grind them to smaller pieces, fertilize them with their feces and then grow a fungus which they use for food. When the queen goes to create a new colony she carries a sample of this fungus with her.|
|Harvester Ants||They collect, store, and eat seeds. Sometimes they travel up to forty miles away from their nest in search of food.|
|Army Ants||Migratory hunters that feed on other creatures. They travel up to 20 meters per hour and set up a temporary camp every night and only stay in one location for 2 to 3 weeks when it is time to lay eggs. The queen lays at least 30,000 eggs in one day. They can interlock their legs to form bridges across rivers and roll up into a ball to float in a flood.|
|Polyergus Samurai||Ants of the Polyergus samurai species have sharp, sickle-shaped mandibles which are good for fighting but useless for domestic work.. They do no work except to raid other nests and force the slaves to work. Between July to September the worker ants raid the nests of formica japonica species and seize the larvae and pupae of the raided nest. When they grow to adults they become slaves.|
Ants hear with their knees by picking up vibrations.
Ants touch their antennae to communicate, rock back and forth so that their mandibles strike the nest with beats up to seven thumps per 50 millisecond (drumming), by making high pitched squeaks by rubbing body parts (stridulation) or use pheromones.
Pheromones are chemicals that are used to alert other ants of danger, mark trails, identify each other, enlist the help of other ants and scare off enemies.
Ants are the most numerous types of creatures. They have a combined weight greater than the combined weight of all humans.
Ants can carry 10 to 20 times their body weight and they work in teams to move heavy objects.
The largest ant colony is 3,600 miles long (5890 Km), stretching from the Italian Riviera to northwest Spain. It consists of billions of Argentine ants living in millions of nests that cooperate with each other.
There are about seven to eight thousand species of birds. Fish and birds were created on the same day and are the most colorful of the living creatures that God created.
Mccaw or Parrot. These birds are interesting because of their beautiful colors and because they can imitate human speech. They mate for life and are often seen in pairs.
Humming Bird Facts. They are the smallest birds. Wings flap at 100 beats per second and they can fly backwards.
Indigo Bunting. The male bird has a beautiful indigo blue color, while the female is brown. They migrate south and travel in flocks at night, navigating by the stars.
Bird Song. Birds sing, and the sound is similar to speech in humans.
God created some very incredible fish and other creatures that live in the sea. Let us take a look.
|Anableps||He has an interesting eye. The top half can see in the air and the bottom half sees in the water.||
Modern technology allows us to grow fish on farms. But the living conditions
are not what our Creator intended for His creatures and the results are probably not healthy.
|Archer fish||Captures insects by shooting water out of the air like a bullet.|
|Angler fish||He goes fishing! In front of his mouth hangs an appendage that attracts other fish. Also, the male does not eat. He attaches himself to a female and their blood streams merge! Now how could these have evolved? Not!|
|Decoy fish||He also goes fishing by attracting other fishes. One of the fins looks like a tiny fish while the rest of the body is camouflaged.|
|Sea horse||The male carries the eggs and gives birth|
|Whales and dolphins||Mammals that breathe air but live in the sea|
Try to invent a new animal. What colors will it have? Will it be spotted or striped?
Imagine a patchwork animal!
Will it fly, hop, swim or do all of these? Where does it live? Does it only like to eat blue things? Can it talk like a parrot?
Give it a name. God asked Adam to name the animals. Maybe He will make this animal just for you and you will see it in heaven.
Animals And Man - The Incredible Human Body
|On the sixth day God created the male and female animals on the land. In the evening he created the last two living things. He created Adam and Eve.|
|Animals and Man||Magnetic elements are in the sixth period. God created marriage to complete the attraction between male and female.|
Male and Female
Sexual reproduction could not have developed over millions of years because the male and female must develop simultaneously
in the same location in less than fifty years for humans and in a week for fruit flies.
This impossible coincidence must be repeated in every species. Millions of them.
|The difference in size of a liger and a tigon shows that in one generation a medium sized animal can produce a giant and a dwarf. So, could a dinosaur sized creature and a lizard be produced in the same year from a large alligator? This is observable evidence that the evolutionary charts that rely on differences in size as proof of long periods of growth are a fallacy.|
God created us so that we cannot have children with other species. But humans have tried to cross-breed related species. But even animals that are closely related have a few problems. Hybrid breeds are almost always sterile.
Mule. The child of a female horse and a male donkey.
Hinny. The child of a male horse and a female donkey.
Tigon. The child of a female lion and a male tiger that is usually a dwarf that is much smaller than the parents.
Liger. The child of a male lion and a female tiger that is usually a giant. It is the largest cat in the world. It has stripes and spots and an orange - gold color. They can stand up to twelve feet tall and weigh as much as 1000 pounds. (3.7 meters and 454 kg).
The Lion and the Lamb. Scientists claim that carnivorous animals must eat meat to survive. They claim that this is why they have evolved sharp incisor teeth. But "Little Tyke" is a female vegetarian lion who refused to eat meat. She ate cooked grain, raw eggs and milk. The bible says that the lion will live with the lamb and it will eat straw like an ox.
Evolution: Monster Mutation.
| Even if a fish could possibly give birth to a frog.
It is impossible for a male and female to emerge.
That would require two impossible events using processes that contradict modern observations and scientific knowledge.
The theory recognizes that small mutations will not create the large biological changes that cause evolution.
This is because small mutations usually go back to their original form within two generations.
The famous gypsy moth experiments failed because the moths would change back after two generations.
Biological systems also have many complicated parts that must all be working at the same time or they will be useless.
Therefore, the theory says that once every 50,000 years an egg has so many huge mutations that it cannot go back to an original form.
Therefore, a fish can give birth to a frog!
However, realizing that they have to account for sexual reproduction, they further went on to say that when the new creature emerged, a male and female must emerge from the single egg.
That does not sound like a scientific theory. It is a fairy tale!
And this miraculous fairy tale continues further because every one of the two to thirteen million species that we know, must have gone through this same miraculous process that is full of coincidences.
Imagine, thirteen million impossible events. In fact, twenty six million impossible events if you count the male and female.
Monster Mutation Mathematics. Apparently, evolutionists cannot do basic arithmetic either because if a new creature emerged every 50,000 years then it would take 75 billion years to develop the one and a half million species that we have named so far. And 650 billion years to develop the thirteen million estimated species.
What is wrong with these figures? The big bang that started evolution was calculated to have occurred 6 to 13 billion years ago and life emerged 545 million years ago!
Instead, for the time in which life is supposed to have emerged, the calculations support one specie emerging every 540 years for the 1½ million we know exist. And, forty two years for the thirteen million we estimate to exist.
Some people claim that there are 100 million species, thirteen million is just the conservative upper limit. If there are 100 million then they must have evolved every 5½ years.
I have not seen any of these exotic new creatures, have you? My toe nail does not grow that fast.
