The Historical Christ
Yeshua The Mosiach

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"Nothing ... will be able to separate us from the Love of God, which is in Christ Jesus"
Search me, God. See if there is some evil in me and set me free. Thank you.
It is estimated that there are about 425 prophecies about the Messiah in the Bible. In my opinion, some of them do not appear to be direct prophecies, and in other places (like the Psalms) I find clear prophecies about the Messiah in writings not belonging to the known prophets.

Unlike "normal" prophecies like Daniel and Revelation and in a few other Old Testament passages, most of the Messianic Prophecies are not introduced with such fanfare. The prophet does not say that he is in vision. The imagery is not filled with symbolism and strange animals. Because of this, critics maintain that we are just taking scriptures out of context, so those things that have a local application are made into something more significant.
I agree with this assessment in a few cases, what sometimes is listed as a prophecy seems to be just believers quoting and using scriptures the same way we do today. They make the experiences and promises personal to them. When this happens, and the underlying story has no other Messianic significance, then I will agree that it is suspect.

Israel Lived The Prophecy. The big difference with the Messianic passages and other prophecies is that Israel daily lived out the prophecies of the Messiah, His life, His work and His significance to human history. Their whole existence was a prophecy in action. The temple services and the feasts were a living prophecy. The Messiah's future work was woven into the everyday fabric of the Hebrew life. Therefore, it is understandable that much of the prophecies appear to be part of their everyday life. God daily prepared all Israel for this event - and they missed it.

Objections Jewish Objections
Ancient and modern Jews have several objections to His claim.

Skeptics Arguments
The Passover Plot
A Mathematical Impossibility
It is estimated that there were 250 million people alive in the world the year Jesus died. This means that one male out of the 250 million people would have had to die that year by crucifixion, be of Jewish descent from King David, be born in Bethlehem, have been a teacher using parables, healed others and performed miracles. He would have had to ride into Jerusalem on a donkey, been rejected by the leaders and then died four days later with no broken bones but with pierced feet, hands and side during absolute darkness. This individual would have had to die during one unique predicted week. The probability of all of this happening to one single male, is 1 out of 2.54 X 10 28.

By using the modern science of probability in reference to eight prophecies, we find that the chance that any man might have lived down to the present time and fulfilled all eight prophecies is 1 in 1017.
That is the equivalent of covering the state of Texas with specially marked silver dollars two feet deep (61 cm) and having a blindfolded man finding one special coin.

The chance that any one man fulfilled all 48 prophecies is 1 in 10157.

If the estimated number of electrons in the universe is around 1079 then Jesus was a mathematical impossibility. He was a miracle!
He is the Messiah.

From the book, Science Speaks by mathematician and scientist, Peter Stoner
Skeptics either deny the existence of Jesus, or they claim that there was a Passover plot by the disciples to claim that Jesus was resurrected. People who do not want to believe this prophecy make several claims:

While these could certainly happen, there are a number of events that neither Jesus nor the disciples could control and to have all of these events happen in one man is not a coincidence. To demonstrate this, we will look at prophecies that even the Jews regarded as Messianic and we will look at activities of the people who rejected Jesus. These people could not be forced to behave in ways that would fulfill prophecy.
We will also look at the coincidences in terms of the mathematical definition of an impossible event. Any event that has less than one chance in 1050 of occurring is impossible.

The Probability Of Jesus Fulfilling Prophecy In A Passover Plot
of Events
8 1017
16 1045
24 1073
48 10157
Probability attempts to define how likely an event will occur. It is based on first knowing the total amount of objects that can be affected and then knowing how much are actually affected. To calculate the probability of a series of events one needs to know how often it might occur with each separate event and then multiply the result of all probabilities.

The probability that all the monkeys in Africa could run over to a single typewriter and, without error, retype all the books in the English language is 1 in 2 x 10110.
Those odds are better than the probability of Jesus fulfilling all Messianic prophecies.
The probabilities discussed below are based on a series of only eight predictions occurring in a population of 1011 people (the total population who ever lived on the earth):
The total composite probability for eight events is 1x1028 are calculated as follows:
= (1/a * 1/b * 1/c * 1/d * 1/e * 1/f * 1/g * 1/h) / total population
= (1/200,000 * 1/100 * 1/1,000 * 1/1,000 * 1/1,000 * 1/1,000 * 1/10,000 * 1/100,000) / 1011
= 1028 / 1011 = 1017

I am unable to determine if these odds are correct by examining their methodology, so I have to determine if they are reasonable.

Dice The Population Mathematics
First, I have to establish some population figures that are common to most calculations. I will make every effort not to make my case better by choosing options that will give a lower probability.
Not Used So in every difficult case I will choose a model that will make the probability more common.

Prophecy Probabilities
The probabilities were based on the first eight prophecies. I was unable to determine how to verify some of these statistics, so I included other prophecies that could be substituted.

  1. Bethlehem (Micah 5: 2) (1:200,000). One person in the World been born in Bethlehem.
    Prophetic StatisticsCandidates
    #ItemOdds31 ADAll Years
    1Bethlehem1:200,0001500 5 x 106
    2King on a Donkey1:1003,000,000 1 x 109
    330 Shekels1:1,000300,000 1 x 108
    4Passive Defense1:1,000300,000 1 x 108
    5Thieves and Rich1:1,000300,000 1 x 108
    6Crucified1:10,00030,000 1 x 107
    7Hands Pierced1:1,000300,000 1 x 108
    8Potter's Field1:100,0003000 1 x 106

    » Bethlehem Population (1:220,000). It was a small town that supposedly had only a population of 300 - 1,000 people at the time of Christ. At a global population of 200-300 million that is a ratio of 1:200,000 - 1:300,000.
    In 2006 the population is Bethlehem was 29,930 and the global population was 6,564,356,742. That is 1: 219,324 people.
    » Refugees. After 1948, the population of the Bethlehem area increased to 50,000 when refugees flocked to the area. The global population was 2,556,000,053 in 1950. So even at its highest population, 1:51000 people in the world lived in Bethlehem. I selected this example because at the time Jesus was born there was a mild refugee problem as people returned to the area to register for taxes. However, the refugee problem at the birth of Christ was caused by those already born in Bethlehem, returning to Bethlehem. So we would be including people for which we have already accounted.
    Reasonable These values are reasonable.
  2. King On A Donkey (Zechariah 9: 9) (1:100). One person rode into Jerusalem, riding a foal of a donkey, claiming to be king of the Jews.
    » Candidates for King (1:300,000). In the ancient times animals were the means of transportation. The donkey, a camel, elephant and horse were the models of cars of their day, the donkey was the cheapest model, the "people's car". So it is not unusual for a person of high esteem to use one.
    In the economy of Rome a donkey was worth 127 denarii between 1 and 79 AD. This was about a year's salary. An unskilled laborer earned 140 denarii per year while a soldier earned 225 denarii. Let us take the donkey out of the equation by assuming that any king can afford one and any charismatic poor man claiming to be king would borrow one from a rich follower and any lunatic would steal one.
    We will also assume that all kings would ride a donkey through the east gate as part of the inauguration ceremony. Therefore, the remaining question is how many people could make a serious claim to be king of Israel and be believed by the majority of the people?
    » Total Kings of Israel. We concluded that only the following would make successful claims to be king even though most are not from the tribe of Judah. This is a total of 914 possible claimants from the exodus to the present time. Even if we compared that to the population in 31 AD that would be 1: 300,000 and the odds are more astronomical when compared to total global population. To arrive at an odds of 1 in 100, then 3 million people would have to make that claim. Even if one person every year made a successful claim that woul be 6000:10,000,000,000 or 1:1,700,000

