Teachinghearts Glossary

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1844 Religions and Messianic Movements
Gods, Prophets, Leaders and Visions
Religion Personality Year Comment
Universal Friend Jemima Wilkerson 1790 Quaker group led by a woman
- Richard Brothers 1800 Had visions about the doom of London. The English people were Israelites
Brethren John Darby 1828 England
Mormon Joseph Smith 1830 Founded the church after visions from the angel Moroni
Pentecostal Margaret MacDonald 1830 She had a vision of the Second Coming. Introduced the two stage coming of Christ.
Catholic Apparitions of Mary 1830- 1830, Paris. 1846, La Salette France. 1858, Lourdes France. 1871, Pontmain France. 1879, Knock Ireland. 1917, Fatima Portugal.
Hindu Sri Ramakrishna 1836 Reincarnation of Siva, born February 18, 1836
Jews Rabbi Yehuda Alkalai 1840 Circulates belief in the Balkans and in Eastern Europe to return to Israel for this is the time of the Messiah
Baha'i Bahaullah 1844 The promised one of all religions who returned in 1844
Aztec Quetzalcoatl 1844 He returns in this year. The thirteenth Toltec era
Baptist William Miller 1844 Predicted the Second Coming on October 22, 1844 based on bible study alone. Leaders were from many denominations. Many were thrown out of their churches
Christadelphian John Thomas 1844 No heaven or hell. Jesus was created. Jews return to Zion
Spiritualism Fox Sisters 1848 Occult messages from the dead
Messianic Jews Dr. C. Schwartz 1850 Organizations such as Beni Abraham (1813) and the Hebrew Christian Alliance (1867)
Seventh Day Adventist Ellen White 1860 Came from the Millerite movement of 1844
Salvation Army William Booth 1865 England. He sympathized with the poor
Jehovah's Witness Charles Taze Russel 1870 Came from the Millerite movement of 1844
Theosophy Helena Petrovna Blavatsky 1875 Occult, pantheism, reincarnation
Christian Science Mary Baker Eddy 1879 Emphasis on spiritual healing
Wanagi Wacipi ("Ghost Dance") Wokova 1890 A new religion preached among the Sioux by Kicking Bear. The dance ensured the coming of the new world. God would soon destroy the whites and revive the old ways by restoring the buffalo and raising the dead
The year 1844 was a crucial time for the emergence of new religions and prophets. It was a period of many visions and dreams. Some claimed to be God or the Messiah, others said that they were prophets and most had visions.
See Predicted Dates of the end of the world

666 (The Mark of the Beast)
A reference to a prophecy in Revelation 13. At the end of time, the forces of evil will control the world and they will set up a system that separates their followers from the people of God. The forces of evil are the beast.
They will use this system to do economic boycotts, to persecute, torture and kill the people of God. There are a few terms associated with this event.
» The Antichrist. A religious system and a man who heads this system that works against Christ and actually replaces the role of Christ in the church.
» 666 (The Number of the Beast). The number 666 is associated with this time because the beast gives the mark or this number. The mark is placed on the hand or the forehead.

Many opinions have surfaced about the identity of the beast and the mark. I do not believe the above.
See our lesson on "The Mark of the Beast".

Abuses by the clergy
Below are some historical financial abuses by the clergy.
See Simony, Indulgences, Prostitution Cults, Prosperity Ministry

A.D. (AD) Anno Domini
Anno Domini. Latin for Year of our Lord. (After Christ). Dating method used to show the relative number of years after the birth of Christ. Year 1. There was no year zero in the Gregorian calendar.
(See also BC, BCE, CE)

Adoptionism taught that Jesus was only a human who was adopted by God and elevated because of His obedience. He was not the second person of the Godhead, who was eternally co-existent with the Father.
(See also Gnosticism)

A messenger of God. They are usually depicted with wings and wearing dazzling white clothes. Many assume that they are without gender or may be celibate because Jesus implied that they do not marry. (Mark 12: 5) The Bible mentions several creatures that are all classified as angels. There are angels, seraphim and cherubim. (Isaiah 6:2,6) (Exodus 25)
Archangel. The leader of all angels (e.g. Michael).
(See also Cherubim)

One who is against Christ. It is a person or a system that works against God in the last days. It is usually meant to identify one specific powerful person or system who works to defeat God in the last days, not just anyone who does not believe in Christ
The apostle Paul taught that the Antichrist was at work even during his time and that he would continue to operate to the end of time.

The event that ends all things in last day events and prophecies.
(See also Eschatology)

The process of arguing for a particular Christian belief.

The Apostle's Creed
I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth;
and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, Our Lord;
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit,
born of the Virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate,
was crucified, died and was buried.
He descended into hell; the third day He arose again from the dead;
He ascended into heaven, sits at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty;
from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit,
the Holy Catholic Church,
the communion of saints,
the forgiveness of sins,
the resurrection of the body and life everlasting. Amen.
See The Niocene Creed, Glory be, Rosary, Hail Mary, Hail Holy Queen (Salve Regina)
See The Our Father or the Lord's Prayer, Fatima Decade Prayer

A rival of Catholicism. It was a Christian heresy spread by Areius, who denied the divine nature of Christ
See Nature of Christ

Armageddon, the battle of
Composed of two words "Har-Magedon". It means "the mountain of the congregation".
The last battle between the forces of good and the forces of evil in which humans, angels and God are involved. It is mentioned in the book of Revelation in association with the millennium. There are two distinct beliefs about the Battle of Armageddon.
  1. It is a battle after the end of the millennium in which the forces of evil attack the city of God and fire from God destroys them. The preparation started before the millennium and is interrupted by the Second Coming. The city of God (the New Jerusalem) had come straight from heaven and landed on the spot at the Mount of Olives in Israel. The final judgment had just been announced and this action is a final effort to take the kingdom by force. No fighting is done by anyone on God's side. God alone protects His people when they are attacked.
    Plagues Second Coming Millennium Third Coming Judgment
    for war
    Good 1000 YearsWicked Court Battle of
    In Heaven
  2. It is a human war fought on earth (before the millennium) in the area of Israel on the plain of Megiddo. It is possibly a nuclear war fought between Israel, Russia and China.
    Battle of Armageddon
    Second Coming Millennium
    Good1000 Years

Norse Mythology. Gotterdammerung or Ragnarok which means "destruction of the powers" is the final battle which will be fought on the plain of Vigrid. At the end, the nine worlds supported by Yggdrasil will burn but a new world will emerge after the destruction.