The Human Body
God says that we are "wonderfully made". He made several advanced systems to take care of our bodies while we are on earth. These systems manage the body like any major city government. There is a defence or military system, transportation, communications, education, medical, reproduction, energy, structural engineering, waste management and food management.
|System||The Human Body||Purpose||Structures|
|Spiritual||To learn about God and to worship Him||Brain, mouth, voice box, eyes, ears and sensory system|
|Skeletal||Supports body, protects organs, movement, produces blood cells and stores minerals.||Bones, skull, vertebrae, ribs, teeth, tendon, ligament, marrow|
|Muscular||Movement. They are attached to the skeletal system by the ligaments.||Biceps, triceps, deltoid, gluteus maximus|
|Digestive||Processes food and changes it to energy for the body. It sends solid and liquid waste to be eliminated||Teeth, mouth, tongue, stomach, gall bladder, liver, small intestine, rectum, anus, saliva, hydrochloric acid, bile|
|Urinary||Removes waste products and excess fluids and regulates the volume of fluids||Kidney, colon, urinary bladder, large intestine, ureter|
|Reproductive||Produce children||Uterus, testes, eggs, sperm, mammary glands|
|Respiratory||Processes oxygen (O2) and exhales carbon dioxide (CO2)||Nose, trachea, lungs, alveoli, bronchi, pleura, hemoglobin, vagus nerve, pulmonary arteries and veins|
|Circulatory||Transmits blood, oxygen, food and waste to the organs||Heart, artery, vein, blood|
|Immune||Fights infections and foreign substances||Skin, stomach acids, white blood cells, bone marrow, spleen|
|Lymphatic||lymph nodes, lymph, tonsils, thymus, MALT, Peyer's patches|
| Sensory or
|Control motion. Feelings, senses as electrical impulses to the brain. The senses collect signals from the outside, converts them to electrical signals and sends them to the brain for interpretation||Brain, spinal cord, eye, ear, tongue, nose and skin|
|Endocrine||A system of chemical messages from organs that secrete hormones to control body functions such as growth and development, puberty, reproduction, energy levels, response to stress and injury and internal balance||Glands. Pituitary, adrenal, thymus, hypothalmus, thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, testes, ovaries, pancreas, liver|
|Better Than Super Man. The physical description of God is very different. For God, it is the spiritual component that is dominant. Physically, He appears as one who is on fire from head to toe. There is a stream of living water flowing from Him. This combination of water and light causes a rainbow and a cloud to surround Him. His structure can change and pass through solid physical objects. He can move faster than light. He does not eat or sleep. His breath gives life to physical beings. He reproduces by speaking electromagnetic waves. How awesome is our God!|
|Nurse. Cares for patients.||Physician (Doctor). Manages human health, treats disease|
|Influenza. Viral infection.||Cancer. Abnormal growth of any cell that starves healthy cells.|
|Thermometer. Measures temperature||Endoscope. Instrument for viewing the interior of hollow organs|
The adult body has 206 bones and 32 teeth and about 650 muscles. A baby has 300 bones. Some animals, like bugs, have their skeletons on the outside (exoskeletons). While others have their skeleton on the inside (endoskeleton). The bones have several functions.
|#||Part||Bones||Organs and muscles|
| Skull, jaw (mandible, 2 maxilla),
Ear (malleus, incus, stapes), hyoid,
7 cervical vertebrae, 32 teeth
|Brain, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, tongue|
|2||Spine||33 bones: vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx||Nerves|
|3||Chest|| 24 Ribs (12 pairs), sternum,
12 thoracic vertebrae
|Trachea, bronchi, heart, lungs, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, aesophagus|
| Shoulder Girdle |
|4||Hip|| Pelvic |
| Pelvis (iliac, pubic)
» 5 lumbar,
» 5 fused sacral
» 4 fused coccyx
|Digestive system, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, anus|
|Reproductive system. Uterus, vagina, eggs, fallopian tubes, penis, scrotum, prostate gland, sperm, testicles|
|5||Arms|| Upper |
|Humerus, radius, ulna||Deltoid, biceps, triceps|
|6||Hands||27 bones. Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges (fingers)||19 muscles move the wrist and fingers|
|7||Legs|| Lower |
|Femur, patella (knee), tibia, fibula||Gluteus Maximus, quadricep, sartorius, biceps, gastrocnemius|
|8||Feet||26 bones. Tarsals (ankle), Calcaneus (heel), metatarsals, phalanges (toes)||Achilles tendon|
| The bone marrow produces 2.6 million red blood cells every second.
The great white shark has 3000 teeth! It loses over three million teeth during its life. You have only 28 to 32.
The second cervical vertebra is named the axis. It allows the head to turn.
|Podiatrist. Treats the feet.||Orthopedics. Treats bone injury.||Dentist. Treats the teeth and gums.|
|Fracture. Broken bone||Arthritis. Fusion of bones||Osteoporosis. Loss of calcium, brittle bone|
|Crutch. Assists walking||Brace. Immobilizes weak bone||Radioscope. Views objects using X-rays|
|#||Part||Muscles||Body Organs and muscles|
|1|| Skeletal |
|Types of Muscles||Voluntary muscles for movement. Controlled by the somatic nervous system||
|The muscles of the internal organs are controlled by the autonomic nervous system|
|Muscles of the heart. They are controlled by the autonomic nervous system|
|Joints are the point where two or more bones meet||Types of Muscles|
|1a||Muscle||Tissues of the Musculo-skeletal System||The contraction or relaxation moves the bones to which it is attached.|
|1b||Tendon||Attaches muscle to bone. Achilles tendon is located in the heel.|
|1c||Ligament||Attaches bone to bone|
|2||Bone||The moveable support structure|
|Front View||Back View||3||Cartilage||Protective gel lining the joint||The Joint|
|Synovial Fluid. Lubricating fluid between the joints. An injured joint may respond to the weather because the pressure changes in the atmosphere may cause pressure changes in this fluid.|
|Front View||Body. Trapezius, deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis.
Arms. Triceps, biceps, brachialis.
Legs. Gracilis, adductor longus, iliopsoas, pectineus, gluteus medius. Sartorius, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis. Lower Leg. Gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus
|Back View||Body. Trapezius, deltoid, teres minor, teres major, external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, latissimus dorsi, Gluteus Maximus.
Leg. Gracilis, adductor magnus, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris.
Lower Leg. Gastrocnemius Arm. Triceps brachii, anconeus, flexor carpi, extensor carpi.
|There are about 650 muscles in the human body. Nineteen muscles move the wrist and fingers.|
|Surgeon. Opens the body to treat injury and diseases||Dermatologist. Treats skin diseases.|
|Muscular Dystrophy. Loss of muscle tissue and mobility||Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP). Muscle turns to bone|
The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage that covers the trachea when we swallow and stops food from entering the lungs.
If evolution occurred, then our ancestors would have choked on their food for several thousand years until they realized that they should evolve a flap to protect the wind pipe.
It sounds ridiculous. A baby would have choked to death.
Study any system in the body and you will realize that it would not function if it had to wait millions of years for the necessary part to evolve.
The Respiratory System
|1||Lungs||The right side has three lobes and the left has two. They have a thin lining, the size of a tennis court, which absorbs oxygen and transfers it to the hemoglobin of the blood. High levels of carbon dioxide make the blood more acidic. This triggers the vagus nerve which causes us to increase respiration and exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide|
|2||Heart||Receives oxygen from the lungs and sends carbon dioxide to the lungs through the pulmonary vein and artery|
|3||Diaphragm||Muscle moves up and down so that the lungs can contract and expand and force air in or out|
|4||Trachea||Wind pipe. Air flows from the nose to the lungs|
|5||Ribs||12 ribs attached to the spinal column in the back and the sternum in the front. They protect the organs in the chest|
|5a||7 true ribs||They are attached directly to the sternum|
|5b||3 false ribs||They are attached directly to the cartilage of the last true rib|
|Right Lung||Left Lung||5c||2 floating ribs||They are only attached in the back|
|Breathing||5d||Cartilage||They attach the ribs to the sternum|
A vacuum is created when the diaphragm and the rib cage contract and air rushes in.
The diaphragm flattens and the ribs spread and are raised.
Exhale. When the rib muscles and the diaphragm relaxes air is forced out.
|6||Sternum||The true ribs are attached here in the front|
|7||Spine||All the ribs are attached in the back|
|9||Pleura||Lining between the ribs and lungs that allows the lungs to slide along the rib cage without an injury|
|Paramedic. Provides first emergency services.||Respiratory Therapist. Gives breathing treatments.|
|Asthma. Breathing impairment.||Cystic Fibrosis. Mutation creates thick mucus in the lungs|
The First Surgery.