    » Judah (1:100). If Israel is mostly the tribes of Judah and fewer from Benjamin at the time of Christ, then at the most half of the population is male and a candidate Messiah, even though over half of them may be young children. Therefore 3 million out of a world population of 300 million are candidate kings.
    It seems that the values were based on how many men could ride through the east gates on a donkey, not how many could have a reasonable chance of successfully making such a claim.
    Reasonable So their numbers were generous and more than reasonable and this particular claim is extremely rare.
  3. 30 Shekels (Zechariah 11: 12) (1:1000). One person paid thirty pieces of silver to turn someone in to the authorities.
    » 30 Shekels (103 Denarii). Since this is half the annual salary of an unskilled labourer, then the only people who could afford this bribe are the rich or an influential club. Bribes are common, but how common is it to bribe the authorities to execute a popular and an innocent man? An anonymous ssassination would be the preferred method. These statistics assume that 0.001% of the population at that time had the money and the influence to bribe the authorities. To arrive at a ratio of 1 in 1000, at least 5000 to 6000 Jews would have been able to accomplish this task and they must be able to include the high priest and the Sanhedrin in their plot. The Sanhedrin was about 72 people. The process of ascension to the high priest position was corrupted. It was now a position appointed by the Romans. The high turnover rate created many former high priests and members of this council. Even with 10 previous bodies, there would be 1000 influential men who could be bribed to influence the rest.
    Reasonable So I believe the odds are reasonable.
  4. Passive Defense (Isaiah 53: 7) (1:1000). A person charged and been innocent and not defended himself.
    » Defenseless People. Which innocent person would never defend himself when given the opportunity to appear in court? The other fact is that nobody else would defend Him according to the prophecy.
    The best answer is the mentally and functionally impaired, children, someone who is being rewarded for doing the time for another, one who received a serious brain injury while incarcerated and the Messiah.
    Even martyrs would defend themselves. So the question is, how many mentally handicapped and developmentally disabled people exist and how many are incapable of understanding the court proceedings, yet be charismatic enough to have such a wide appeal? This seems impossible.
    So the only alternative remaining is a candidate Messiah whose treatment in captivity left him so mentally injured at the time of the trial that he was mentally unable to defend himself or whose reputation was so damaged that he was socially unable to gather people who would assist in his defense. The original odds said that 1:100 were candidates and 1:10,000 were crucified. So the combined odds are 1:100,000.
    My odds concluded that 1:300,000 are candidates and 1:20,000 crucified. This is 1:6,000,000 combined.
    Reasonable So the odds that this would happen to someone who was beloved just four days earlier has to be much more than 1:1000, so they are more than reasonable.
  5. Thieves And Rich (Isaiah 53: 9) (1:1000). Jesus was crucified between two thieves, but was buried in the tomb of one of the richest men.
    » Helped by the Rich. The odds that two criminals would be crucified in Rome are very high. So let us define the real problem in terms of a rich person being crucified. Who could belong to this group? Reasonable Personally, I would assume that even less people would receive this honor, so 1:1000 sounds reasonable.
  6. Crucified (Psalm 22: 16) (1:10,000). Died from crucifixion. Deaths are not usually accompanied by pierced hands.
    » Crucified (1:20,000). Crucifixion was practiced between the sixth century BC and the fourth century AD until 337 when Emperor Constantine 1 abolished it. How many were executed by crucifixion during that 1000 years (365000 days)? The worst case of crucifixions may have been during the slave revolt by Spartacus. 6,000 followers were crucified in 71 BC. This is an average of 16 per day. So in the worst case, 5,840,000 million people could have been executed during the 1000 years. Although few crucifixions were done afterwards, we will assume that there were none in the years before or after because we applied the worse case scenario to every year. So if the total population that ever lived were 100 billion. then 1:171,232 were crucified. I assume only 12 billion lived in the 6000 years. So 1:20,000 were crucified. In the year Jesus died, 200-300 million lived that is 1:33,000 to 1:50,000
    Reasonable So 1:10,000 is reasonable, because it assumes that in a population of 300 million, like the United States that we executed 30,000. We have not had that many total men on death row in 100 years, much less so many executions.
  7. Hands Pierced (Zechariah 13: 6) (1:1000). One person has been wounded in their hands.
    Unreasonable Substituted. This seems to be almost the same prophecy as dying from crucifixion so I will substitute it.
  8. Potter's Field (Zechariah 11: 13) (1:100,000). The money paid to betray Jesus would be returned to the priests and used to buy a potter's field.
    Unreasonable Substituted. I have no idea how to check these odds, so I will substitute another prophecy.

» Substitute Prophecies I am totally responsible for the logic supporting these statistics. I will use these to substitute for the previous statistics that I did not know how to verify.

