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Israel And The Exodus

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The Patriarchs Ten Commandments Other Laws Bible Numbers Mishkan Moses Sins
Sanctuary Lessons Feasts Passover Unleavened Bread Wave Offering Pentecost
Rosh Hashanah Feast of Trumpets Yom Kippur Tabernacles What color is God? The Sabbath

Mishkan
The mishkan, is the portable tabernacle the Israelites were commanded to build in the desert on the first day of the first month of the second year of the exodus (Exodus 40: 17). It was built from a pattern of a sanctuary in heaven.

The Messiah And The King Of The East
Significantly, two groups were on the eastern side of the sanctuary, Judah and the family of high priests from the Tribe of Levi. In the prophecy, the conquering King comes from the east. Jesus was from the tribe of Judah. He was also a High priest not of the line of Levi but of a new priesthood of unknown origin. The high priest also camped on the east side.

Month Division Priest
1 1 Jehoiarib
2 Jedaiah
All (Passover)
3 Harim
2 4 Seorim
5 Malchijah
6 Mijamin
7 Hakkoz
3 8 Abijah
All (Pentecost)
9 Jeshua
10 Shecaniah
4 11 Eliashib
12 Jakim
13 Huppah
14 Jeshebeab
15 Bilgah
5 16 Immer
17 Hezir
18 Happizzez
19 Pethahiah
6 20 Jehezkel
21 Jachin
22 Gamul
23 Delaiah
7 24 Maaziah
1 Jehoiarib
All (Tabernacles)
2 Jedaiah
8 3 Harim
4 Seorim
5 Malchijah
6 Mijamin
7 Hakkoz
9 8 Abijah
9 Jeshua
10 Shecaniah
11 Eliashib
10 12 Jakim
13 Huppah
14 Jeshebeab
15 Bilgah
11 16 Immer
17 Hezir
18 Happizzez
19 Pethahiah
12 20 Jehezkel
21 Jachin
22 Gamul
23 Delaiah
24 Maaziah

The Priests
Priest The tribe of Levi were used in the sanctuary duties, but it was the Sons of Moses and Aaron (Eleazar and Ithamar) 1 Chronicles 24: 2, 7-19 who served as priests. One could only be a priest between 30 and 50 years of age. Significantly, Jesus was baptized at 30 when he officially started His ministry.

There were only two types of priests - the ordinary priest and the high priest. They differed in dress and in duties.
The priests assisted in the sacrifices, where the sinner (not the priest) killed the offering. Then they took the blood to be used in the services. This shows that ultimately, we caused the death of Christ for our sins.
The High Priest had special duties, only he alone could go in the Most Holy Place and only once per year on the Day of atonement. On that day he wore only the white garments of the ordinary priest. During the rest of the year he alone wore the colorful garments while the other priests wore white. This garment consisted of:

Two Types Of Priests
There are two types of priests.
Levi. The tribe of Levi, served as the family of priests over the temporary sacrifices. These sacrifices and these priests could not abolish the problem of sin. Both the priest and sacrifices were imperfect. Jesus was not from the tribe of Levi, He was from Judah. He was not of the tribe of imperfect priests.

Melchizedek . This was a more perfect type of priest. These priests had no genealogy, they lived forever and were Kings of peace and righteousness. (Hebrews 7: 2)

The Divisions of Priests
The priests were divided into groups of 24, each serving on his regular tour for two separate weeks and at the three important feasts.
According to Deuteronomy 16: 16, for three feasts (Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, and Tabernacles) all men were to go to Jerusalem. All priests reported for duty to handle the crowd during these feasts.
Each tour of duty lasted one week beginning and ending on a Sabbath (1 Chronicles 9: 25; 2 Chronicles 23: 8). The Hebrew Tradition states that the family of priests would be divided into six groups. Each would serve on one day of the week and they would all serve on the Sabbath.

NoteNote - the addition of a fifth week in the division indicates that at least 6 or 7 extra days have accumulated. It is not meant to indicate that that particular month had five weeks. Nor is the table meant to imply that the duties of the priests began the first day of the month.

The Blue Cord
A tradition states that a blue cord was tied around the ankle of the High priest on the day of Atonement. This was so that he could be removed if he died in the presence of God. No one else could enter the Most Holy Place.
On that day the priest was supposed to approach God without sin.
The practice started during the days of Greek rule. The priesthood was corrupted and the office of high priest was usually bought and they took bribes. Normally, the high priest would live for many years, but, during that time about 300 high priest died when they entered the Most Holy Place on Yom Kippur.
The Gemara records only eighteen high priests who served during the 410 years of the first temple period (Mikdash).
The second temple period lasted about 420 years. At first, there were eight priests who served a normal length of time. Then over 300 Pharisee priests served and none of them completed their duties on Yom Kippur, they all died.