The Bible says that God made Adam fall asleep, then He took a rib and created Eve.
Now men and women have an equal number of ribs.
So, where did the ribs come from and why did God use the rib? Here is a possible answer.
Did you know that the structure of the rib cage and chest cavity illustrates the Plan of Salvation?
God demonstrates how he will make peace with the world through twelve nations.
|A1||Heart||Atrium||Chambers at the top of the heart|
|A2||Ventricle||Chambers at the bottom of the heart|
|B1||Veins||Takes blood without oxygen to the heart|
|B2||Arteries||Takes blood with oxygen from the heart to the body|
|B3||Pulmonary||Carries blood between the heart and the lung|
|C||Valves||Stops blood from flowing back into the chambers|
|D||Capillaries||Tiny vessels that connect the arteries and veins|
|1|| Red Blood Cell
|40-45% of total blood volume. Transports oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Sickle cell anemia causes the malformation of these cells.|
|1a||Hemoglobin||The gas transporting protein molecu e that is 95% of the volume of red cells. They give the red color to blood when they are bound to oxygen.|
|Right Heart||Left Heart||2|| White Blood Cell
|Immune System. Defend against infection by viruses, bacteria and other foreign enemies|
|2a||Neutrophil 60-70%||Wound healing. Made in the bone marrow|
|2b||Eosinophil 5%||Attacks parasites like worms and eats antigens and antibodies|
|2c||Basophil 1%||Allergic response. Releases histamines and heparin|
|T-Cell. Made in the thymus. Immune response and rejection of foreign tissue|
|2e||B-Cell. Made in the lymph nodes. Makes antibodies|
|Eat viruses and bacteria. They have different names in some organs (kupfer cells, microglia, mesangial, osteoclasts)|
The heart pumps blood to the body through the artery and receives blood through the veins.
Deoxygenated blood comes from the body through two large veins (vena cava) to the right atrium. It goes to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and then it is pumped through the pulmonary valve through the pulmonary artery and to the lungs.
In the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is added.
The blood returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary vein and enters the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve. Then it is pumped through the aortic valve to the aorta and to the body.
|3||Other Blood Components||Thrombocyte||(Platelet) causes blood to clot when there is an injury.|
|4||Human Leukocyte Antigen System (HLA)||A group of over 100 antigens on the surface of cells are important for organ transplant because they are recognized by white blood cells.|
|5||Antigen||A large protein found on the surface of red blood cells that gives the blood the type or identity.|
|6||Antibody||They provide a major defense for our bodies against invasion by alien organisms. They recognize and eliminate bacteria and viruses, mismatched blood transfusions and organ transplants.|
|7||Plasma||Clear liquid in which all the cells travel|
|Structures||Lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, tonsils, Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)), Peyer's patches|
|Function||Absorbs excess fluid, absorbs fat from the small intestine and immune response|
|There are 60,000 miles (96,000 Km) of blood vessels in our body.|
|Cardiologist. Treats diseases and impairments of the heart||Phlebotomist. Takes blood.|
|Hemophilia. Inability to clot blood causes bleeding||Sickle Cell Anemia. It deforms red blood cells|
Heart Attack. Blood clot or clogged vessel in the heart.
Stroke. Blood clot or clogged vessel in the brain.
Deep Vein Thrombosis. Blood clot in the legs.
Surfer's Myelopathy. Stroke to the spinal cord caused by arching the back and cutting off blood supply to the spine.
|A blood clot or other substances can block the flow of blood and causes the surrounding cells to die and they eventually stop functioning. High cholesterol can build up in the walls of the blood vessels and block them.|
|Stethoscope. Instrument for listening to sounds in the body||Sphygmometer. Measures blood pressure|
|Blood Pressure. This is the force against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is given as two numbers. The systolic over the diastolic. Normal pressure is less than 120/80.||Systolic. Maximum pressure when the heart contracts|
|Diastolic. Pressure when the heart is at rest|
|1||Outer Ear||Pinna||Ear lobes collect sound|
|2||External auditory meatus||Ear canal|
|3||Middle Ear||Ear drum||Transmits sound|
|4a||Malleus||Bones amplify sound in this air filled chamber. Their movement is caused by the movement of the ear drums|
|5||Inner Ear||Cochlea||Interprets sound|
|6||Nerves||Transmits signals to the brain|
|7||Semi circular canal||Three fluid filled tubes aligned in three different directions. They give the sense of balance.|
|The TRPA-1 protein is a chemical that converts sound into electrical impulses.|
|Musician. Creates beautiful sounds for entertainment.||EENT. Eye, Ears nose and throat specialist.|
|Deaf. Inability to hear. Over 100 genes affect hearing||Vertigo. Lack of balance and dizziness|
|Otoscope. Instrument for examining the ear||Myringoscope. Instrument for viewing the ear drum|
|Left Hemisphere||Controls right side of body and verbal stimulii (words)|
|Right Hemisphere||Controls left side of body and non verbal stimulii (sounds)|
|Grey matter||Neuron cell bodies on the surface of the brain (cortex)|
|White Matter||Connecting fibers in the brain interior|
|Hind Brain||Medulla Oblangata, pons, cerebellum|
|1||Medulla Oblangata||Regulates body functions such as breathing and heart beat|
|2||Pons||The Pons and medulla control respiration|
|3||Cerebellum||Cerebellum regulates posture and balance and coordinates skilled movements|
|Fore Brain||Cerebral Cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus|
The brain weighs three pounds, and has more than 100 billion neurons and 50 billion supporting cells.
If stacked on top of each other, they would reach 5000 miles.
It uses 20% of the blood and 20% of the oxygen we breathe.
The brain is protected by the skull and the spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column. There are two halves called the left and right hemispheres, they are connected by the corpus callosum.
Sense. Speak, see, hear, smell, feel, walk, make sounds.
Organs. Tongue, eye, ears, nose, hands, feet, throat.
» Status Stone (Stone Of Standing). Shrimp place a grain of sand in a special place in their head every time they molt.
|Cerebral Cortex||Outer portion of the cerebrum which is divided into lobes. (Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital). The cerebrum is responsible for consciousness|
|4||Temporal Lobe||Auditory Association area||Sound, memory storage|
|4a||Wernicke's area||(Lateral cerebral sulcus) Language comprehension|
|4b||Pituitary Gland||Endocrine gland which control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation|
|4c||Thalamus||All sensory input except smell|
|4d||Hypothalamus||Regulates the autonomic nervous system by hormone production and release. Hunger, blood pressure, heart rate, sleep and wake, arousal, thirst, water balance, body temperature, circadian cycles|
|4e|| The Limbic System is a combination of several structures which control the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. This affects emotion and pleasure, memories, sex, hunger, sleep, judgment, mood, insight, motivation.