  1. Earthquake (1:1800 Days). When Jesus died, two powerful earthquakes split the rocks at His death and resurrection. Scientists insist that the frequency of earthquakes is not increasing. So, looking at the years since they started measuring we will take the worst year and choose earthquakes of 6.0 and above. In the ten years between 2000-2009 there were 1587 events. that is an average of 160 per year. This is 9,522,000 events in 6000 years (2,191,500 days). How many would be experienced within the few square miles that is Israel? The USA is larger and more active and it had 62 earthquakes of 6.0 and above within the same ten years. That is 6 per year or a 1:60 chance that an earthquake will occur in the United States on any day. Israel is 24650 square miles. If we assume that all the USA quakes are in the 750,000 square miles in Alaska and California. Then the odds of suffering damage from the quake in a place 30 times smaller on any single day is 1:1800.
  2. Darkness Over The Land (1:4000 Days) or (1:1,460,000 Days). Solar eclipses and nuclear winters are the only known events that produce darkness over the land. But solar eclipses do not last for three hours. I can prove that the darkness during the crucifixion was not a solar eclipse because the crucifixion occurred during a full moon and solar eclipses can only occur during a new moon. So we will ignore the obvious miracle and use statistics based on the known causes of darkness.
    In any given year there are only 12 solar eclipses possible. Most of these can only be observed over the ocean and it is a rare event to see one over land and even rarer to see it in one particular place.
    Between 1998 and 2020 there were 33 solar eclipses world wide, 14 were total. Only two were visible over Israel within that period. This is a ratio of 2 in 7305 days or 1:3700. Between 1900 and 2200 only 17 eclipses will be visible over the larger area of Britain, 14 are total. That is 17 in 109575 or 1:6500.
    Because the eclipse was not caused by any known event it is even rarer, occuring once in 4000 years or 1:1,460,000 days. Since it has not occurred again it is now 1:6000 years or 1:2,190,000 days
    » Update. While double checking in 2014 I found sources which said that there could only be a maximum of seven eclipses per year (4 solar and 3 lunar, or 5 solar and 2 lunar) (Fred Espenak). In addition, while half the world will see a lunar eclipse, a total eclipse will only be seen in a few miles. The odds of seeing a totality an any given location is once in 360 years (Fred Whipple). These figures makes it even rarer. So between the creation and the crucifixion 4000 years later, Jerusalem should have experienced 11 totalities (1:132,727). However with 4 to 5 solar eclipses per year on the planet, this would be a total of 16,000 to 20,000 eclipses in the same period.

A Plot From Birth
To begin, Jesus and His parents were poor. To say there was a plot would mean that from His birth, His parents would have had to engineer a series of events to give the Child the life experiences and credentials needed to fulfill the prophecy. It was also obvious that Mary carried the stain of an apparent out-of-wedlock pregnancy. She was called a prostitute and He was called a bastard who did not know His father and a niddah (conceived in the filth of menstruation) So it seems incredible that these parents would have engineered this type of life for this kind of baby. The odds were against them.
In addition, this child would have to grow up and meet the expectations of His parents and then proceed to fulfill the works attributed to the Messiah. A plot from birth? Not likely!

Key Messianic Prophecies.
Although it seems foolish that his parents could engineer these events for their illegitimate baby, they would have to make sure that the following events occurred. These are listed because they are basic requirements that Jesus met that were not under His control or that of His disciples:

Key prophecy Basic Messianic Prophecies.

Key prophecy Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled By His Enemies.
He could not engineer these actions, because they were the actions of others who were His enemies. So, it was in their best interest to not behave in ways that would fulfill prophecy. And these were not prophetic facts that we have created after the fact - these were accepted by the Jews at that time.

Key prophecy Messianic Time Prophecies.
He could not engineer these actions, because they were time prophecies not subject to any human control.

Key prophecy Supernatural Messianic Prophecies.
These events could not be controlled by His disciples because they were actions of nature above human control.

Key prophecy The Law As Messianic Prophecies.
He obeyed all the laws during this period.

Key prophecy Messianic Prophecies That Could Be Engineered.
Skeptics claimed that the writers lied about the events or that Jesus and the disciples engineered events to fit the profile of the Messiah. Supporters claim that there are 333 or more prophecies that point to Jesus. In fact it is over 300 texts, but fewer distinct or core prophetic events. Out of these there are only a few that He could control and even these were fulfilled in the context of His enemies' actions. So here are a list of prophecies that He could have manipulated and in some cases He acted to fulfill the events.

Prophecy As a Road Map. Is it cheating to do things that fulfill prophecy? No. Especially if it is a legitimate desire.
If you realize what prophecy accomplishes then you will understand His actions. Prophecy is given as a sign of what will happen to you and what choices you should make. Prophecy also fulfills the law. So the representitive of God who is an object of prophecy may be fulfilling the law, not necessarily trying to fulfill a prophecy. In addition, to be the object of the prophecy you must fulfill all requirements or be the only one who could possibly complete all requirements. Out of the dozens of distinct Messianic actions, there were few that He could control. This does not diminish the fact that He was the fulfillment. In fact, He had to choose to submit to the most horrendous requirements of the prophecy and the law.

Key prophecy New Messianic Prophecies.
Besides adding to the knowledge about some of the traditionally accepted prophecies, we at Teachinghearts.org have discovered about 700 new prophecies as a direct revelation from God through the supernatural gift of knowledge. These prophecies are in the Torah, the lives of the patriarchs and the Jewish traditions and in nature. The most important lesson learned was to negotiate this image of Christ that was both positive and negative. Previously, people have made swiss cheese out of prophecies by picking and choosing obvious texts but rejecting those that seemed to contradict by labelling the Messiah as a sinner.

The Critics
Critics make many claims about the authenticity of the Bible stories, casting dispersions on everything without even considering the details of the story. Their position is that it is all myths and fables and they will not bother with the mythical details.

The Critics: Fictional Events And People
Their position is that any historical stories or artifacts in the Judeo-Christian tradition are irrelevant and insignificant. However, they do not subject the same level of scrutiny and skepticism to other historical documents, showing a bias against any claims of Christianity and Judaism

The Critics: Out of Context
Objections Jewish Objections. Critics say that we take isolated verses out of context and even out of their historical fulfillment and designated them as Messianic. We have been taught how to recognize Messianic prophecy through the example of Jesus and His disciples. Jesus and the disciples set the following prescedents which are all based on the law.

Map of Ancient Israel
The Bible indicates that the Messiah would come from at least three different places - Bethlehem, Nazareth and Egypt. Events conspired to get His parents to these locations.

The Birthday
Today, Christians around the world celebrate December 25 as the birth date of Christ. But this is incorrect. The date was chosen to attract the people of the pagan religion, who celebrated the birth date of the sun on that day.

The story of the birth of Christ and John, pinpoints the exact date of his birth. We present this evidence in another lesson.

Matthew's genealogy traced the lineage of Jesus as the son of David through Joseph - His legal father (Matthew 1). Luke's genealogy traced the lineage of Jesus as the son of God through Mary - His mother (Luke 3: 23-38).

In Luke, Joseph was called the "son of Heli", while in Matthew he was the "son of Jacob". Is this an error?

The Jerusalem Talmud states that Mary was the daughter of Heli (Haggigah, Book 77, 4). Heli was Mary's father and Joseph was his son-in-law according to modern reckoning. But this designation "son" instead of "son-in-law" was common in those days. It was not an error.