The translation of the Virgin Mary. Although not taught in the New testament, it was established by tradition in 1950 AD in the Catholic Church. It has been taught that the Virgin Mary was bodily translated to Heaven
so that her body would not see corruption.
See Purgatory.

Athanasian Creed
It has many statements which teach salvation through the Catholic faith and the nature of the Trinity.

The belief that the death of Jesus Christ was a sufficient sacrifice to pardon us from sin and its penalty.

The belief that the orientation of the planets at the time of one's birth, and the location of that birth predicts the individual's future and personality. Belief in astrology is common among New Age believers, but definitely not limited to them.

An Aura is believed to be an energy field radiated by the body. Invisible to most people, it can be detected by some as a shimmering, multi-colored field surrounding the body. Those skilled in detecting and interpreting auras can diagnose an individual's state of mind, and their spiritual and physical health.
See New Age

Avatars of Vishnu
# Avatar Comment
1 Matsya The fish
2 Kurma The tortoise
3 Varaha The boar
4 Narasimha The man-lion
5 Vamana The dwarf
6 Parashurama Rama with the axe
7 Rama The perfect man
8 Krishna The philosopher king
9 Buddha The preacher of peace
10Kalki The white horse.
The final destroyer starts the golden age
An avatar is the incarnation, or manifestation, of a god in Hinduism. There are three gods. Brahma (Creator) Shiva (Destroyer) and Vishnu (Preserver).
The incarnations of the god Vishnu are the most famous ones known to western culture. According to Hindu legend, Vishnu has already assumed nine avatars, the tenth is Kalki who is due to appear to usher in a golden age. He will appear, riding a white horse and drawing a flaming sword, at the end of the Kali Yuga, the dark age through which we are passing. His will exterminate the evil and restore the Dharma (divine law).

Vishnu is the supreme being, who is the preserver and the protector of the good and the guardian of dharma. He is seated on Adi Shesha, the many-hooded serpent, in the primeval waters. He watches over his devotees and rewards the pious. And whenever dharma (righteousness) is in danger, he incarnates himself on earth to rid it of evil. (The Book of Vishnu/Nanditha Krishna. New Delhi, Viking, 2001).
See Vedic cyclic ages

Water Baptism is the act in which a Christian publicly declares that he has joined God's side. It is supposed to represent our death, burial and resurrection in Jesus Christ. Death to sin, burial of the old self and resurrection to a new life in Christ. Baptism happens with water which also symbolizes the entire process of cleansing from sin.
Now there are several methods of baptism:
By immersion. The total submersion of the whole body under water. This was the method used by the early church.
Sprinkling. Sprinkling water on the head
Pouring. Pouring water on the head

Some people even baptize without water. They may use rose petals, wine or anything that they think is symbolically meaningful. Of course this is not biblical.
See Baptism of the Holy Spirit, Baptism For the Dead

Baptism of the Holy Spirit
A Baptism for believers only. The Holy spirit is given to us to help us to grow the way God wants. Along with this baptism, the Holy Spirit gives us gifts to be used in doing the work of God. While baptism by water is symbolic of the cleansing, it is the baptism by the Holy Spirit that truly cleanses us from the inside out. This process creates a new creature with a mind that loves God.
See Water Baptism, Charismatic, Pentecostal

Baptism by Proxy For the Dead
A Mormon (Latter Day Saints) belief that living members can be baptized by proxy for those who have died without knowing the Mormon doctrine. These people are in Spirit Prison. The dead person can obtain full salvation if they accept the Mormon beliefs while in the Spirit Prison. In this prison of the dead, people can still be converted.
See Water Baptism

BC (B.C.) Before Christ
Before Christ. Dating method used to show the relative number of years before the birth of Christ. Year 1. There was no year 0 in the Gregorian calendar.
(See also BCE, AD, CE)

BCE (B.C.E.) Before the Common Era
Before Common Era. Same as BC and is used by those who do not believe in Christ as Lord. Dating method used to show the relative number of years before the year one which was artificially established.
(See also BC, AD, CE)

Bible Codes
They are also called Torah codes and ELS (Equidistant letter sequence) codes. It is a modern method of making predictions based on finding a pattern of letters that spell a word by choosing letters that occur after counting a specific number of letters. Any number can be chosen to count this distance. The words can appear like a cross word puzzle, in a diagonal, vertical, horizontal pattern. With the spelling in a normal or reverse order. Certain translations of the Torah or the Bible are used to find these patterns with the assistance of a computer. The argument is made that God hid these prophecies in the patterns in the holy scriptures.