Fasting. Learning to control the appetite will help to control the desires of the limbic system.
|4e1||Amygdala||Fear, jealousy, aggression|
|4e2||Nucleus Accumbens||Reward, pleasure, addiction, sex|
|4e3||Mesolimbic system||Secrete dopamine. Food cravings, sex, hallucinations, delusions|
|4e4||Striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens)||Coordination center for chemical messengers. Process information from the limbic system and frontal lobe. Regulates dopamine levels, walking, balance. Superior autobiographical memory and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with the caudate nucleus.|
|4e5||Hippocampus||Long term memory|
|4e6||Orbitofrontal Cortex||Decision making, morality|
|4e7||Cingulate Gyrus||Autonomic functions. Heart rate, blood pressure, thinking about self|
|4f||Insula (Insular Cortex or Island of Reil). Integrates the mind and body displaying social emotions, things like lust and disgust, pride and humiliation, guilt and atonement. It gives moral intuition, empathy and the capacity to respond emotionally to music. Hunger, taste, craving, breathe, addiction, heat, cold, itch, tell fresh food from rotten, muscle ache, pain (anticipate or feel).|
|5a||Frontal Lobe||Prefrontal Cortex||Personality, complex thought, emotion. Accutane affects this part of the brain.|
|5b||Motor Association Cortex||Complex movement coordination|
|5c||Broca's Area||Speech center|
|5d||Auditory Cortex||Sound quality, loudness, tone|
Homunculus ("The Little Man in the Brain").
It is responsible for the phantom limbs felt by amputees.
They are arranged in order from the middle of the brain to the sides in this general order.
|5e||Primary Motor Cortex||Voluntary movement. Motor homunculus|
|5f||Primary Somatosensory Cortex||Touch signals. Sensory homunculus|
|Central Sulcus||(Fissure of Rolando) is a fold or groove separating the frontal and parietal lobes|
|Corpus Callosum||Bundle of axons (300 million fibers) connecting the left and right hemispheres.|
|6||Parietal Lobe||Sensory Association Cortex||Touch, pressure, pain, temperature, homunculus|
|7a||Occipital Lobe||Visual Association area||Complex visual information|
|7b||Visual Cortex||Simple visual information|
|9||Spinal Cord||Carries signals between the brain and the body. It is located in the center of the vertebrae|
|White Matter||Connecting fibers that form the interior of the brain|
|Gray Matter||The neurons that form the cortex on the surface|
|Central Nervous System||The brain and the spinal cord|
The Nervous System
The neurons transmit electrical signals between the brain, spine, muscles and sensory organs.
|Peripheral Nervous System||The neurons of the brain and spine|
|Sensory Neurons||Send information from the outside to the central nervous system. They have long dendrons and short axons. Cell body and dendrites are outside the spinal cord|
|Relay Neurons||These nerves carry signals between neurons. They have short axons and dendrons and are located in the spinal cord.|
|Motor Neurons||Send information from the central nervous to the muscles. They have short dendrons and long axons. Axon is outside the spinal cord and the terminals attach to the muscles.|
|10a||Neuron||Cell Body||Sends and receives nerve signals|
|10b||Dendron||Sends signals to the cell body|
|10c||Axon||Sends electrical signals from the cell|
|10d||Axon Terminals||They secrete neurotransmitters into the synapse|
|10e||Myelin sheath||Insulation created by the schwann cell which is wrapped around the axon. It increases the speed of the signal.|
|10f||Synapse||The space between the axon termonal of one neuron and the dendron of another|
|Neurologist. Treats diseases of the brain||Psychiatrist. Treats mental disorders|
|Huntington's Disease. Inherited disease destroys brain||Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CFJ). Human form of Mad Cow Disease|
|Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS). Damages motor nerves||Parkinson's disease. Nerve cells in the brain die|
|Alzheimers. Dementia, possibly caused by type 3 diabetes due to insulin receptors in the brain||Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Young onset dementia caused by shrinking brain|
|Lewy Body Disease (LBD). Dementia caused by abmormal structures in the midbrain or cortex, microscopic protein deposits in the nerve that disrupts signals||Niemann Pick Disease Type C. Childhood dementia caused by fatty deposit buildup in the cells|
|1||Outer Eye||Eye lids||Protects the eye|
|2||Tear duct||Cleans the eye. Keeps it moist|
|3a||Eye ball||Iris||The colored part that changes the size of the pupil and the amount of light.|
|3b||Pupil||The opening of the eye in the iris|
|4a||Cornea||Adjusts the focus of the light|
|4b||Lens||Adjusts the focus of the light|
|-||Fluid||Aqueous Humor||The watery liquid in the front chamber before the iris and lens|
|-||Vitreous Body||The jelly liquid in the rear chamber behind the iris and lens|
The retina contains 100 million rods and seven million cones and a chemical called rhodopsin, or "visual purple."
Rhodopsin converts light into electrical impulses that are transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve.
The cones are sensitive to red, blue and green.
Rods handle vision in low light.
Look at what a color blind person sees.
The Blind Spot. It occurs where the about 1 million axons of the nerves and blood vessels exit the eye. At that location there can be no rods or cones to interpret vision.
The Yellow Spot (Fovea). It is a part of the retina located behind the pupil and includes only cones. It is responsible for good visual resolution.
Night Blindness. The inability to see clearly in the dark. Vitamin A deficiency can cause this problem because it is used to make retinal, which is a part of the pigment which absorbs light.
|5||Nerve Signals||Retina||Converts light to nerve impulses. Two dimensional images appear up side down on the retina|
|6||Rods||Rods interpret black and white color|
|Cones||Cones absorb red, green or blue light|
|7||Optic Nerves||Sends signals to the occipital lobe of the brain|
|8a||Muscles||Lateral and medial rectus||Moves eye away from and towards the nose|
|8b||Superior and Inferior rectus||Raises and Lowers eye|
|8c||Superior and Inferior oblique||Rotates eye|
|8d||Ciliary body||It contracts and relaxes to control the size of the lens for focusing|
|8e||Dilator and sphincter||Makes the iris smaller or larger. As the iris gets smaller the pupil gets larger.|
|-||Layers||Sclerotic Coat||Tough outer layer. The white of the eye and the transparent cornea|
|-||Choroid Coat||Middle layer. Pigmented with melanin, forms the iris|
|5||Retina||Inner layer with light receptors|
|Opthalmologist. Treats diseases of the eye||Optometrist. Prescribes eyeglasses|
|Cataracts. Cloudy appearance of the lens||Glaucoma. Pressure in the eye from excess aqueous humor|
|Myopia. Nearsightedness.||Hyperopia. Farsightedness.|
|Opthalmoscope. Views the interior of the eye||Chromatoptometer. Measures the eye's sensitivity to color|
Our eyes have three color receptors (red, blue, green). These are the primary colors of light. A person with color blindness (color deficiency) has difficulty seeing one or more of these colors. However, they may be extremely good at identifying variations in shade of the same color. This makes them excellent snipers and good at identifying camouflaged objects.
Do you think that we will be able to see radio waves or hear visible light when we go to heaven?
Are there other colors? Can we hear, feel, smell or taste colors? It is possible if God widens the range of our receptors.