Types Of Offering
Jewish Name Type of Offering Offering God's Portion Priest's Portion People's Portion Purpose or Meaning
Olah Burnt Cattle, sheep, goat, birds Entire offering None None Complete submission to the will of God
Chatat Sin Bullock, male goat Fatty portions Remainder None For unintentional sin. Meant for sorrow and reconciliation with God.
Asham Guilt Ram Fatty portions Remainder None For stealing from the altar or if you are unsure a sin was committed.
Minchah Meal
(food and drink)
Cattle, sheep, goat, birds Some burnt, Fatty portion Remainder None The fruit of man's labor given to God
Shelamin Peace Ox, sheep, male goat, 1 year old male lamb Fatty portion Breast - Wave offering
Right foreleg - Heave offering
Remainder Fellowship with God and the community
Towdah (Thank) Ox, sheep, goat Fatty portion Breast, right foreleg Remainder For unexpected blessing or deliverance
Neder (Votive) Ox, sheep, goat Fatty portion Breast, right foreleg Remainder For blessing or deliverance when a vow has been made
Nedabah (Freewill) Ox, sheep, goat Fatty portion Breast, right foreleg Remainder To express thanks and love to God for no special reason
Parah Adumah The Red Heifer Red Heifer Entire offering None None Numbers 19. Purifies people from the defilement caused by contact with the dead. A red heifer was born in Israel in 1997.

The Sin Of Moses
What did Moses do that was so terrible, that God had to punish him by making him die before he saw the "Promised Land".
This is actually a beautiful story which brings out the great importance of the symbolism in the Sanctuary services and the exact specifications that God personally gave to Moses.
If you think that any commandment or ritual that God personally came from heaven to give can be lightly put aside. Think again.
The significance is so astounding that it calls into question the seriousness of the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass. According to this doctrine, Christ is continually being sacrificed during the communion and the bread is changed so that it is the actual body of Christ. So Christ dies over and over again.

But according to the lesson God taught Moses, the Messiah (the Rock) was to be broken (die) once for all. After that you must speak to the Rock. When Moses hit the Rock twice in his anger, he ruined the symbolism. It was such a grave error that God had to reprimand him publicly, in the most serious way.
Star The symbolism was meant to be this:

In the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, the church claims to Daily put Christ to death over and over again in reality (not as a symbol).

But in the Communion Service that Christ instituted at the Last Supper, Christ says to do these things "In remembrance" of him. Just like the Israelites needed the sanctuary service to remind them of the coming works of God, we need to be reminded of what he has done for us. Of themselves these services do not have the ability to save us. Christ already did that - once for all, what they do is to help us to remember. It is an object lesson that everyone can understand. Including the blind, the deaf and those who cannot read about the sacrifice.

This experience of Moses teaches us that it is important to understand that He must only die once. It also points out the central role of prayer as the permanent way for us to communicate with God.

Interesting Facts

Temple Sacrifices
The Jews stopped offering sacrifices in the year 70 A.D. when the Roman army destroyed the temple in Jerusalem. Sacrifices were stopped because the Jews do not have a proper place to offer them. The Torah requires sacrifices to be offered only in places that God has chosen for that purpose (Deuteronomy 13: 13-14) not where the people felt like it. The last place appointed by God was at the temple in Jerusalem. So, until another Jewish temple is at that location, they cannot legally begin sacrifices again.

Interesting Dates Of Significant Events
The timing of significant events seems to indicate that God has set a clock that centers around the Passover and the day of atonement. The Passover represents time of great rescue. The day of atonement represents the time when all who will reach the promised land are chosen. The feast of tabernacles represents the day we celebrate in our new home.
Date Event Comment
Nisan (Abib)
Month 1
Day 1 Water dried, Noah removes covering from the ark Surf Flood. Genesis 8: 13
Day 1 Portable Sanctuary erected and consecrated in Year 2 Exodus 40: 2
Day 1 Finished 3 month counseling with men who had foreign wives and children from Babylon. Ezra 10: 16-17
They will remove foreign wives and children
Day 1 New Year for counting the reign of kings and festivals Beginning of the year (Exodus 12: 2)
Day 1 The day the earth was created Jewish Tradition (Mishna)
Day 10 Passover lambs obtained Exodus 12: 3
Day 10 Israel crosses the Jordan into the Promised Land Joshua 4: 19 Camped at Gilgal
Day 10 Ezekiel was chosen while captive in Babylon Ezekiel 40: 1
Day 14-21 Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread Meal Official Feast (Leviticus 23: 5-8)
Day 14 Crucifixion. Firstborn killed Christ the lamb
Day 15 Jesus in the grave Christ the dead seed in the ground
Day 15 Israel goes to Egypt ★ Exodus 12: 41
Day 15 Exodus begins Exodus begins 430 years after entering Egypt. Exodus 12: 41
Day 15 Israel ate food in the promised land Joshua 5: 12
Day 16 Manna stopped after eating the food of the Promised Land Joshua 5: 12
Day 16 Resurrection Christ (the first fruits)
Day 16? Feast of Weeks (Counting the Omer) 49 days Leviticus 23: 15-17
Day 21 Red sea parts The way is opened to the Promised Land