Even today, according to Jewish tradition - you are a Jew if your lineage could be traced through your mother. The new Testament shows Jesus' heritage, through both Joseph and Mary. Since Joseph was not His Father, it is the ancestry of Mary that was most important. She was from the line of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and Judah and Jesse and David. And He was a Jew because of His mother.

Virgin Birth
The Bible states that He was born from the "seed of a woman". This is significant because of what it does not say. He was not from the seed of a man as normal humans are. Therefore, His only human biological connection must be from a woman only. He must not have the genes of any man from earth. Therefore, He must be either born from a virgin or from a conception that did not involve a sexual act.

The New Testament states that Jesus was born to the Virgin named Mary after she conceived a child by the Holy Spirit. Current Jewish interpretation implies that the Old Testament did not say that a virgin would conceive, but that a young woman would. One would be a miracle, the other would not. Let us examine the evidence.

The Jewish Perspective. What was the Jewish perspective prior to Christ. The original Hebrew word is almah which could mean virgin or maiden (young woman). Historically, the term young woman implied virginity. So while an old woman could be a virgin she could not be a young maiden. Therefore, in modern thinking, the prophecy either means that His mother would be a virgin or that she was young. So the Hebrew term is ambiguous.

To find out how the ancient Hebrews interpreted the prophecies we have to go back to the Septuagint. When the Hebrew was translated into the Greek, there were two distinct Greek words for a virgin (parthenos) and a young woman (kore) (also nea = young, korasion = girl). The Hebrew translators chose to use the Greek word for virgin. This is strong circumstantial evidence that the ancient Hebrews thought that a virgin (not simply a young woman) would conceive.
» Logic: A Great Sign. It would be a miraculous sign if an old woman, like 99 year old Sarah, or a child under 8 would give birth. However, the only way a young woman who gave birth would be a "great sign" would be if the woman was a virgin. In the Old Testament, miraculous births were to older women. Modern theologians teach that Mary was about 13 when she conceived because that would have been the norm in the society with a short life expectancy.
As a righteous Person God would not set such a precedence. Mary must have been older.

The Family Tree Of Jesus.
TreeBranch Jesus Preexisted (The Branch)
Leaf Adam (Son of God) Wife Eve (Mother Of Nations)
David Wife Bathsheba   (Kings) Tribe of Judah Wife Tamar Tribe of Levi (Priests) Aaron
Solomon-Nathan -Eleazar
Jacob-Eli Mary's Mother's RelativesAbijah
JosephGod Wife Mary LeafSalome ElizabethZacharias
Leaf Jesus (Yeshua) Son Of GodJohn the Beloved John the Baptist
Jesus was from both the tribe of Judah and Levi.
Wife Maternal Lineage
1AdamEveCaused SinSeth
10NoahMrs Noah?Shem
21AbrahamSarahCaused SinIsaac
His geneology is recorded in two places. Matthew 1: 1-17 records the ancestors of Joseph, His step-father. Luke 3: 23-38 records the ancestors of Mary's husband as the son-in-law of Mary's father.
In addition, Luke 1: 5, 36 establishes that Mary had a cousin who was from the tribe of Aaron, the priests from Levi.

Historical References
There are historical references to the existance of Jesus and the trial of Jesus. They are from writers hostile to Christianity. Their accounts show at least three things.

  1. There was a man named Jesus Christ (Yeshua).
  2. He was executed.
  3. His movement survived His death.

Medical Aspects Of His Suffering

Medical Hematidrosis: Sweating Drops Of Blood
As He prayed, He perspired great drops of blood. Medical doctors have recorded cases when this process of hematidrosis occurs. Usually the victim is under extreme anxiety such as the threat of pain or death. This causes the tiny capillaries in the sweat gland to burst and blood to seep into the sweat glands and out to the skin.
One reported case was that of a British girl in World War II during the time when London was being bombed. Every time the city was attacked, this frightened girl would sweat blood.
» Haemolacria: Tears of Blood. A new or rare phenomenon seen in 2009. The cause is unknown.

Medical Psychological Torture: The King's Game (Swords and Kings)
Roman Forms of Corporal Punishment
There were three levels of severity for flogging.
Arrow Fustigatio. For a light offense.
Arrow Flagellatio. For criminals
Arrow Verberatio. Most severe. Accompanied by other punishments including crucifixion
The Romans played a cruel child's game called "Swords and Kings" with the prisoners who were waiting to be crucified. It was described by a writer in Alexandria where the mob entertained themselves by making fools out of idiots and the mentally handicapped. The Roman soldiers would take one of their prisoners and make a mock king out of him. They would catch them and dress them up in purple robes like kings. Then they would sit them down and mock worship them. They beat and taunted the prisoner until it was time to be crucified.
They threw a robe across the shoulders of Jesus and placed a stick in His hand for a scepter. They twisted flexible branches with one to two inch thorns and made a crown. Then they shoved it on His head. This caused much bleeding, because the scalp has many blood vessels.
Yeshua was most likely taken to the Fortress Antonia for this beating. The court where Pilate judged Jesus was named Gabbatha (the Pavement) was located at the Tower of Antonia (John 19: 13).

Medical The Crown Of Thorns
Some claim that the crown of thorns was not a simple crown that sat on His head as far as the hairline of His forehead. It was cylinder that came down over His eyes.

Roman Flogging Instruments
Flagrum The Jews have a law about flogging no more than 40 times. In practice, they limited it to 39 lashes just in case there was an error in counting. But there is no evidence that the Romans had a limit.
Arrow Elm Rods. For whipping free men
Arrow Vine, Laurel or Myrtle Canes. Military
Arrow Whips. Straps of different materials.
  » Ferula - Leather strap
  » Scutia - Thongs of twisted parchment
  » Flagrum or Flagellum. 2 or 3 lashes with various objects tied to the ends or along the length.
FlagrumMetallic dumbells
AstragalaRam bone
ScorpionThorns or metal hooks which tear flesh

Medical The Agony Of The Whipping
The prisoner was stripped of his clothing and his hands tied to a post above his head. Or, he was tied and bent over a low pillar or laid on the floor. This exposed his back and legs and allowed hitting from both sides.

Dr. C. Truman Davis, describes a flogging as follows:

The heavy whip is brought down with full force again and again across Jesus' shoulders, back and legs. At first, the heavy thongs cut through the skin only. Then, as the blows continue, they cut deeper into the subcutaneous tissues, producing first an oozing of blood from the capillaries and veins of the skin, and finally spurting arterial bleeding from vessels in the underlying muscles. The small balls of lead first produce large, deep bruises, which the others cut wide open. Finally, the skin of the back is hanging in long ribbons, and the entire area is an unrecognizable mass of torn, bleeding tissue. When it is determined by the centurion in charge that the prisoner is near death, the beating is finally stopped. The half-fainting Jesus is then untied and allowed to slump to the stone pavement, wet with His own blood.