Imagine seeing a song and composing music so that the color combinations and patterns it creates are as interesting as the sound. Could we create a song that generates heat that will keep us warm or cool? If we can use heat to run motors, is it possible to use sound or light as a new energy source?
|Synesthesia. This means joined perception. It is a condition in which some people experience another sense in addition to the primary sensation. They might experience a certain taste when they hear sound. Or see colors associated with letters. This is because the areas in the brain that process the senses are close to each other and have developed crossed links. So no two people will have the same experience. This is different from the ability that I describe above.|
The Endocrine System
|Endocrine||Pituitary||Luteinizing (LH)||Production of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone||Precocious puberty||Delayed or absent puberty|
|Follicle Stimulating (FSH)||Stimulate egg or sperm production||Polycystic ovary syndrome||Infertility|
|Human Growth (HGH)||Muscle, fat, liver and bone growth||Gigantism, Acromegaly||Pituitary Dwarfism|
|Prolactin||Stimulate milk production||Infertility||No lactation|
|Melanocyte stimulating (MSH)||Places melanin in the skin||Melanism||Leukoderma|
|Thyroid stimulating (TSH)||Stimulate thyroxine||Hyperthyroidism||Hypothyroidism|
|Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)||Stimulate adrenal gland||Cushing's Syndrome||Addison's Disease|
|Adrenal Glands||Cortisol||Immune suppression and stress response||Cushing's Syndrome||Addison's Disease|
|Hypothalamus||Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)||Preserve fluid and electrolyte balance. Water retention||Water retention||Diabetes insipidus|
|Hypothalamus||Oxytocin||Contractions of the uterus during labor||-||-|
|Thymus||Thymosin||Regulates the lymph system and T-cell production. It stops working at puberty||Myasthenia Gravis||No immune system. Degeorges syndrome|
|Pineal Gland||Melatonin||Biological clock, regulates sleep||Depression||Insomnia|
|Thyroid||Thyroxin T4, T3||Basal metabolic rate||Graves' disease||Goiter, cretinism, myxedema|
|Parathyroid||Parathyroid hormone||Regulates blood calcium, phosphorus and magnesium||Hypercalcemia||Hypocalcemia|
|Testes||Testosterone||Male characteristics||Precocious puberty||Abdominal fat|
|Ovaries||Estrogen||Female characteristics||Allergies||Raised LDL, osteoporosis|
|Progesterone||Female characteristics||Incontinence||Hypoglycemia, obesity|
|Pancreas||Insulin||Regulates blood sugar levels||Hypoglycemia||Diabetes mellitus|
|Exocrine||Pancreas||Gastric juices||Duodenum||Glands that secrete products through ducts or canals, such as sweat glands or mammary glands.|
|Prostate||Seminal fluid||Secretes slightly alkaline fluid|
|Sebaceous||Oil (sebum)||Hair follicle|
|The liver is the largest gland in the body|
|Endocrinologist. A doctor who diagnoses and treats diseases of the endocrine system (glands and hormone levels)|
|Goiter. A swollen thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency|
|1a||Fallopian Tube||Eggs travel down this tube to the uterus|
|2a||Cervix||Entrance to the uterus|
|2c||Placenta||Blood supply from the mother to the baby|
|2d||Umbilical Cord||Blood vessels from baby to mother|
|2e||Amniotic fluid||Baby swimming pool. Cushions baby|
|The egg is fertilized when the sperm meets an egg from the ovary. The egg is attached to the uterus and begins to grow. It takes forty weeks for the baby to grow in humans.||
|2f||Baby||Cries all night, eats a lot. Cute. Expensive. Not a toy. Wait until you are married.|
||3||Both||Urinary bladder||Urine is stored here|
|3a||Ureter||Urine flows to the bladder|
|3b||Urethra||Urine or sperm flows to the outside|
|4||Large Intestine||Eliminates solid waste|
|1a||Vas Deferens||Sperm travels to the urethra.|
|1b||Epididymis||Sperm matures and is stored here|
|2||Penis||Urinary and sexual organ|
|2a||Corpus Cavernosum||Helps to keep the penis erect|
|2b||Corpus Spongiosum||Helps to keep the penis erect|
|2c||Prostate Gland||Releases alkaline fluid that buffers the acidic urine.|
|Circumcision: The loose outer skin is stretched and a small portion is cut off and buried. At 8 days old the Jewish male perfomed this ceremony to join the covenant. It is a sign that the Messiah would have His outer human body cut off.||2d||Seminal Vesicle||Stores mucus, fructose, amino acids and hormones to help the sperm|
|2e||Prepuce||Foreskin cut off in circumcision|
|Male. Did you know that God used circumcision to illustrate what would happen to Him as He kept His vows in the Plan of Salvation? God made peace by offering Himself and He became the Father of a new creation through His seed.|
|Female. Did you know that God also used the female reproductive system to illustrate the timing of the Plan of Salvation?|
| Pediatrician. Treats diseases in children
Neonatologist. Treats premature children, newborns
| Gynecologist. Treats diseases and impairments in women
Obstetrician. Treats pregnant women
|Pregnancy. A child growing in the uterus||Prostate Cancer.|
Swallowing and mixing
|Esophagus||Mouth and teeth grind food and it is sent down the esophagus. Saliva in the mouth mixes with the food and breaks down starch|
|2||Stomach||Holds and mixes food. Kills bacteria and living cells with hydrochloric acid and breaks down protein with pepsin|
|Small intestine||17 feet long (518 cm). Digests and absorbs food. The duodenum in the upper part digests food and the rest of the intestine (jejunum and ileum) abso bs nutrients. The cause of diabetes may be found in the duodenum|
|4||Pancreas||Insulin manages glucose. Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acid. Digestive enzymes break down food|
|5||Liver||Breaks down fat, removes toxins, stores glucose|
|6||Gall bladder||Makes bile which helps to digest fat|
|7||Appendix||Processes good bacteria for digestion|
|Peristalsis is the automatic movement of the muscles of the esophagus to send food towards the stomach||7||Large Intestine||5 feet (152 cm) long. (Caecum, appendix, ascending colum, transverse colon, descending colon, rectum). Absorbs water|
|Holds and removes solid waste|
|8||Rectum||Solid waste exit|
|Ruminant Stomach||Some vegetarian animals have a stomach designed to digest plant material. Their stomach has four parts. During digestion, food goes from the mouth to the first and second stomach. Then the animal lies down and the food is regurgitated and is swallowed into the third stomach. Then it goes to the fourth stomach and to the intestines.|
|1||Chewing and fermentation||Rumen||The bacteria named cellulase breaks down and ferments cellulose|
|2||Reticulum||Packs undigested food into cud so that it can be regurgitated and chewed again.|
|3||Ingestion||Omasum||Water is absorbed|
|Prepares food for digestion in the small intestine. It releases hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes|
|Did you know that God used the ruminant stomach to illustrate the resurrection which is a critical part of the Plan of Salvation? The stomach of the clean animal demonstrates the death burial and resurrection of the Seed of God who would spring back to life after it fell into the earth and died.|
|Cows eat as much as 90 pounds (41 kg) of food each day. This produces methane gas in their stomach. They can expel as much as 600 liters (132 gallons) of gas each day (from both ends). This includes up to 455 liters (100 gallons) of burps. But cows that eat grass instead of feed mixtures produce less methane. Since methane is a greenhouse gas, cows contribute to global warming.|
|Gastroenterologist. Treats the digestive system.||Veterinarian. Treats diseases and impairments in animals|
|Ulcer. An acid burn in the stomach wall||Halitosis. Bad breath|
|Gastroscope. Instrument examines the stomach||Proctoscope. Instrument for examining the rectum|
|1||Kidneys||Nephron||Saves nutrients and concentrates urea|
|2a||Blood Vessels||Aorta||Blood is filtered under pressure and water, salt, amino acids and urea are removed. Everything except urea is later reabsorbed.|
|4||Elimination||Ureter||Urine flows from the kidney to the bladder through this tube|
|5||Urinary bladder||Urine is stored here|
|7||Urethra, Penis||Urine flows outside through one of these organs|
|Urologist. Treats diseases of the urinary system||Proctologist. Treats the intestines|
|Kidney Stones. Ureter blocked by deposits of calcium||Anuresis. Bed wetting|
|Cytoscope. Instrument for examining the bladder||Colonoscope. Instrument examines the colon|
Input And Output Flow Control
The fact that male and female exist is the greatest proof that God exists.
It is impossible for one complicated human being to evolve, but it is even more impossible for a male and a female to have evolved
because they would have to evolve within 30 years and a short distance from each other.
And this miracle of both male and female evolving must be repeated at least 26 million times (twice for each of the 13 million species we have named on earth). But there are probably over 100 million species.
Which system in our body do you think we will not have in our new bodies in heaven?