Iyar
Month 2
Day 1 Census. Year 2 Exodus begins. Numbers 1: 1,18
Day 10 Noah entered the Ark. Door closed Surf Flood. Genesis 7: 10
Day 14 - The second Passover Numbers 9: 11
Day 16 Manna fell the day after they arrived at Elim Exodus 16: 1, Exodus 16: 2, 6-7
Day 17 Lag B'Omer (33 days of counting the Omer)
150 Days until Ark rests on Mt Ararat during Tabernacles
Surf Flood started. Genesis 7: 11
Day 17? Jesus met the disciples by the sea for a picnic within 40 days of the crucifixion ★ John 21: 4, 9, 12, 14, Acts 1: 2-3,
Deuteronomy 33: 24-25 (prophecy)
Day 27 Earth dried, exited the ark Surf Flood. Genesis 8: 14
Day ? Solomon started building the temple 1 Kings 6: 1
Day ? Foundation of temple built in fourth year 1 Kings 6: 37

Sivan
Month 3
Day 6 Shavu'ot (Pentecost) Meal Official Feast (Leviticus 23: 16-21)
Rainbow probably occurred now, 9 days after exiting the ark began. Took 7 days to load Surf Flood. Genesis 9: 12-15
God came in fire. Holy Spirit at Pentecost
The giving of the Torah on Sinai. God came in fire Jewish Tradition
Day 15 Reached Sinai ★ Exodus 19: 1
Day 17 God came to Sinai ★ Exodus 19: 15-16
Day 26 Water stopped after 40 days Surf Flood
Av
Month 5
Day 1 Aaron died and Israel mourned for 30 days Jewish tradition
Day 9 Tishah b'Av (Temple destroyed) Deuteronomy 4:24-40;11:8-21; Jeremiah 8:13-9:24; Matthew 3:11-17; 23:16-23;24:1-2
Day 5 Sixth year, sixth month, in the fifth day of the month Ezekiel's vision date of the glory of God and the temple idolatry Ezekiel 8: 1 (Almost 6, 6, 6 date)
Elul
Month 6
Day 1 Moses went up the mountain a second time for 40 days Deuteronomy 4:24-40;11:8-21; Jeremiah 8:13-9:24; Matthew 3:11-17; 23:16-23;24:1-2
Day 1 New Year for bringing in the tithe of cattle -
Tishri
Month 7
Day 1 Feasts of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah) Meal Official Feast (Leviticus 23: 24-25)
New Year for counting the civil years -
Abraham offered up Isaac Jewish Tradition
Day 10 Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) Meal Official Feast (Leviticus 23: 27-32)
Moses returns with the second set of commandments after ascending on Elul 1. Other sources say this event occurred on Tishri 15 Jewish Tradition
Day 11 Moses gives instruction to build the tabernacle Jewish Tradition (Exodus 35; 36:1-7)
Day 15 Solomon's temple dedicated during the feast 1 Kings 8: 1-2; 2 Chronicles 7
Day 15 Some sources say the pillar of cloud and fire appeared on this day. If so, it must have been before the exodus, because the cloud and fire was there while they were crossing the Red sea
Day 15-22 Feast of Tabernacles Meal Official Feast (Leviticus 23: 34-43)
God tabernacles with mankind Birth of Christ (Day 15)
Circumcision of Christ (Day 22)
Day 17 Ark rested on Ararat Surf Flood Genesis 8: 4
Day 21 Haggai receives prophecy for Zerubabbel about the Glory of the Lord's house Haggai 2: 1 - Last day of Succos
Month 8 Day ? Solomon finishes the temple after 7 years 1 Kings 6: 38
Kislev
Month 9
Day 20 At the time of the Great Rain Ezra gathered the people in 3 days announcing this on the 18th. Decided to start with leaders with strange wives Ezra 10: 9
Day 24 Foundation of the Second Temple was laid Haggai 2: 10,18. Day before Hanukkah
Day 25 Mishkan was completed on Hanukkah but the honor was given to Nisan 1 as the dedication. So God said to Kislev, "I must pay you back" Jewish tradition about Hanukkah
Kislev 25 -
Teves 3
Feast of Dedication (Chanukkah)
Maccabean Revolt. Dedication of the temple after it was desecrated by the Greeks in 165BC
Moses' Mishkan Numbers 7:1-8:4; 28:1-15;
Solomon's Temple 1 Kings 7:40-50;
John 10:22-39
Kislev 25 21 December 2008. Winter solstice on Hanukkah Bible Science revelation began. Kislev repaid
Tebeth
Month 10
Day 1 Mountain tops visible Surf Flood. Genesis 8: 5
Day 1 Started 3 month counseling with men who had foreign wives and children Ezra 10: 16-17
Day 10 Nebuchadnezzar beseiged Jerusalem 2 Kings 25: 1
Shevat
Month 11
Day 11, 17, 24 Dove sent out Surf Flood
Day 15 Tu B'Shevat (New year for trees) -