Critics point out the following flaws:
  • Probability. Any published work with a large number of words will produce a word or phrase that is meaningful at some time. The fact that different combinations of letter spacing can be used to find a message, greatly increases the probability that something will be found.
  • Illogical. Many of these are single isolated words or phrases. They are found by using different sequences.
  • Translation Version. They are also found using the Hebrew, Greek or English translation of the "original" Bible. However, most true believers would say that only the Hebrew version is valid. A different choice in words used to translate can throw a letter sequence off balance. There is technically no "original bible" from the time of the author. Vowels were later added to the Hebrew. Fragments of generations of copies are all that remain.
    Often, predictions are found after the event. Some predictions that are claimed include:
    • World Trade Center Attack
    • The Washington D.C. Snipers
    • Mad Cow Disease
    • SARS (Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
    • Columbia Shuttle Disaster
    Michael Drosnin is credited with making this popular in a book. In response to Michael Drosnin's challenge reported in (Newsweek, June 9, 1997) that:
    When my critics find a message about the assassination of a prime minister encrypted in Moby Dick, I'll believe them.
    Using the same techniques, critics have found the following "predictions" of assassinations in the a public domain copy of the book "Moby Dick". Most of these are isolated words that are not part of a sentence.
    Person Event Message
    Indira Gandhi Killed October 31, 1984 IGandhi. The bloody deed.
    Rene Moawad Killed by a car bomb on November 22, 1989 Rene. Moawad. Burst open the door. An exploding bomb.
    Abraham LincolnShot on April 14, 1865 Abe. Lincoln. Killed. Bang. Cut down.
    Leon Trotsky Executed with an ice pick on August 20, 1940. Trotsky. Hammer. Ice. Executed. The steel head of the lance.
    Martin Luther King Shot April 4, 1968 in Tennessee MLKing. To be killed by them. Prepared for death. US agent deed. Gun. Tenn.
    Sirhan Sirhan Shot Robert F. Kennedy SSirhan. Shot. RFK. Rifle holds the fatal powder. Sharp shooting. Wounding and murdering. Butchery. Gun. Murder.
    John F. Kennedy Shot in the head in November 1963 during a motorcade in Texas. The assassin hid in a concealed place. Kennedy. Shot. Head. Coffins. Rifles. Has been so killed. Remained invisibly enshrined within. He stood very quietly.
    Kennedy. Shot. Head He shall be killed. In cars.
    Kennedy. Shot. Blood. Head. Die. The Chief. Texas. To be killed by them.

    Problems With The Bible Codes
    Remember that these are not words or sentences found in rational order. They are words found randomly by joining letters from any direction. In addition, each word could be on a different page. It is like prophesying by finding words in a book of acrostic word puzzles.
      Blasphemy Statement Number of Times
      Jehovah is a liar 8
      Jehovah is dead 23
      There is no Jehovah Dozens of times
      There is no God Dozens of times
      Satan is Jehovah -
      Satan is God -
    • Blasphemy. One problem with the technique is that it blasphemes God and glorifies Satan. Research by Dr. James D. Price resulted in the following discoveries when he searched for negative messages. According to the bible codes God is a liar and He is dead. Satan is God.
      If the bible codes are legitimate, then these statements must be legitimate. There are no rules about which statements are true.
      But God has already established His rules for interpreting prophecy. It is in the sanctuary.
    • False Prophecy. Since it prophesies false things, it fails to meet the biblical standard of a true prophet.
    • Not Consistent with God. God has never used any symbolism other than the concepts from the sanctuary and the covenant when He spoke to His prophets. The vision is given in symbols familiar to the visionary.
      The only Gentile who has a vision recorded is Nebuchadnezzar. He received a vision according to His religious symbolism of the world and God had to give the interpretation to Daniel. All the interpretations ended with God's religious view overcoming the pagan view.

      So far, in my bible studies I have been amazed at how specific God has been about staying with the symbolism of the sanctuary and the covenants. Any future generation needs to simply learn about the sanctuary and its services in order to understand the visions.
    • Applies to any Book. It has been proven that any book of similar size in any language will generate many sentences that fit any past or future events. Since the ancient Hebrew language had no vowels, it is possible to generate even more combinations. Especially when there is inconsistent use of modern names in other languages that are forced upon an ancient language.

      There are 9,597 Hebrew words in the Old Testament, Using this method Dr. Price has been able to find 6,000 of these words in Isaiah 53 alone! Therefore, with this frequency, one can see why any words or phrases can be found.
    • Scope of Biblical Prophecy. Bible prophecy is consistently only about the people of God and their trials and tribulations from the nations that subjugate them. It is never about one person who is temporarily famous in his own mind or in his own culture. If that person or the events that they trigger do not affect the people of God and the covenant then they are not significant.
    • Tea Leaf Methodology. The random methodology is without any rational foundation. It is nonsense.
    One a personal note I am shocked at the obvious attempts by so-called scientific television presentations to quote these Bible codes as fact or relevant. They consistently misrepresent, misquote, lie and ridicule Bible prophecy so that I have never heard a cohesive commentary on any view held by various groups. In contrast, they will spend 55 minutes showing you that the Bible Codes are important and two minutes on the Moby Dick objection and in that time they manage to belittle its implications. They quote this nonsense as fact knowing that it ridicules the Bible.

  • Blue Laws
    State and local regulations banning certain activities such as sales, work or sport on Sundays. The term is supposed to be derived from the blue paper on which some seventeenth century laws were printed. Although they are usually not enforced, many states still retain these laws.
    See Sabbath

    An organized effort to refrain from buying goods and services or by preventing the sales of goods and services. This is done by not supporting a business, denying loyal customers access or preventing customers from having access to goods and services.

    The teaching that the Anglo-Saxon people (English and American) are descendants of the "lost" ten tribes of Israel. It is also called Anglo-Israelism and has been unfairly equated with the Identity movement. There are many independent groups under the leadership of one founder that teach this belief. The Worldwide church of God under Herbert W. Armstrong is one of the largest groups.

    Because of this connection to Israel, some positive and negative beliefs have emerged among some groups. Some are Sabbath keepers, others are anti-Semitic because they claim that they are fulfilling the covenant that the other two tribes forfeited. White supremacist groups have latched on to this theology so that they can place a Christian face on their beliefs.

    The Identity Movement is more correctly identified with the white supremacist groups. While the concept of British-Israelism is a separate belief.
    See Tribes of Israel, Two Seed in the Spirit, Identity Movement

    The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
    1. Life means suffering.
    2. The origin of suffering is attachment to ignorance and transient things.
    3. The end of suffering is attainable through Nirodha. This is the unmasking of sensual craving and conceptual attachment. Suffering is ended by reaching dispassion. Nirvana will ultimately be attained if we continue the cycle of nirodha. Nirvana is the freedom from all worries, troubles, complexes, fabrications and ideas.
    4. The path to the end of suffering. There is a eight fold path of self improvement that ends suffering.