» Disemboweled. Sometimes the beatings are so severe the victim is disemboweled.

» The Laws On Flogging. The Romans had no legal limit for the number of lashes, but the Jews were limited to 40.
40 Lashes. And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number.
Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: lest, if he should exceed, and beat him above these with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile unto thee.
(Deuteronomy 25: 2-3)
"Chastening" or "chastise" is the same as flogging as a form of punishment to hold the unrighteous accountable. It was limited to a maximum of 40 times so that they would not be totally humiliated and may be less "according to the fault".
In the case of the Jews there was a tradition to administer 39 as the maximum (forty "less one") just in case they miscounted and exceeded the limit.
Among the Jews, rods seem to be the preferred implement of scourging (Proverbs 10:13; 19:18; 23:13-14; 26:3; 29:17), but there is a reference to the use of thorns in Judges 8: 7, 16 and the use of whips and scorpions in 1 Kings 12: 11, 14
Since the life and crucifixion of Jesus fulfilled all laws and prophecies we can assume that He suffered at least 40 lashes. Other prophecies state that God's prescribed limit for the wicked is 42 or 44 times. Since the curses broke the rules and since the Romans had no limits we can also assume that He received more than 40 lashes.

The Origin Of The Cross
Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution which was used by the Romans for slaves and criminals until AD 337. Crucifixion was invented either by the Persians between 300-400BC or by the Syro-Phoenicians about 600 BC. However, before it was invented, about 1000 BC King David prophesied about the crucifixion of Christ.
Nailed. ... They pierced my hands and my feet. (Psalm 22: 16)
However, I have found new information which sheds additional light on this topic.

Tau The Shape Of A Cross. The final letter in the alphabet in use by the ancients in the region was the letter Tau or Tav, which was shaped like a cross. It meant "sign, covenant or seal". This was used by the Phoenician, Aramaic, Samaritan, Punic and Ivri (Hebrew) scripts. The saving significance of the shape was known from the time of Adam. This invention as an instrument of terror came later.

Crucifixion Anatomy and Physiology
  1. Nails. Wrists and feet nailed.
  2. Ropes. Arms tied to patibulum.
  3. Chest Muscles. Intercostal, pectoral and diaphragm.
  4. Sedulum. The victim assisted breathing by alternating between standing or sitting.
    4a. Stand (Inhale). Weight on feet
    4b. Sit (Exhale). Weight on arms
  5. Sword. A spear 5 - 6 feet (1.5-1.8 m) pierced the heart.
  6. Crucifracture. Normally, the legs were broken below the knees to end the cycle of standing and sitting and hasten death by asphyxia. Jesus' legs were not broken.

Medical The Agony Of The Crucifixion
Jesus was crucified naked. It was prophesied that people would stare at Him. It was humiliating.

» Hard Labor. The efforts to breathe on the cross were an exercise in hard and painful labor. He died slowly and painfully by slowly suffocating.
Normally, the victim's legs were broken so that he could not push up on his feet to breathe. However, Jesus died before they broke His legs - fulfilling the prophecy that not one of His bones would be broken. Before the legs were broken, the slow process of suffering and resulting death during a crucifixion is described in an article by Dr. David Terasaka.

... it appears likely that the mechanism of death in crucifixion was suffocation. The chain of events which ultimately led to suffocation are as follows:
With the weight of the body being supported by the sedulum [a seat], the arms were pulled upward. This caused the intercostal and pectoral muscles [muscles in the rib cage] to be stretched. Furthermore, movement of these muscles was opposed by the weight of the body. With the muscles of respiration thus stretched, the respiratory bellows became relatively fixed [in the inhale position, making exhalation virtually impossible, leaving only shallow breathing. The shallow breathing eventually caused muscle cramps].
As dyspnea [difficulty breathing] developed and pain in the wrists and arms increased, the victim was forced to raise the body off the sedulum, thereby transferring the weight of the body to the feet [tarsal bones]. Respirations became easier, but with the weight of the body being exerted on the feet, pain in the feet and legs mounted. When the pain became unbearable, the victim again slumped down on the sedulum with the weight of the body pulling on the wrists and again stretching the intercostal muscles [between the ribs]. Thus, the victim alternated between lifting his body off the sedulum in order to breathe and slumping down on the sedulum to relieve pain in the feet. Eventually, he became exhausted or lapsed into unconsciousness so that he could no longer lift his body off the sedulum. In this position, with the respiratory muscles essentially paralyzed, the victim suffocated and died. (DePasquale and Burch)

» Great Suffering. Death by crucifixion was a process that took three hours to four days depending on the severity of the beating. Then the beaten prisoner was tied to the patibulum and walked to the site of the crucifixion. A severe beating stripped the back and would generally cause great blood loss, making the victim too weak to carry the patibulum and hasten death at crucifixion. Efforts to breathe by lifting and lowering the body would cause the raw back to scrape against the upright post and to rotate the wrist around the nails and cause great pain along the median nerve and back.
» Cause of Death (Broken Heart Syndrome). The cause of death was due to several possibilities including shock by blood loss, exhaustion asphyxiation (suffocation) as Satan squeezed the life out of Him, cardiac arrhythmia or congestive heart failure. But the prophetic evidence is that His heart was broken or ruptured. The symbolic evidence is that He was strangled and crushed by the snake.
» Cause of Death (High Altitude Pulmonary Edema). Many prophecies emphasize the fact that the offering must be lifted up high. In this cause of death, the lungs fill up with fluid at very high altitudes. It is usually precipitated by an injury to the body, like falling or trauma to the chest. Jesus suffered all of these and He was symbolically suspended high, somewhere between heaven and earth. The condition is fixed by going down to a lower level. It is a symbolic cause of death.
» Attacked by Wild Animals. Insects and birds of pray would invade the open wounds, the eyes, nose and ears and increase the misery of the victim. The corpse would sometimes be left on the cross to be eaten by scavengers unless the family received permission to bury the body. The birds were not allowed to cannibalize His body, but He may have been bothered by insects.

» The Roman Cross. The entire cross weighed over 300 pounds (136 kg) and the patibulum (cross beam) weighed 75-125 pounds (35-60 kg). The nails were about 5-9 inches long (13 to 21 cm) with a square shaft 1 cm wide. There were several types of crosses.

Parts of the Cross Immisa
King of the Jews


Titulus. A small sign which stated the victim's crime was nailed above the head
Patibulum. The horizontal cross beam
Stipes. The upright post
Sedulum. A small seat to sit on.