Adar
Month 12
Day 6 or 7 Moses' birthday ★ Deuteronomy 31:2 and 34:8; Joshua 1:11
Day 13 Fast of Esther Esther 9:17-21
Day 14 Purim (Feast of Esther) Esther
★ A possible date based on reading the text

Calendars
A calendar is based on a naturally occurring cycle. Of these there are 2. The Solar and the Lunar calendar. Most Calendars are derived from two basic calendars that were essentially observation based.

Since none of these periods (years or months) are exactly divisible by days, a problem arose not only in synchronizing the various calendars but with synchronization of the seasons within each calendar. Therefore, the practice arose of making arbitrary divisions and inserting extra (intercalary) days or months.

Jewish Calendar
The months alternate in cycles of 30 and 29 days.
To keep the lunar and solar calendar in sync leap days and months are added at certain times. A day may be added to Heshvan or taken from Chislev. This can occur in an ordinary year or an embolismic year.
Type of Year Ordinary Embolismic
Common 354 384
Imperfect 353 383
Perfect 355 385
These are the types of years:

Jewish Calendar Rules
Hillel II introduced the current Jewish calendar in 358 A.D. The year of creation, 3761 BCE was established in 132 in the Seder Olam which is a chronology from creation to the Bar Kokba revolt. It is thought to be in error by over 200 years. In the Jewish calendar, the sun determined the days and the year and the moon determined the seasons and festivals. There are many rules concerning the establishment of the year. Among these rules are restrictions on which day of the week a feast day could occur. These rules are meant to avoid two consecutive Sabbaths (the weekly Sabbath and the feast day Sabbath).
These are the postponement rules for first day of the new year (Tishri 1) and feast days:

  1. The new month starts with the first sign of the full moon. These additional rules apply to Tishri 1.
  2. Passover (Nisan 15 - 22) must precede Tishri 1 by 163 days.
  3. Yom Kippur must not fall on a Friday or Sunday. This would cause two consecutive Sabbaths.
  4. Rosh Hashanah (Tishri 1) must not fall on a Sunday, Wednesday or Friday. If it falls on a Friday or Sunday, then there would be two consecutive Sabbaths. If it falls on a Wednesday, then the next Passover would begin on Friday and that would create two consecutive sabbaths.

Solar Jubilee Calendar
The Hillel II rules were not in force at the time of Christ. Other sources point to a calendar in which the dates start on specific days. This calendar with 12 months of 30 days may have been the original calendar. It uses these minimum bible rules where there is no basis for the postponement rules of Hillel II.

The Jubilee calendar had fifty two weeks in the year with four seasons of three months with thirteen weeks in each season. This was a 364 day year. That is twelve months of thirty days with four days added to each season. An extra week was added each sabbatical or jubilee year.

The first day of the first month always fell on a Wednesday and all the feast days would fall on the same day every year. Shavout is the 15th day of the third month. The first and last day of Pesach was always on the fourth day.

The Love of God - Sacrifice
Jesus Just like a will is not enforced until the death of the owner, so too was the covenant only enforced by the death of Christ. What we lost, Christ gave to us in a will. Our gift of life is an inheritance. He purchased our life with His own.