Why? How do you think we will function without it?
|What Do You Think?||
Animals, people and plants were about 200%-300% larger in the beginning and lived ten times longer.
Only since advancement in modern technology, nutrition and medicine have we seen a small increase in age and size since the middle ages (3 inches or 8 cm).
We can link the decrease in age to a change in diet from vegetarian to carniverous. What could have caused the great reduction in size? Change in diet and waste products. Pollution. Exposure to radiation. Decrease in the speed of light. Genetic changes and genetic pollution.
The Sabbath day was created as a day of rest. On that day, God had a party to celebrate.
In creating the Sabbath, He established the mental and spiritual laws.
These are rest, fellowship and love for others and for God.
Radioactive elements are in the seventh period. These are very energetic particles that need rest by turning into a more stable form. The Sabbath is given for rest.
|Pastor. Provides spiritual guidance.|
|Sin. Inability to make good moral choices|
|Bible. Recorded knowledge about God and His actions|
|Smoking Damages the Lung|
|Normal Lung||Smoker's Lung||Emphysema|
|The lung is pink with little black spots caused by inhaling carbon from pollution.||This lung is black with deposits of carbon and tar. The white spots are cancer.||Parts of the lung cannot expand or contract. It is difficult to breathe.|
|Difficult Breathing. Take a deep breath and hold it.
Take two more deep breaths without exhaling.
The last two breaths are what it is like to breathe with emphysema.
|Oncologist. Treats cancer.|
|Emphysema. Damaged lung impairs breathing|
Caring For Your Mind And Body
Many people abuse dangerous legal substances, prescription drugs and illegal drugs because of the good feeling that they get for ten minutes. Unfortunately, these are addictive, destroy the mind and the body and your future.
Although some drugs give a good feeling in the beginning, they quickly become addictive and it takes more of the drug to give the same high, until finally there is no more pleasure and you need to take the drugs to avoid the pain of withdrawal.
Alcohol and Cigarettes. Legal substances such as alcohol and cigarettes are often the first substances used and become the gate through which the other drugs are abused. Here are some facts about smoking.
In addition, the people who profit from the sales of these drugs are also responsible for the cycle of evil
in murder, crime, slavery, terrorism and misery.
Appetite Suppressants. I also notice that many drugs created as appetite suppressants commonly become these narcotic drugs or are banned because they cause permanent damage. The class of drugs designed as appetite suppressants have proven to be dangerous almost every time. They have destroyed the brain, liver and the heart tissue. Do not let the drug companies experiment on you.
Club Drug. These are drugs that are popular at bars, all night parties and dances. MDMA (Ecstasy), GHB, Rohypnol, ketamine, methamphetamine, and LSD.
|Legal substances||Food, household chemicals|
|Alter sleep pattern, reduce motor coordination, headaches, dizziness, nervousness. 10 grams is fatal. |
Caffeine is found in coffee, tea and soft drinks.
|Frontal lobe, poor coordination, reduces brain size, low weight babies, mental retardation, birth defects|
|Nicotine (Cigarettes, tobacco)||Stimulant|| Cancer, lung disease, heart disease, emphysema, stroke, bronchitis, bad breath, yellow teeth. 33% or one in every three cancer deaths are caused by smoking.
Every month tobacco kills 418,000 people in the world, including 36,000 Americans!
|Hallucinogenic mushrooms||Hallucinogen||Hallucination, deep sleep, similar to symptoms of alcohol intoxication|
|Inhalants||Depressant||Nail polish, paint, glue, gasoline and over 100 products can be inhaled. They cause permanent damage to the brain and other organs and death. Effects are hallucination, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sleepiness and slurred speech. They affect the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus.|
|Nitrous Oxide||Dissociative||Laughing gas, gas, whippitts, nitrous, blue bottle. Anesthesia. Kidney or liver damage, peripheral neuropathy, spontaneous abortion|
|Over the Counter Medicine||Legal drugs|
|Dextromithorphan||Depressant||Triple-C, robo. The effects are similar to PCP or morphine. It is found in cough medicine such as coriciden and robitussin.|
|Codeine||Depressant||The effects are similar to PCP or morphine.|
|Controlled Substances||Prescription drugs, illegal drugs|
|Amphetamine||Stimulant||Same effects as cocaine|
|Methamphetamine||Stimulant||(Speed, meth, chalk, ice, crystal, glass) Parkinson's disease symptoms, euphoria, aggression, insomnia, confusion, tremors, paranoia, convulsions, stroke, anorexia and anxiety. Very addictive.|
|Ritalin||Stimulant||(West Coast) same effect as Amphetamines. Given to ADHD children|
|Barbiturates||Depressant||Anxiety, insomnia, seizures, nausea, hallucinations, reduces inhibitions|
|Oxycontin||Depressant||A pain reliever with effects that are similar to heroin. It can also be crushed, dissolved in water and injected.|
|Methadone||Depressant||A pain reliever with effects that are similar to heroin. Used to treat heroin addiction but it is more addictive|
Date Rape Drugs|
These drugs are colorless, odorless, tasteless and erases memory of crimes being done on your body
|(Roofies, Roach, R-2, Mind Erasers, Roche, Stupifi, Shays). Permanent memory loss, visual disturbance, motion difficulty, drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, respiratory depression, amnesia|
|1,4-Butanediol (BD)||Depressant||Permanent memory loss. Becomes GHB in the body|
|Illegal substances and Club Drugs||Drugs, pills, plants|
|GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyerate)||Depressant||Date rape drug with a salty taste. (Tranquility G, midnight blue, GHB, GBH, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid G, Somatomax, Cherry Meth, Easy Lay, Gamma 10) Permanent memory loss. Death. Coma, loss of consciousness, decreased inhibitions, nausea, convulsions, amnesia - same effects as alcohol. The dosage needed to get high is close to the lethal dose. It is used as an industrial floor cleaner.|
|Ecstasy (MDMA)||Stimulant||Permanent brain damage, memory loss, lowers inhibitions.|
|Ketamine||Hallucinogen||(Special K, Vitamin K, Ket, K, Kit Kat, Keller, Cat Valium, Purple, Super C) used as an animal tranquilizer. It causes delerium, amnesia, motor and respiratory problems. It is a powder that is smoked and is usually combined with other drugs.|
|Cocaine||Stimulant, Hallucinogen||(Crank, crack cocaine). It is smoked, inhaled or injected. Insomnia, depression, hallucination, anxiety, headache, euphoria and death|
|Crystal Meth||Stimulant||(Glass, ice) A type of amphetamine in powder form|
|PCP||Depressant, stimulant, analgesic, hallucinogen||Eaten, inhaled, injected or smoked. (Angel dust, hog, rocket fuel, DOA, peace pill) Violent, suicidal, psychotic, confusion, drooling, coma and death|
|LSD||Hallucinogen||Hallucination, paranoia, confusion, panic and the effects can occur for years after|
|Heroin, opium||Depressant||(Horse, crank, smack, jive, dope, shag, junk, black tar) It is smoked, inhaled or injected. Sleepiness, reduces pain, brief euphoria, coma, death|
|Marijuana||Depressant||(Grass, pot, weed, reefer) Hallucination, delusion, sleepiness, impaired memory, disorientation|
|Hashish||Depressant||Same effect as marijuana|
|Salvia||Hallucinogen||Divine sage, magic mint. Same effect as LSD. Suicidal thoughts|
|Designer Drugs||Barely legal drugs. A new drug designed to mimic the effect of controlled substances but is legal because it is not yet controlled|
|Bath Salts||Stimulant||Same effect as cocaine and amphetamines|
|2C-I||Hallucinogen||(Smiles) Phenylethylamines. 2Cs class of drugs causes strokes, increase heart rate and cause it to beat out of rhythm|
|Fake Weed, K2, K3||Hallucinogen||(Spice, Black Mamba, Mr. Nice guy). Synthetic marijuana sprayed with psychotropic drug and sold as organic blend for smoking, incense or potpourri. It is illegal in many countries. The effects are the same as marijuana, but with elevated blood pressure and heart rate. It is sold and labeled only as herbs. However, several synthetic drugs which can be up to 800 times more potent than cannabis are the active ingredients|
|Dangerous Behavior||Children get a high without drugs by causing oxygen deprivation through asphyxiation, or hyperventilation. A high is also achieved when oxygen rushes back to the brain.|
|The Choking Game||Stimulant||(Space game, blackout, dream monkey, pass out game, fainting game, tingling game, gasp, knockout). Causes brain damage and death. Symptoms are headaches, red eyes, blood shot eyes, and marks on the neck. One method is to use other objects to choke themselves. So look for ties, ropes, bags or anything than can be used for choking or hanging.|
|Mortician. Prepares a dead body for burial.||Autopsy Surgeon. Examines body for the cause of death|
|Lawyer. Defends a criminal in court.||Detective and Police. Investigates crimes, arrests criminal.|
|Addiction. Abnormal dependency on drugs||Alcoholism. Abnormal dependency or addiction to alcohol|
|Alcoholometer. Measures alcohol content||Breathalyzer. Field test for measuring alcohol intoxication|
Caring For Your Mind And Body: Food And Nutrition
|God describes bread and water as our basic foods. This was the diet in the Exodus.|
|My Vegetarian Food Pyramid|
Energy. We need carbohydrates to give our bodies energy.