    Bull (Papal)
    An Apostolic letter with a leaden seal.
    See Encyclical

    The Roman rulers.
    See Roman Rulers during the time of Christ.

    System of reckoning time usually based on a recurrent natural cycle, such as the cycle of the sun through the seasons for a Year or the moon through its phases which last a Month.
    There have been various Calendar system based on the Solar and Lunar model. The Solar and Lunar calendars do not match each other perfectly causing a regular adjustment in order to synchronize the calendars. Even the Solar calendar which is based on the daily cycle has to be adjusted every four years in order to synchronize with the cycles. There is only one universal part of the calendar that is not based on a natural observable cycle, this is the Week. Its origins can be traced to an act of God who established the weekly cycle when he created the world in that period of time.
    Did you know that from the early middle ages to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, the new year began on March 25?
    See Time Zones

    There are several important calendar systems.
    Several abbreviations are used to indicate either the type of calendar or the year relative to a certain point:
    # Gregorian Jewish CivilSacredFrench Republic Islamic Indian Civil Persian
    1 January Tishri (30) Nisan (Abib)Vendémiaire (vintage) Muharram (30) Caitra (30 or 31) Farvardin (31)
    2 February
    (28 or 29)
    (29 or 30)
    Iyar (Ziv)Brumaire (fog) Safar (29) Vaisakha (31) Ordibehesht (31)
    3 March Chislev (30 or 29)Sivan Frimaire (sleet) Rabi'a al-Awwal (30) Jyaistha (31) Khordad (31)
    4 April Tebeth (29) Tammuz Nivôse (snow) Rabi'a ath-Thani (29) Asadha (31) Tir (31)
    5 May Shevat (30) Ab Pluviôse (rain) Jumada 1 (30) Sravana (31) Mordad (31)
    6 June Adar (29) Elul Ventôse (wind) Jumada 2 (29) Bhadra (31) Shahrivar (31)
    7 July Nisan (30) Tishri (Ethanim)Germinal (seed) Rajab (30) Asvina (30) Mehr (30)
    8 August Iyar (29) Heshvan (Bul)Floréal (blossom) Sha'ban (29) Kartika (30) Aban (30)
    9 September Sivan (30) Chislev Prairial (pasture) Ramadan (30) Agrahayana (30) Azar (30)
    10 October Tamuz (29) Tebeth Messidor (harvest) Shawwal (29) Pausa (30) Dey (30)
    11 November Ab (30) Shevat Thermidor or
    Fervidor (heat)
    Dhu al-Q'adah (30)Magha (30) Bahman (30)
    12 December Elul (29) Adar (29)
    Adar II* (30)
    Fructidor (fruit)
    Sans-culottides (5 or 6)
    Dhu al-Hijjah
    (29 or 30)
    Phalguna (30) Esfand
    (29 or 30)
    - 4230 BC October 7, 3761BCE September 22, 1792 July 16, 622 March 22, 79AD -
    The number of the month shows the order of their months, not how each calendar synchronizes.
    The clear colored cells shows the approximate month where calendars synchronize in the spring.

    Chinese Calendar Cycles
    # Celestial Stem Terrestial Branch
    1 jia zi Rat
    2 yi chou Ox
    3 bing yin Tiger
    4 ding mao Rabbit
    5 wu chen Dragon
    6 ji si Snake
    7 geng wu Horse
    8 xin wei Sheep
    9 ren shen Monkey
    10 gui you Rooster
    11 - xu Dog
    12 - hai Pig
    The Chinese Calendar. It is a lunar/solar calendar. The year is the length of the tropical year and the months begin with the new moon. While the Hebrew and Islamic calendars begin with the first sliver of light after the black moon, the Chinese month begins with the black moon. An ordinary year has 12 months and a leap year has 13 months.
    The year in the Chinese calendar is unique because they are not counted infinitely. Each year has a name that is repeated every 60 years. This sixty year cycle started in 2637 BC and the most recent began on February 2, 1984. The naming of the year is based on two repeating cycles. Each year is named by using the next name in sequence of each cycle. Examples of naming the year.
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
    Celestial Stem (Cycle 1) (Cycle 2)
    jia-zi yi-chou bing-ying ding-mao wu-chen ji-si geng-wu xin-wei ren-shen gui-you jia-xu yi-hai bing-zi ding-chou
    Terrestrial Branch (Cycle 1) (Cycle 2)
    There is some dispute about the year counting should begin. This is either the first year of yellow emperor (2698 BC) or the year of the first historical record of the sixty year cycle (2637 BC). Therefore the year 2000 is either year 4698 or 4637. The Chinese use the first year of the yellow emperor.
    See how the calendar appears to begin at the time of the flood!

    The Sun Stone. The Sun stone represents four previous ages or suns of creation and destruction. The center represents the fifth sun, the god Tonatiuh.
    Maya Calendar Round
    The Aztec Calendar Stone (Sun Stone)
    Cuauhxicalli (Eagle Bowl)
    Uinal20 Kin20-
    Tun18 Uinal3601
    Katun20 Tun720020
    Baktun20 Katun144,000400
    Pictun20 Baktun2,880,0008000
    Calabtun20 Piktun57,600,000160000
    Kinchiltun20 Calabtun1,152,000,0003200K
    Alautun20 Kinchiltun23,040,000,00064000K
    (baktun . katun . tun . uinal . kin )

    The Maya Calendar Round.
  • Long Count. A 360 day calendar. It is a cycle of 1,872,000 days that counts the number of days since creation (August 12 or 14, 3114 BC. year The thirteenth baktun of the Great Cycle occurs on December 21 or 23, 2012. ( It began August 11, 3114 BC and ends December 21, 2012.
    The Mayan long count is 5125 years. It is 1/5 of the 26,000 year cycle of the precession of the equinoxes. The long count was divided into 13 parts (baktun or 394 years), 20 parts (katun) and 260 parts (19.7 years or the short count). Thirteen katuns is 256 years, it is the basis of the prophetic cycle of the Katun prophecies.
    The date format is (baktun.katun.tun.uinal.kin)
  • Tzol'kin. 260 day religious calendar (13 periods of 20 days)
  • Haab. 365 day civil calendar of 19 months. 18 months of 20 days and one month of 5 days named "Wayeb". The months are numbered from zero.
    The world is destroyed and recreated every 7885 years at the end of each pictun.