Medical Jesus And His Cross

» Fearing The Sign Of The Cross. Jewish tradition says that the mark that was placed on Cain, which was a sign to protect him, was the Tau cross.
A Sign of Salvation and Vengeance. Behold, You have driven me this day from the face of the ground; and from Your face I will be hidden, and I will be a vagrant and a wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.
So the Lord said to him, "Therefore whoever kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold." And the Lord appointed a sign for Cain, so that no one finding him would slay him."
(Genesis 4: 14-15)
If so, the shape became a sign, a seal and a mark to be feared like declaring "the final word" on a subject. So from the beginning (˜ 3850 BC), this was a mark of protection and also a mark to be feared and it must have evolved into the instrument to be feared as the final word of a government to its enemies. Therefore, the ancients must have had this global meaning in mind when they chose execution by crucifixion as a method of terror and vengeance by the state.

While the shape must have been known by David as a sign or covenant, its use as a weapon of terror and execution was not done until 400 years later. So his prophecy about "nailing the hands and feet" showed prophetic foreknowledge about how the Messiah would be attached, David might not have known that it was the cross to which the Messiah would be nailed.

» Crucifixion Diseases. The Bible says that He bore our diseases. An examination of several real diseases show a remarkable similarity to the suffering of Christ and the symbols of the Plan of Salvation. These diseases are either triggered by the same events he endured or have the same symptoms.

Crucifixion Week Timeline
The Final Days of Jesus
Kislev 25About 100 days before He rode through the east gate, the Jews try to stone Him during the Feast of Dedication (Channukah) so He left Jerusalem John 10
Nisan, 31 ADLazarus was raised from the dead about a week before, after being dead for 4 days 11
The Final Week of JesusMatthewMarkLukeJohn
Saturday Night Saturday Night
[Nisan 9]
Six days before Passover Mary washes Jesus' feet with perfume at the home of Simon the leper. This act triggers the anger of Judas26:714:3-12:1
Judas betrays Him with a bribe of 30 pieces of silver26:1514:1022:4-
Sunday Sunday
[Nisan 9]
The people come to see Lazarus and Jesus. The priests plotted to kill Jesus (John 11: 47, 53) and Lazarus (John 12: 10-11)---12:9
Sunday Night Night
[Nisan 10]
Sunday evening was the beginning of Nisan 10, the day to select the Passover LambMatthew 21Mark 11Luke 19John 12
Day 2
[Nisan 10]
Jesus sends His disciples to find a donkey2-52-52114
Jesus goes to Jerusalem on a donkey colt7-97-929-35-
The people shout Hosanna!9938-
Monday Night Night
[Nisan 11]
Jesus goes back to Bethany (House of the poor or afflicted), 2 miles east of Jerusalem-11--
Day 2
[Nisan 11]
The fig tree is cursed-12--
Jesus drives out the money changers and cleansed the temple 121545-
Jesus also threw out the money changers 3 years earlier at PassoverJohn 2: 13-16
The fig tree is withered1920--
Tuesday Night Night
[Nisan 12]
Jesus goes back to Bethany----
Day 2
[Nisan 12]
Scribes question Jesus about His authority-2820:2-
Prophecy: No stones left in the temple24:213:121:5-
Prophecy: The end of the age and the Second Coming signs347-
Priests plot at Caiaphas' house two days before the feast26:314:122:2-
Wednesday Night Night
[Nisan 13]
Satan entered Judas and he betrayed Jesus--22:313:2
Judas had betrayed Him for 30 pieces of silver before26:1514:1022:4-
Jesus goes back to Bethany----
Nisan 13
Disciples ask where Passover meal will be17139-
A man carrying water leads the disciples to the Upper Room181310-
The Three Days of Suffering Matthew 26Mark 14Luke 22John 13
In the Hands of Caiaphas (The High Priest) and the Religious Rulers
Night 1 starts Night Beginning of the three days and nights in the "bowels of the earth" (Thursday sunset)
The Last Supper

(Thursday Evening)
Nisan 14
Bread Wine
Jesus and the 12 disciples come to the upper room in the evening201714-
Washes the disciple's feet---4
Announces the betrayal by the one who dips in the bowl with Him23182126
Satan entered Judas and he left quickly---2,27
Bread. This is My body262219-
Wine. This is My blood272420-
Will not drink the fourth cup until the New Jerusalem292518-
Who is the greatest disciple--24-

(Thursday Night)
Sang a hymn. Went to the Mt of Olives in the Garden of Gethsemane30263918:1
Praying alone in agony, a stone throw away--41-
One angel came to strengthen Him--43-
Let this cup pass from Me3936--
Sweat blood--44-
Found the disciples (Peter, James, John) sleeping three times453746-
Judas betrays with a kiss. A crowd came with swords and clubs4845483
Peter cuts off Malchus' ear with a sword. Jesus heals him51475010
This hour and the power of darkness are yours--53-
Disciples fled5650--
Naked man-51--

(Friday Night)
Trial 1: Annas---13
Trial 2: The high priest Caiaphas and the council57535424
Try to get false testimony5955--
Found two false witnesses60---
Jesus admits that He is the Son of God646270-
Caiaphas tears his clothes saying that Jesus has blasphemed6563--
Blindfolded, beat and spat on Him and mocked Him676563-
Cock 6:00 AM. Peter denies Him 3 times and curses. Cock crows twice 74726027
Night 1 Night 1 End of the first night (Thursday sunset to Dawn on Friday). Passover supper to Cockcrow
In the Hands of Rome and the Civilian GovernmentMatthew 27Mark 15Luke 23John 18

(Friday Morning)
Trial 3: Governor Pilate. Delivered Him bound21129
Judas hangs himself after giving back the 30 pieces of silver.
Judas fell and his intestines burst out in the Field of Blood. Acts 1:16-20
Potter's field bought for 30 pieces of silver7-8---
Trial 4: Herod (because Jesus was from his jurisdiction in Galilee)--7-
Herod and his soldiers mock Him with contempt. Dressed Him--11-
Trial 5: Sent back to Pilate who calls the priests, rulers and people--11-
Remained silent before his accusers12-143-58-10-
Pilate's wife warns him about her dream19---
First Cup of Wine Pilate washes his hands of the guilt of innocent blood24---
The people said "His blood be on us and on our children!"25---
Exchanged for Barabbas, imprisoned for insurrection and murder26152540