People often wonder if Christ ultimately sacrificed anything. He was God - all powerful. He could undo the effects of the punishment of sin. And He did. If there was no chance of dying forever - then He really did not risk death to save us. If he would regain His power after He was resurrected, then He did not lose anything. And, if He knows everything, then before he came to earth and took on human form and human limitations, then He knew before that He would not fail. So it doesn't matter if He didn't know these things as a human.
This is the reasoning. But is it the whole truth?
First of all, we cannot know what it costs Him until the end. Second, we evaluate risk and cost based on our viewpoint and our human limitations. We are looking at outcomes and final results. And we have the uncanny ability to forget the pain if it is replaced with joy. God deals with the memory of the entire process, not just the final result.

To beings with perfect knowledge of the past, present and future a 31 year gap in time could be the equivalent of having one of our eyes removed. To beings who love each other and have never caused each other hurt or pain, the memory of feeling abandoned and being forced to abandon your child is a moment in time that will always fill them with extreme anguish. Because, with perfect memories they will always remember the pain - perfectly.
And maybe Christ has surrendered some physical characteristics forever. We do not know. But in God's economy it is not the physical that matters, it is the spiritual. The realm we find hard to understand. This is the place where God remembers not just His pain, but all the children He lost, all the hurt they experienced. All the pain they caused.
This is the reality where God experiences His pain and His suffering and our pain and our suffering forever.

He sacrificed eternal joy.

The Final Exodus
Event World Moses JesusIsrael 31ADIsrael-Church Wicked
1 Slavery Tricked to sin Egypt slavesRedeemer Slaves of sin RighteousLoves sin
2 Deny Sabbath Sin - no rest More Work Sin Bearer Keeps Sabbath Changes day
3 Miracles Animals Come 10 Plagues Miracles Former RainLatter Rain Occult
4 Passover Sacrifical System Passover Lamb KilledForgiven once for all No effect
5 Persuing Army Satan Egypt RomeRome Babylon the great Magog
6 The Sea The Flood Red Sea Angry MobRome army AtlanticGlass sea Dragon flood
7 Dry Ground Ararat In the Red sea Grave/TombEmpty tombNew World HeavenEarth
8 Sabbath Rest
And Manna
No more flood
Destruction
Manna did not
spoil on Sabbath
Body did not decay on SabbathRest from sin
Bread of Life
Preserved in the fire
1000
Years
No rest
Hell Fire
9 God Mountain Ararat Sinai GolgothaTemple Mt Mount Zion Attacks Zion
10 Laws Noahide Law Laws on stone Laws written in the heartLawless
11 Covenant Rainbow Abraham New Covenant (Eternal Covenant)Wrath
12 Spies Report Angels Bad Report Good News (Gospel)Disciples Church JudgeWicked
13 Apostasy Babel No faith in God Reject faith Accepts Jesus (Faith)Atheism
14 40 Days/Years 4000 Years 40 Years 40 Days40 Years 40 Jubilees 40?42??
15 Battle Giants Dragon
7 heads
7 Nations
of giants
Satan, RomeRome, 70ADArmageddon
Giant battle
Satan (Gog)
16 Promised Land New Earth Canaan Heavenly Canaan (New Earth) Dust on Earth
It has been 40 jubilees (1961 years) between the birth of Christ and the establishment of the modern state of Israel (4 BC - 1948). We are now in the 40th jubilee since the crucifixion.
After escaping the armies of Babylon the Great we will cross over the Sea of Glass on our journey to heaven. There we will rest for 1000 years before returning to the new Earth, the ultimate Promised Land.

Summary
For me this has been the most interesting study. The Sanctuary services and the feasts are all prophecies about the work of the Messiah. It is rich with symbolism and themes that are repeated in many ways. God uses the same pattern of repetition in announcing the prophecies. It demonstrates that all of God's great truths are not hidden in obscurity or in one line 'proof' texts that requires a higher education to understand. His methods are simple. He teaches through a combination of word and example.
I came to a similar conclusion in the most complex study of creation and evolution. Simple proof is there. It is not the complex or the one of a kind miracle that teaches. It is the simple everyday actions of ordinary people that God uses to demonstrate His truths.

And the truth is, that God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are all deeply involved in our salvation. To accomplish this, we have a King who wants to adopt us as His children, we have a Priest who has suffered our punishment, we have a Judge who dispenses mercy and forgiveness instead of revenge and we have a Witness who is on our side. We face a judgment in which God is on our side and has already ruled in our favor. Salvation is stacked in your favor.

Please accept it.

Does the Lord take delight in thousands of rams and ten thousand rivers of oil? ... He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you But to do justice, to love kindness and to walk humbly with your God. (Micah 6: 7-8) Time: 30 minutes
Print: 8 pages
Copyright     Updated : February 28, 2004
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor:
Credits: Information on the calendar and time keeping was compiled from several sources.
(2) See references for the sanctuary pattern in the exodus.
All graphics were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of TeachingHearts.