Growth and Repair. Proteins are used to build muscles and repair the body.
Fiber. We need fibre to help to clean the digestive tract. We get this from fruits, beans and vegetables.
Rest. We need rest to restore our mental functions and to allow the body time to repair itself.
Sunshine and Fresh Air. Sunshine is good for creating Vitamin D in our bodies and for killing germs. It is also good for our mental health. Plants convert the energy from sunshine into food. Avoid the sun between the peak hours of 10:00 A.M. and 4:00 PM.
Exercise. We need at least sixty minutes of exercise every day to prevent weight gain.
Moderation (Temperance). Temperance is knowing how much to consume. Too much or too little can be deadly. Too much direct sunlight can damage the skin. Overeating can lead to obesity. Even too much water can cause water toxicity or leach minerals from the body.
Worship. We need to know God. Jesus said, "Man shall not live by bread alone but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God." (Matthew 4: 4)
These are the food groups:
Chemical Reactions. Vitamins and minerals are needed by the body to perform important chemical reactions that will process the carbohydrates, proteins and fats. These are found in fresh fruits and vegetables. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluable and the rest are water soluable. Sunshine can also make Vitamin D through our skin.
|Calcium||Ca||Healthy bones and teeth, blood clotting. Makes enzymes and hormones that regulate digestion, energy and fat metabolism, and nerve transmission.||Dark green leafy Vegetable, Broccoli, Beans, Soy, Nuts, Seeds, dried Fruits, Sea vegetables, Calcium fortified tofu, orange juice and soymilk|
|Iron||Fe||Manufactures hemoglobin which transports oxygen in blood. Strengthen the immune system.||Dark green leafy Vegetables, Legumes, Nuts and Seeds, Blackstrap molasses, dried Fruits, sea vegetables, whole and enriched Grains|
|Zinc||Zn||Makes enzymes in the body. Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Insulin, DNA and Prostate gland. Wound and burn healing.||Wheatgerm, Nuts, Almond nuts, Seeds, Pumpkin and Sunflower seeds, Beans, Mushrooms, whole Grain products|
|Magnesium||Mg||Similar function as calcium.||Nuts, Seeds, Beans and Peas, Avocados, Bananas, dark green leafy Vegetables, whole Grains, Soybeans|
|Potassium||K||Helps to balance and distribute fluids. Nerve transmission and cell membranes. Blood pressure, calcium balance and heartbeat.||Fruits, Figs, watermelon, cantaloupe, potatoes, vegetables, grains, Avocados, Bananas, Oranges, Beans and Peas, dried Fruits|
|Sodium||Na||Same as Potassium||Salt, Fresh fruits and Vegetables, Nuts|
|Phosphorous||P||Healthy bones and teeth. Growth and repair of cells. Nerve and muscle activity. Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats for energy.||Legumes, Soybeans, Nuts and Seeds, Wheatgerm, rice Bran, wheat Bran.|
|Boron||B||Essential for normal calcium and bone metabolism.||Fresh fruits and Vegetables, Nuts|
|Iodine||I||Thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism, growth, reproduction, nerve and muscle. Healthy hair and skin||Iodized Salt, nutritional Yeast, sea Vegetables, Almonds, Mushrooms|
|Manganese||Mn||Formation of connective tissues, fats, cholesterol, bones, blood clotting factors and proteins. Metabolism of carbohydrates.||Spinach, tea, whole grain Breads, Raisins, Blueberries, Pineapple, Legumes, Nuts, dark green leafy Vegetables, dried Fruits|
|Selenium||Se||Antioxidant, protects against cancer and heart disease. Important for normal development of fetus during pregnancy.||All plant foods grown in selenium rich soil|
|Copper||Cu||Heart, arteries, blood vessels and skeletal system. Nerve transmission, red blood cell, normal hair and skin color. Carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism||Unprocessed foods, whole Grains, dark green leafy Vegetables, Legumes|
|Chromium||Cr||Makes glucose tolerance factor, which maintains normal blood sugar levels. Stimulates protein synthesis||Nutritional yeast, whole grain Breads, Spices and Herbs|
Vitamins are complex compounds.
|A||Carotenoid, and retinol||Eyesight, night vision, bone formation, skin and teeth.||Dark green, dark yellow and orange vegetables, Carrot, Sweet potato, Colored fruits, Peach, Oranges, Apples.|
|B1||Thiamin||All body cells, nerves. Improve reaction time and hand-eye coordination. Protein, carbohydrates and fat metabolism||Wheat germ, Nutritional yeast, beans and peas, Collard greens, Raisins, Oranges, Nuts, whole grains.|
|B2||Riboflavin||Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats for energy. Growth and development, hormones and red blood cells.||Dark green leafy vegetables, Avocado, Wheatgerm, Whole grains.|
|B3||Niacin||Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Makes fats and hormones, red blood cells. Maintains cells.||Beans, peas, nuts, whole wheat and grains, potato, nutritional Yeast|
|B5||Panthothenic acid||Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Production of fats, cholesterol, bile, vitamin D, red blood cells, some hormones and neurotransmitters. Builds body cells.||Legumes, Soybeans, Avocados, Mushrooms, green vegetables, Bananas, Oranges, Whole grains, wheatgerm|
|B6||Pyridoxine||Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Makes red blood cells an enzymes. Maintains the nervous system and immune system.||Beans and peas, Nutritional Yeast, Wheatgerm, Nuts, Bananas, Avocados, Leafy green vegetables, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Potatoes, Whole grains, Dried fruit.|
|B9||Folate (Folic Acid)||Maintains cells, pregnancy. Makes DNA, neurotransmitters that regulate mood, sleep and appetite.||Dark green leafy vegetables, Nutritional Yeast, Beans, Avocados, Wheatgerm, fruits, banana, Orange, Whole grains|
|B7||Biotin||Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats.||Oatmeal, Nutritional yeast, Legumes, Soybeans, Mushrooms, bananas, Nuts, Whole grains|
|B12||Cyanocobalamin||Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Maintains the nervous system and all cells.||Nutritional yeast, Fortified foods and beverages, cereals, soymilk and orange juice.|
|C||Ascorbic acid||Makes collagen, strengthens connective tissues and immunity, promotes healing, healthy teeth, gums and bones. Antioxidant.||Fresh fruits and vegetables, Green pepper, Broccoli, Citrus fruits, Tomatoes, Guava, Strawberries|
|D||Sunshine Vitamin||Absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Aid in formation of bones, teeth, healthy nerve and muscle system.||Sunlight, Fortified foods and beverages|
|E||Tocopherol||Antioxidant. Protects body cells and tissues from damage, regulate use and storage of vitamin A.||Vegetable oils, Seeds, Nuts, Wheatgerm, Spinach, Peaches, Avocados, Broccoli, Dried prunes, Whole wheat|
|K||-||Blood clotting, promotes growth and healthy bones.||Green or leafy vegetables, Broccoli, Turnip greens, Cabbage, Cauliflowers, Avocados, oats, wheat, rye, and alfalfa|
|Essential Fatty Acids|
|Omega 3||Linolenic acid||Normal functioning of all body tissues||Nuts, seeds, vegetables, beans and fruits; vegetable oils such as canola, flaxseed, soybean, walnut, and wheat germ|
|Omega 6||Linoleic acid||Normal functioning of all body tissues||Nuts and seeds, sunflower seeds; vegetables oils such as black currant, borage, evening primrose, and hemp oils|
|Scurvy. Vitamin C deficiency causes bones to curve||Night Blindness. Vitamin A deficiency.|
|Rickets. Vitamin D deficiency causing soft bones||Beriberi. Thiamin deficiency.|
|Pellagra. Niacin (B3) and the amino acid tryptophan deficiency||Goiter. Iodine deficiency|
Play a Nutrition Game. Analyze your diet here.