(Friday Morning)
Beaten and handed over for crucifixion2615-19:1
Stripped, dressed in purple robe, crown of thorns, reed2817-2
Mocked and beaten by the soldiers. "Hail, King of the Jews"2918383
Wears purple robe, crown of thorns. "Behold the Man" ---5
"Behold your King" Hour 6? (6 AM Roman time, other gospels give Jewish time). People said "We have no king but Caesar"---14
Jesus carries the cross---17
Simon of Cyrene carries the cross322126-
Went to Golgotha (Calvary), "place of a skull" 33223317
Tastes and refuses wine mixed with gall (myrrh)342336-
The Wrath of God

(Friday Morning)
Second Cup of Wine Crucified naked at hour 3 (9:00 AM)35223323
Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing--34-
Soldiers tore His outer clothes into 4. Gambled for His seamless tunic35243423
Above His head. "Jesus of Nazareth. King of the Jews"37263819
Two robbers crucified on the right and left38273318
Passers by hurl abuse392935-
Priests and scribes mocked Him4131--
Two robbers mock and insult Him443239-
One robber asks Jesus to remember him--40-
Gives mother to a disciple---26-27

(Friday Noon - 3:00 PM)
Three hours of darkness (Noon to 3:00) or (hour 6 to hour 9)453344-
Eloi, Eloi, Lama Sabacthani (Around hour 9)4634--
People thought He called Elijah4735--
"I am thirsty". Given sponge, sour wine on hyssop reed to drink4836-28
"It is finished". Yielded up the Spirit with a loud voice50374630
Veil torn from top to bottom513845-
Earthquake, rocks split, resurrection of many people523745-
(Friday Afternoon)
Third Cup of Wine Side pierced with a spear. Blood and water ---34
Joseph asks for His body58435038
Buried in a new tomb. Wrapped in linen and spices (myrrh, aloes) 59465338-42
Women prepare spices and perfumes for His body-16:156-
Day 1 Day 1 End of the first day (Dawn on Friday to sunset Friday). Roman trial and crucifixion and burial
Nisan 15
Sabbath rest in the grave. Tomb sealed and guarded by Pilate66---
Night 2 Night 2 End of the second night (Friday sunset to Dawn on Saturday). Dead
Sabbath Jesus is swallowed up and still resting in the grave on Saturday----
Day 2 Day 2 End of the second day (Dawn on Saturday to sunset Saturday). Dead and resting in the grave
Nisan 16
Jesus is still in the grave Saturday evening (The first day of the week)----
Night 3 Night 3 End of the third night (Saturday sunset to Dawn on Sunday). In the grave Matthew 28Mark 16Luke 24John 20
Alive Resurrect Fourth Cup of Wine Before dawn on Sunday. Earthquake. Resurrection
Sunday Earthquake2---
An angel rolled away the stone, body gone242-31
Guards fell as dead men4---
Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Salome, Joanna and others came to the grave with spices11-21,101
One Angel spoke to women. "He is risen"5-664-
Angel said that Jesus is going to Galilee77--
Priests and elders gave guards money to say that the disciples stole the body 11-15---
Mary told the disciples that the body was missing--92
Peter and others came to the empty tomb and saw grave clothes--123-9
Two angels sitting at the head and feet where the body had been--412
Mary met Jesus and worshipped-8-10-14-
Do not cling to me because I have not yet ascended to my father---17
Mary told the disciples that she saw Jesus. They doubted-10-9-1118
Jesus met 2 on the road to Emmaus near sunset, walked 7 miles-1213-
He showed how Moses and the prophets spoke about Him--27-
They recognized him in the breaking of bread--30-35-
Alive Ascension Jesus stayed near evening then vanished after eating with them.--31-
Day 3 Day 3 End of the third day (Dawn on Sunday to sunset Sunday). Resurrection and ascension
Sunday Evening
(First day of the week)
Nisan 17
The first appearance of Jesus to 11 disciples, except Thomas.16143619
He showed them the holes in His hands and feet--3927
Great Commission19154721
Power and signs will follow because they will receive the Holy Spirit-174922
He breathed on them and gave them the Holy Spirit---22
Jesus ascended to heaven-1951-
Thomas said that he did not believe---25
8 Days Later The second appearance of Jesus to them. Thomas is there---26
Before 40 Days The third appearance of Jesus was at the sea of Tiberias (Acts 1: 3)---21:1
Day 50Pentecost (Shavous). The Holy Spirit came in fire Acts 2
All gospels must be read carefully to place the timing of Mary washing Jesus' feet and Mary given to John.