    The Aztec Calendar Round.
    Cycles every 52 years through one of four signs.
  • Tonalpohualli. 260 day sacred cycle.
  • Xiuhuitl. 365 day civil calendar. 18 months of 20 days and 5 unlucky days at the end in the month named "Nemontemi".

    The Phoenix Cycle. Based on the Greek legend of the bird that rose from its ashes every 500 years or 1000 years or 100 years. It all depends on the version of the legend. The bird lives in the desert of Arabia and burns himself in his nest on a regular cycle so that it could renew its immortality. It builds a nest or funeral pyre out of herbs and spices and then fans its wings as the rays of the sun beat down on the nest. The sun kindles the fires and the bird fans the flames. It would be reborn from a red egg found in the ashes.

    Ancient Calendars. Around the eighth century before Christ, the 360 day calendar was abandoned for a 365 day calendar. They also used the new moon to determine the start of months. Ancient calendars did not efficiently keep track of years. Events were dated in relation to a fixed important event. This was usually the reign of a king. For Rome is was since the founding of Rome. For Islam it was the year Muhammad fled from Mecca to Medina.
    For some reason, around the time of the founding of Rome in the eighth century, many civilizations added five extra days to their calendar. I personally believe that either the miracle of Joshua or Isaiah caused the earth to slow down its rotation around the sun and this added the five extra days.

    The Babylonian Calendar. Their calendar was the same as the Jewish calendar. Abraham, the father of the Jews came from Babylon in Ur of the Chaldees. The Jews were also captives of Babylon from 586 BC. The day started at sunset, the year began at the beginning of spring, the month began with the first crescent of the new moon and the months were 29 or 30 days long. A full day was divided into 12 equal parts and each "double hour" was divided into 30 parts. Their arithmetic was sexagesimal (base 60) and our current division of minutes and seconds is based on this.
    Egyptian CalendarBabylonJewish
    Season Month DaysMonth
    15Tybi 301Nisannu Nisan
    26Mechyr 302Ajjaru Iyar
    37Phamenoth 303Simanu Sivan
    48Pharmuthi 304Du'uzu Tammuz
    Low Water
    19 Pachons 305Abu Ab
    210Payni 306Ululu Elul
    311Epiphi 307Tashritu Tisheri
    412Mesore 308Arahsamnu Heshvan
    11 Thoth (Tuthi) 309Kislimu Kislev
    22Phaopi (Paopi) 3010Tebetu Tebeth
    33Aythyr (Hethara) 3011Shabatu Shevat
    44Choiak (Koiak) 3012Adaru Adar
    -- -Epagomenai 5-Adaru II Adar II
    Dumzi, the Sumerian god is Tammuz, the Babylonian god

    The Egyptian Calendar. It consisted of three seasons, each with four months. Each of the 12 months had 30 days and there were five epagomenal days after the twelfth month. The month was divided into three periods of ten days called "decans". The French revolutionary calendar was based on this model.
    The seasons began on the first day the star Sirius (Sothis) was visible at sunrise. This usually occurred at the flooding of the nile. The months were numbered and referenced in relation to the season. Therefore, month two of the Shemu season is "Payni".

    The Sothic Cycle. If a calendar is based on 365 days each year and there is no leap year every fourth year then after 1460 years a year must be added to the calendar. This 1460 years is the sothic cycle. It occurs in the Egyptian calendar.

    The Greek Calendar. The Greeks had a custom of dating events in increments of four years called the Olympiad. This dating system began on July 1, 776 BC. Each of the four years was designated in relation to its olympiad year. The years began in March.
    For example, Year three of the second olympiad was 770BC.
    Olympiad Dates
    Olympiad Gregorian Event
    1 776-772BC The first olympic games
    48 588-584
    In the fourth year of the 48th olympiad, it was the 170th year of the foundation of Rome. Total eclipse May 28, 585
    114 324-321BC Alexander died in the first year
    194 4BC-1AD Jesus Christ was born
    195 1AD-4AD Augustus adopted Tiberius and Agrippa in the second year
    200 21-24AD Drusus Caesar died from poisoning in the third year
    202 29-32AD Earthquake and solar eclipse in the fourth year

    The Roman Republican Calendar.
    Roman Calendar Months Julian
    #Common YearLeap Year Origin Months
    2Februarius28Februarius 23- Februarius28
    ---Intercalaris27/28- 29
    3Martius31Martius 31MarsMartius31
    4Aprilis29Aprilis 29AphroditeAprilis30
    5Maius31Maius 31MaiaMaius31
    6Iunius29Iunius 29JunoIunius30
    7Quintilis31Quintilis 31FiveJuly31
    8Sextilis29Sextilis 29Six August31
    9September29September 29Seven September30
    10October31October 31Eight October31
    11November29November29Nine November30
    12December29December 29Ten December31
    During the reign of Caligula, September was renamed Germanicus

    Leap Year Total Days in the Months
    Day February Day23 28 Day29 Day31
    1Kalends1Kalends 1Kalends1Kalends
    2III 2III 2VI 2VI
    3II 3II 3V 3V
    4Pridie4Pridie4Pridie 6Pridie
    5Nones5 Nones 5Nones 7Nones
    8VI 8VI 8VI 10VI
    9V 9V 9V11V
    11III11III 11III13III
    12Pridie12 Pridie 12Pridie 14Pridie
    13Ides13 Ides 13Ides 15Ides
    15XV15 XXV 15XVI 17XVI
    19XI 19VIXI 19XII 21XII
    20X 20VX 20XI 22XI
    21IX 21IIIIIX 21X 23X
    22VIII 22IIIVIII 22IX 24IX
    23VII 23PridieVII 23VIII 25VIII
    24VI 24-VI 24VII 26VII
    25bis VI 25-V 25VI 27VI
    26V 26-IIII 26V 28V
    27IIII 27-III 27IIII 29IIII
    28III --- 28III 30III
    29Pridie28 -Pridie 29Pridie 31Pridie