People have different rules by which they prepare meals.
Our bodies are 75% water and our brain is 85% water. So we need to drink about 6 to 8 glasses per day. The rule is one quart of water (four glasses) for every 50 pounds of body weight. (One liter for every 22.68 kg). Water is best stored in glass containers. Plastic or metal might cause chemicals to contaminate the water.
|Municipal Water (Government supplied)|
|Tap (Municipal)||Surface||Purification||Chlorine and fluoride|
|Water of life||God||No||None. Naturally pure.|
|Sparkling||Any||No||carbon dioxide equal to the source|
|Mineral||Any||No||Natural or added inorganic minerals|
|Club soda||Any||No||carbon dioxide, flavor|
|Tonic||Any||No||carbonated water with quinine and high fructose corn syrup|
|Dehydration. Lack of water||Water Toxicity. Too much water|
Stop drinking and smoking. Exercise. Walk.
Mental Health. Do not take illegal drugs. Be kind to others. Thinking only about yourself does not promote good mental health. Care for others without any thought of a reward. A good spiritual life will help you to bond with others in true love.
Limit your exposure to violence and fake reality. Turn off the television. Go walking, hiking, read a book, do puzzles, construct puzzles. Learn to write with both hands. Then try to draw with both hands. Learn to write with your feet.
Spiritual Health. This is the most important thing you should do. Pray to God, praise Him and thank Him every day as often as you can. From this relationship you will learn to love and that you are loved so much by God.
Nutrient or Matter Life Cycles. Several important elements are needed to preserve life and they undergo several processes that recycle them. Notice that the sun plays a critical role in many processes.
Finally, this would not be complete without a scientific analysis of possible doomsday events. This list was taken from a two hour documentary on the History Channel called "Last Days on Earth".
|Human Activity||1||Planetary Climate Shift||The temperature and climate are being affected by green house gases causing global warming, glacier melting, rise in sea level and sea temperature and stronger hurricanes. Warmer temperatures also melt frozen methyl hydrates, releasing methane gas which is 26 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a green house gas|
|2||Plague||A pandemic caused by a deadly pathogen like H5N1, small pox, ebola or a reengineered germ that is used as a biological weapon|
|3||Atomic Weapon||A nuclear bomb|
|Earth||4||Supervolcano||A major eruption of a supervolcano could destroy a continent and plunge us into a state of nuclear winter|
|Outer Space||5||Asteroid||A cosmic bus crash. A large one could destroy the earth. Apophis will approach earth below the height of our communications satellites on April 13, 2029 and 2036|
|6||Renegade Black Hole||A giant cosmic vacuum cleaner. In 2000, scientists discovered that black holes can wander around aimlessly. A renegade black hole would suck up and devour our planet|
|7||Gamma Ray Bursts||Nuclear gamma radiation bursts occur about once per day. They are caused by the final collapse of a star. If one explodes close to earth it could kill all biological life in one month|
Caring For The Earth.
|Middle Brown |
|One set of brown parents can produce all colors
|Albino. Lack of skin color due to loss of melanin|
|Down's Syndrome. Excess chromosome 21 changes physical appearance|
Modern genetics shows that when a large, freely interbreeding group is suddenly broken into many smaller groups which from then on breed only among themselves (as the Biblical description of the language dispersion at Babel would imply), different racial characteristics will arise very rapidly. It can be shown that one pair of middle-brown parents could produce all known shades of color, from very white to very black, in one generation. The racial characteristics which exist today have not evolved, and generally speaking, are simply different combinations of pre-existing (created) genetic (hereditary) information. The environment plays a secondary role in favoring certain combinations over others.Environment does not change our genes. It may cause those with certain characteristics to move to a more favorable environment.
|Imagine||Since we are all descended from Adam and Eve, what do you think they looked like? The word Adam means red dirt. Is that a clue?|
|What Do You Think?||
If God does something different on Sabbath that He does not do on other days, then we may be able to detect this activity.
On Sabbath the creation rests. God might bring a spark of energy that rejuvenates those at rest.
It could work like a wave that synchronizes with those at rest (same frequency) but interferes with the waves of those at work.
Resting on another day can never capture this scheduled burst of energy.
This periodic boost may be part of the system of derived eternal life.
How awesome is our creator God! Thanks for coming to our Web site.
|In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1: 1)|| Time: 500 minutes
Print: 97 pages
CopyrightUpdated : October 2007
All images, except the lungs, were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.org
Laverna Patterson. B.S. Biochemistry. Columbia Union College (1982).
USGS article on volcanoes. URL: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/types.html
Tornado information from NOAA. URL: http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/edu/tornado/
http://www.worldatlas.com/geoquiz/thelist.htm - Geographical measurements.
http://www.astronomysight.com/as/welcome.html - The name of the moons.
http://www.vegetarian-society.org - vitamins and minerals
http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/features/weatherbasics/clouds/shtml - Clouds
http://www.whyquit.com - for smoking information.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteroid - Encyclopedia
http://www.abbysenior.com/biology/Default.htm - Body systems
http://www.starryskies.com/The_sky/constellations/index.html - The best star charts
http://library.wolfram.com/webMathematica/Astronomy/StarChart.jsp - Creates dynamic star charts
http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/9111/DOC.HTML - Acid rain
http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/site_kids/games.htm - Acid rain for children
http://www.home.cio.net/timo/man/ - The origin of nations
http://www.christiananswers.net/q-aig/race-skincolor.html - Skin color
http://www.mypyramid.gov - The 2005 food pyramid
http://mypage.direct.ca/c/csamson/multiples.html - (Facts About Multiples)
http://www.howstuffworks.com/ - How Stuff Works.
http://gulfnews.com/news/world/other-world/great-barrier-reef-coral-has-halved-in-27-years-1.1083939 Great Barrier Reef coral Has halved in 27 years. 2 October 2012.