Jewish Messianic Texts
According to Dr. Alfred Edersheim, a Christian Jew, in Appendix 9 1, over 456 texts were interpreted as Messianic references in the writings of the rabbis. In the 456 prophecetic texts, 75 are from the Torah, 243 from the prophets, 138 from the Writings (Kesuv'im) which are also recognized in 558 quotations from Rabbinic literature.
All prophecies quoted as Messianic by the early Christians were accepted as Messianic prophecies by the existing Jews. It was later Jewish scholarship that tried to distance themselves from these prophecies. Now, they will only claim that the Messianic prophecies are those that refer to the future kingdom. Here are some of those texts.
Book Texts
Genesis (Creator). 1: 2; 2: 4; 4: 25; 5: 1. (Covenant Maker). 14: 1; 15: 18; 19: 32; 22: 18; 33: 1; 38: 1,2.
(Judah, Dan and Gad identified with the Messiah). 49: 1,9,10,12,17,19; 50: 10.
Targum 3: 15; 35:21; 49: 1, 10-12
Exodus 4: 22; 12: 2,42; 15: 1; 16: 25,33; 17: 16; 21: 1; 40: 9,11. Messiah is the LORD G-d of the exodus
Targum 12:42; 17:16; 40:9-11
Leviticus 26: 12,13. Messiah is the God who led them in the exodus
Numbers 6: 26; 7: 12; 11: 26; 23: 21; 24: 17,20,24; 27: 16. Messiah is the LORD of the old testament
Targum 1:26; 23:21; 24:7, 17-24
Deuteronomy 1: 8; 8: 1; 11: 21; 16: 3; 19: 8,9; 20: 10; 23: 11; 25: 19; 30: 4; 32: 7,20; 33: 5,12,17 Targum 25:19; 30:4-9
Judges 5: 31. The LORD who will fight His enemies
Ruth 1: 1; 2: 14; 3: 15; 4: 18,20 Targum 1:1; 3:15
1 Samuel 2: 10. The LORD who will fight His enemies. Targum 2:7-10, 35
2 Samuel 22: 28; 23: 1,3,4. The Rock who will rule. Targum 22: 28-32; 23:1-5
1 Kings 4: 33. Targum 5:13
1 Chronicles 3: 24. Descendant of Zerubabbel. Targum 3:24
Esther Targum 1:1 "The ninth is that of the Messiah the son of David" (Ahasuerus was the sixth of ten kings)
Psalms 2; 2: 4,6-9; 16: 6,9; 18: 31,50; 21: 1,2,3,4,5,7; 22: 7,15; 23: 5; 31: 19; 36: 9; 40: 7; 45: 2,3,6,7; 50: 2; 60: 7; 61: 6,8; 68: 31; 72: 1,8,10,16,17; 80: 17; 89: 22-25,27,51,53; 90: 15; 92: 8,11,13 [7,10,12]; 95: 7; 102: 16; 106: 44; 110; 110: 2,7 116: 9,13; 119: 33; 120: 7; 121: 1; 126: 2; 132: 14,18; 133: 3; 142: 5;
Targum 18:28-32; 21:1-8; 45:7-18; 61:7-9; 72:1-20; 80:15-18; 89:51-52; 132:10-18
Proverbs 6:22
Ecclesiastics 1: 9,11; 7: 24; 11: 8; 12: 1
Songs of Solomon All references to Solomon. (Messiah as king)
1: 8,17; 2: 8,9-10,12,13; 3: 11; 4: 5,16; 5: 10; 6: 10; 7: 6,13; 8: 2,4,11,12 (Messiah as bridegroom)
Targum 1:8,17; 4:5; 7:4,12-14; 8:1-4
Isaiah 4: 2,4,5,6; 6: 13; 7: 21; 8: 14; 9: 6,7; 10: 27,34; 11: 1,2,3,4,6,7,10,11,12; 12: 3,5; 14: 2,29; 15: 2; 16: 1,5; 18: 5; 21: 11,12; 23: 8,15; 24: 23; 25: 8,9; 26: 19; 27: 10,13; 28: 5,15,16; 30: 5,6,10, 18,19,25,26; 32: 14,15,20; 35: 1,2; 40: 1-3,5,10; 41: 18,25,27; 42: 1; 43: 10; 45: 22; 49: 8,9,10,12,13,14,21,23,26; 51: 12,17; 52: 2,3,7,8,12,13; 53; 54: 2,5,11,13; 55: 12; 56: 1,7; 57: 14,16; 59: 15,17,19,20; 60: 1,2-4,7,8,19,21,22; 61: 1,5,9,10; 62: 10; 63; 63: 2,4; 64: 4; 65: 17,19,25; 66: 7; 68: 22;
Jewish Isaiah 2, 11, 42; 59:20
Targum 4:1-6; 9:5-6; 10:24-27; 11:1-16; 14:29-30; 16:1-5; 28:5-6; 42:1-9; 43:10; 52:13-53
Jeremiah 3: 17,18; 5: 19; 12: 9; 16: 13,14; 23: 5,6,7 (Branch); 30: 9,21; 31: 8,20,31,33,24 (New Covenant); 33: 13
Jewish Jeremiah 23, 30, 33; 48:47; 49:39
Targum 23:1-8; 30:8-11,21; 33:12-26
Lamentations 1: 16; 2: 22; 4: 22 (Israel was lost on the day of the Lord - the crucifixion). Targum 2:22; 4:22
Ezekiel 11:19; 16:55; 17:22,23; 25:14; 29:21; 32:14; 36: 25,27; 39:2; 47: 9,12; 48:19 (Covenant kept). Jewish 38:16
Targum 17:22-24; 34:20-31; 37:21-28
Daniel 2: 22,35,44; 7: 9,13,27; 8: 13,14; 9: 24; 12: 3,11,12. Jewish Daniel 10:14
Messiah is the Son of Man who will cleanse the temple and rule the earth
Hosea 2: 2,13, 18; 3: 5; 6: 2; 13: 14; 14: 7 (Last days). Jewish Hosea 3:4-3:5
Targum 3:3-5; 14:5-8
Joel 2: 28; 3: 18 (Holy Spirit comes)
Amos 5:18; 8:11; 9:11 (Punishing and restoring Israel)
Obadiah 18,21 (Israel will defeat Esau (Edom))
Micah (Israel restored) 2: 13; 4: 3,5,8; 5: 2,3; 7: 6,8,15. Jewish Micah 4
Targum 4:8; 5:1-3
Nahum 2: 1
Habakuk 2:3; Targum 3:17-18
Zephaniah 3: 8,9,11 (Israel forgiven). Jewish Zephaniah 3:9
Haggai 2: 6 (Nations come when they are shaken)
Zechariah 1:20; 2:10; 3: 8,10; 4: 7,10; 6: 12; 7: 13; 8: 12, 23; 9: 1,9,10; 10:4; 11: 12; 12:10; 14: 2-6, 7,8,9. Jewish 14:9
Targum 3:8; 4:7; 6:12-13; 10:4
Malachi 3: 1,4,16,17; 4: 1,2,5 (Elijah comes)
Jewish These are the current Jewish Messianic and last day texts according to Judaism 101 website.
Jewish Messianic text in the Targum

God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God. Romans 8:28 Time: 150 minutes
Print: 28 pages
Copyright   Updated : September 2010
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (January 2008)
Credits: The information was compiled from various sources.
1 Christian Think Tank URL: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/messiah.html
Flogging Instruments. http://www.ecstagony.com/eng/info/artinst/roma.htm
Crucifixion. URL: c:/wiki/crucifixion
Medical Aspects of the Crucifixion. URL: http://www.frugalsites.net/jesus/crucifixion.htm
Yeshua's capture, trial and sacrifice. (Swords and Kings game). URL: http://www.returntogod.com/jerusalem/yeshuatrial.htm
Judaism 101: Moshiach: The Messiah URL: http://www.jewfaq.org/moshiach.htm
Passover Statistics and Probabilities.
» Triunity Report: Prophecies, Beyond Reasonable Doubt? URL: http://www.corp.direct.ca/trinity/part2.html
» Science Speaks. Peter Stoner.
» That Amazing Book - The Bible. Terry Watkins. URL: http://www.av1611.org/amazing.html
» Roman Empire Population. URL: http://www.unrv.com/empire/roman-population.php
» Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades (306-395 AD) URL: http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Population.htm
» Incarceration in the United States. URL: wikipedia
» U.S.: Number of Mentally Ill in Prisons. URL: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2006/09/05/us-number-mentally-ill-prisons-quadrupled
» Roman Economy - Prices & Cost in Ancient Rome URL: http://www.ancientcoins.biz/pages/economy/
» List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel. URL: Wikipedia
» Sixteen Crucified Saviours. Critics. URL: http://www.actualfreedom.com.au/library/links/16-saviours-5.htm
» From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians. Frontline documentary