    This calendar originated around 738BC and was in use before the Julian calendar reform. It was based on the Greek calendar. The year began in March and it had ten months in a year of 304 days and the 61 winter days were not counted. The original months were Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Iunius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December. Then January was added at the beginning and February was added at the end to make the year 355 days long. February initially had only 23 days. It was relocated between January and March in 452BC. The leap month Intercalans or Merciedonius was occassionally added after February 23 to align the calendar with the seasons. The decision to add this extra month was made by the pontifex (priest), who did this at will and often for political reasons.
    The Romans had a unique way of expressing their dates. The days were numbered but special points of the month had a unique name, and dates were counted down from these special points. The months was divided into three important points which originally coincided with the phases of the moon.
    • Kalends, Kalendae, Calends (New Moon). The first of the month.
    • Nonae, Nones (First Quarter). The fifth of the month or the seventh in months with 31 days.
    • Idus, Ides (Full Moon). The thirteenth of the month or the fifteenth in months with 31 days.
    • Pridie. "The day before". This was the label given to the day before each of the three special days.
    • Terminilia. February 23, the last day of February, was given this name and the days after the Ides of February were counted backwards to this day. The month had this special designation because it became the leap month with varying days and counting back to "pridie" became confusing.
    February 13 = Ides of February.
    March 15 = Ides of March.
    February 15 = 14 Kalends March (fourteen days before the first of March).
    The Julian Calendar. By 47BC the Roman calendar was in error by three months and the astronomer Sosigenes created the reforms. The reform changed the beginning of the year to January 1. The leap month was replaced with a leap year every four years. The months were given fixed lengths of 30 or 31 days and no longer corresponded to the phases of the moon. February still had 23 days and the leap days was added after that day, making the month 27 or 28 days long. February 24 was called "ante diem VI Kal. Martii" (day six before the calends of March). and the leap day was called "ante diem bis VI Kal. Martii" (second day six before the calends of March).

    Annus Confusionis (The Year of Confusion). In that first year of reform (47BC), two extra months were added to the calendar for just that year making the year 445 days long.
    Leap Year Reform. Somehow, in implementing the reforms, they made an error by inserting a leap year every three years, instead of every four years. Augustus fixed this by making three leap years into common years. In the Roman year 761 (8 AD), the calendar was restored to a leap year every four years.
    Pride and Jealousy. Around 44 BC, Antonius renamed the month Quintilis to Iulius (July) because Julius Caesar was born in that month. Caesar was murdered in March of that year. Around 8 BC, Augustus Caesar renamed the month Sextilis to August and made it 31 days long because July had more days. sundial

    Sundial (Shadow Clock). The ancient civilizations marked the progress of the day by watching where the shadow was at different points of the day. One way they did this was to use a sundial to keep time. Therefore, the day was divided into twelve hours.
    Gnomon. This is the shadow stick or shadow maker. It is pointed towards the north or south pole along the axis of the tilted earth. The shadow of the gnomon moves clockwise as the sun moves from east to west. Noon occurs when the sun is in the south.

    Cyclic Time.
    Some people believe that the world is recreated and destroyed and events repeat themselves.
    Cyclic Time of the Aztecs: The Five Suns.
    There were five suns or worlds. Four have been destroyed by a great catastrophe. Our present world will be destroyed by an earthquake.

    # World Disaster God
    1 Nahui-Ocelotl (Four jaguar) Jaguars killed humans -
    2 Nahui-Ehecath (Four wind) Hurricane transformed people into monkeys -
    3 Nahuiquiahuitl (Four rain) Rain of fire Tlaloc
    4 Nahui-Atl (Four water) Tlaloc, the rain god destroyed the earth with a flood that lasted 52 years. 2 people survived -
    5 Nahui-Ollin (Four earthquake) Earthquake. The era of movement. Tonatiuh

    Cyclic Time of the Romans: The Four Ages of Ovid.
    The Romans also had a concept of cyclic time

    The Four Ages
    # Age Characteristics
    1 Golden Happiness, innocence, virtue and bliss. No need to work, the land produced spontaneously
    2 Silver The year was divided into seasons and man had to work for food
    3 Bronze Strife and physical fighting
    4 Iron Did not acknowledge god. Bloody wars, violence, murder, rape, and theft

    Cyclic Time of the Vedic Ages.
    There are four ages (yugas) in Hinduism that mark the spiritual progression of mankind. In each there is a 25% reduction in religious piety and people become increasingly ignorant of the four legs of religion (truthfulness, austerity, mercy and charity).

    The Four Ages
    # Age Length (Years) Life Span Characteristics
    1 Satya or Krita yuga Golden age 1,728,000 100,000 Wisdom, religion, piety, religiousness, virtue with no vice and ignorance.
    2 Treta yuga Silver age 1,296,00010,000 Lying and violence
    3 Dvapara yuga Copper 864,0001000 yearsInterested in fame, glory and nobility. Wars, diseases, passion and hatred.
    4 Kali yuga Dark or Iron Age 432,000100 yearsIgnorance of the four legs of religion. Lazy, quarrelsome, greedy and deceitful

    The four ages last for 4.32 million years (Maha Yuga or Great Yuga), and are repeated cyclically. After every Kali yuga, a new cycle begins with Satya yuga.
    Kalki, the tenth incarnation of Krishna, personally descends at the end of each Kali yuga to kill millions of the unrighteous and he begins the golden age of Satya yuga. Traditionally, Kali Yuga began February 18, 3102 BC.

    Brahma Days. One thousand Maha Yugas is equal to one day or kalpa for Brahma. This day begins with Sristi, the emergence of a universe out of Brahma. It ends with Pralaya, the reabsorption back into Brahma.

    Brahma Years. Brahma, himself, lives for 36,000 Brahma days (100 Brahma years of 360 Brahma days). At the end, all worlds are dissolved for another 100 Brahma years before the cycle of human years begins again.
    See Avatars of Vishnu

  • Canonization of dead Saints
    The official act of the Roman Catholic Church which declared that a dead person is now officially a saint in heaven. Those worthy to receive this honor are those who had an extraordinary life of works, sacrifice and known miracles attributed to them.
    See Veneration of saints

    The word Catholic means universal. The current Catholic church is the representative of the church that existed before it was split apart.
    See Ecumenism, Protestant, The Reformation, The Great Schism

    Catholic Beliefs
    Anathema Eternal damnation pronounced on someone by the church.
    Authority Tradition is more important than scripture. Only the priest should interpret scripture. Their Bible includes the apocrypha and the 66 books of the Protestant canon.
    Mass Lateran Council of 1215 made this a doctrine. It is the continuation of the sacrifice of Christ on Calvary. During this process the bread and wine become the actual blood and body of Christ by transubstantiation.
    Seven Sacraments Baptism, confirmation, Eucharist (mass), penance (indulgences), extreme unction (last rights for the dead), marriage, and ordination. The first five are necessary for salvation or a mortal sin is committed.
    Sacerdolatism The ordained Catholic priest has the power to forgive sins and God must approve of their decisions.
    Indulgences Credits that can be used towards getting out of purgatory
    Purgatory Doctrine started in 1439 at the Council of Florence
    Infallibility of the pope Ecumenical councils of the bishops and popes are without possibility of making an error (perfect) when speaking about faith and morals.
    Sin Three types of sin (mortal, venial and original)
    Salvation Sacraments. People are saved through the Roman Catholic Church and its sacraments not by faith alone. Baptism removes original sin.

    Works. Our works and the works of others and our suffering can remove sin. Christ cannot do this totally. He cannot remove our guilt.
    Jesus Christ Divine and human son of God
    Mary Virgin mother of Jesus who mediates on behalf of humans

    C.E. (Common Era)
    Common Era. Same as "AD" and is used by those who do not believe in Christ as Lord and have instituted this as a more politically correct method of dating. Dating method used to show the relative number of years after the year one which was artificially established.
    (See also BC, BCE, A.D. (AD))

    A method similar to that used by Spiritists in which a spirit of a long dead individual is conjured up. However, while Spiritists generally believe that one's soul remains relatively unchanged after death, most channelers believe that the soul evolves to higher planes of existence. They usually try to make contact with a single, spiritually evolved being. That being's consciousness is channeled through the medium and relays guidance and information to the group, through the use of the medium's voice. Channeling has existed since the 1850's and many groups consider themselves independent of the New Age movement. The popular book, A Course in Miracles, was channeled by "Jesus" through a New Age psychologist, Dr. Helen Schucman over an eight year period.

    Any group, person, church or movements which believes that speaking in tongues is a gift from God that should be in the church today.
    See Pentecostal, Baptism of the Holy Spirit

    Seraph Covering Cherub Cherubim
    Seraphim Covering CherubCherubim
    Isaiah 6: 2,6 Ezekiel 28: 12-19Ezekiel 1: 5-11
    A creature at the throne of God. They may be a different type of angel. The creature described as a seraphim may also be the same as a cherubim and they may be different titles, rank, ethnic groups or species of a general class called angels. They are defined as having multiple wings and the faces of four creatures, a lion, calf or bull, man and eagle. The cherubim may also have a flaming sword (Genesis 3: 24).

    Covering Cherubim. These are the two angels that stand directly at the throne of God and hide His glory. Satan was once one of the covering cherubim.

    Supporting Cherubim. There are four other cherubim who are beneath the throne of God near the coals of fire.

    Archangel. The leader of all the angels such as Michael (Daniel 10: 13,21; 12: 1).

    Seraphim. The only reference to them is in Isaiah 6: 2,6. They have hands, six wings and one face and hover above the throne of God while they praise the glory of God.
    At a minimum they are the same creatures located at different parts of the throne of God. Each name or title signifies their work. The covering cherubim stand next to God, the seraphim fly above and sing glory, the cherubim stand beneath the throne. This entire scene is represented in a simplified form as two angels with four wings on the ark of the covenant.
    (See also Angel)

    The doctrine of a thousand-year Earthly reign of Christ.

    Christian Expressions
    Christians often use terminology that is strange to others. They generally refer to some symbol of Christ (His death on the cross or His life). Here we will attempt to define a few:

    Baptized by the Holy Ghost (Holy Spirit). A process that happens to Christians where the Holy Spirit is given to help the believer to live a different life and He brings gifts of the Spirit.
    Blood of the Lamb. As the Lamb of God (The sacrifice of God) the blood which signifies His death is the event that is precious to Christians. Without His death we would have no life.
    Filled with the Holy Spirit. When "Baptized" by the Holy Spirit the best possible thing would be to be Filled or have all that God has to offer.
    Nail scarred hands. Refers to the result of Christ's crucifixion. After His crucifixion He still had the marks in His hands.
    Surrender Yourself. Give up what you hold dear (especially sins) and make the determination that God is more important than these. Do not try to have God and these things too, especially when it is clear that God hates it.
    Turn you life over to Jesus. Another variation of "surrendering yourself".
    Washed in the precious Blood. Since the death of Jesus (symbolized by His blood) removes guilt from sin. Then sinners should gladly wash themselves to get rid of sin.
    Passion of Christ. The crucifixion (A Roman Catholic usage).

    Mary is the mother of Christ.
    See Theotokos, Theophoros

    A house of worship.
    Other names are: Temple, synagogue, sanctuary, basilica, mosque.

    These are laws given by God. There has been one formal and several informal presentation of the law.
    Ten CommandmentsEden Noahide LawsJesus
    # Physical Law# Law #Law #Mental Law Spiritual Law
    Love God with all your heart- -Love God with all your heart
    1 Only one God+One God + One God+ Jesus is God Love
    2 Do not worship idols-- 1 Idolatry+Jesus is the only image of God Faith
    3 Blasphemy-- 2 Blasphemy+ Stubborn Surrender
    4 Sabbath day+Sabbath - -+ Made for man Know God
    Love your neighbor- -Love your neighbor
    5 Honor parents+Honor God + Honor parents+ - Respect
    6 Do not kill+Murder 3 Murder+ Hate, anger Love, peace
    7 Do not commit adultery+Marriage of two 4 Adultery, incest+ Lust Self control
    8 Do not steal-- 5 Steal+ - Give
    9 Do not lie+Lie - -+ - Truth
    10 Do not covet+Covet - -+ Greed, malice Kindness
    Sacrificial, ceremonial laws Sacrificial laws +Sacrificial laws Jesus is the sacrifice
    Dietary laws:
    (Clean meats, no blood)
    Vegetarian. Forbidden fruit tree6 Flesh added,
    no blood
    Bread and wine.
    Man does not live by bread alone
    Courts of Justice Courts of Justice 7Courts of Justice Courts of Justice in heaven
    Covenant sign: (Circumcision) Sabbath Rainbow Baptism in Jesus is the sign
    The ten commandments are the only formal set of written laws. The other laws are alluded to in a partial list or because a story mentions the broken law. Therefore, for these informal lists, it is impossible to say that the laws that were excluded from the formal law did not exist. All laws were repeated after a covenant was established with the people. Each covenant came with a sign that promised rest from sin by circumcision of the heart. The New Covenant Sign. The sign of the new covenant incorporated all the symbols in the previous covenants.

    The ceremony in the Christian church instituted by Jesus Christ at the Passover. He asked that the church eat the unleavened bread and drink the fruit of the vine in remembrance of him. He was the Passover Lamb. So every time a Christian participated in this ceremony, these symbols remind us of his death and suffering for us.
    See Sacrifice of the Mass (Eucharist)
    See Transubstantiation

    A legal agreement between the Catholic church and a secular state or country that guarantees Catholics the right of religious freedom and worship.

    Telling our sins to an authorized priest of the Roman Catholic Church for the purpose of obtaining forgiveness. Both mortal and venial sins must be confessed. Failure to confess carries a punishment of hell for mortal sins and purgatory for venial sins.
    See Sins (Catholic Belief)

    The practice of giving to the temple all the money that you would have given to support dependant parents. Jesus condemned this as against the commandment to honor parents.

    Court (United States)
    Court State Courts United States Federal Courts Judges Special Jurisdiction
    3Supreme - United States Supreme Court 1 9 -
    2Appellate State Supreme Court United States Circuit Courts 12 179 United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
    State Appeals Court
    1Trial District Courts » US District Courts
    » US Bankruptcy Courts
    94 662 » Court of International Trade
    » US Claims Court
    The court is one of the three branches of the United States government established by the constitution. There are three court systems in the United States and Article III of the constitution establishes some of these.
    Within each court system there are two or three levels.
    1. Trial Courts (District Courts). The courts where 95% of civil and criminal cases are heard.
    2. Appellate Courts. The courts which hears appeals to decisions of the trial courts. Some states have two levels of courts within the appellate court system.
      • State Court of Appeals.
      • State Supreme Court of Appeals.
    3. Supreme Court. The federal court that hears only federal or state cases that involve the constitution.

    Federal Court System. Article III of the Constitution established certain courts. Judges in these courts are appointed for life or "during good behavior" and are called "Article III judges". Their removal must go through an impeachment process. These are the federal courts established by the constitution.
    1. Supreme Court. The federal court that hears only federal cases or state cases that involve the constitution. There are nine judges assigned to this court. Eight are called "associate justices" and the head is the "chief justice".
    2. United States Circuit Court of Appeals. The federal appellate courts which hears appeals to decisions of the trial courts.
    The Circuit Courts.
    The country is divided into twelve regions with a state assigned to a specific region. Each region has a bankruptcy court, a court of appeals and several trial courts. There are 12 courts and 179 judges authorized by congress.

    The word "circuit court" may have come from the fact that in the earliest days of the nation a judge was assigned to a region and he would circle his territory and travel from place to place to administer justice.
    United States Circuit Court Regions
    1 First Circuit Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Puerto Rico
    2 Second Circuit Connecticut, New York, Vermont
    3 Third Circuit Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virgin Islands
    4 Fourth Circuit Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia
    5 Fifth Circuit Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas
    6 Sixth Circuit Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee
    7 Seventh Circuit Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin
    8 Eighth Circuit Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota
    9 Ninth Circuit Alaska, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Northern Mariana Islands, Oregon, Washington
    10 Tenth Circuit Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming
    11 Eleventh Circuit Alabama, Florida, Georgia
    12 Twelfth Circuit District of Columbia District
    1. Trial Courts (District Courts). There are ninety four courts and 662 judges authorized by congress.
    2. United States Court of International Trade. Handles cases involving customs, international trade and patents.
    The Bill of Rights
    The first ten amendments of the United States Constitution are the bill of rights.
    1. The four freedoms
      1. Worship
      2. Speech
      3. Press
      4. Assembly and to petition government
    2. Right to bear arms
    3. Private property
    4. Unreasonable search and seizure
    5. Double jeopardy
    6. Speedy and fair trial
    7. Jury trial
    8. Excessive bail or torture
    9. All other rights to the people
    10. All other rights to the states

    Persecution. In case of persecution you do not have the benefit of the court system for several procedural and political reasons.

    Covenant or Testament
    An agreement made between God and mankind, which include promises on both sides of their duties under the covenant. The covenant is ratified with a sacrifice and includes a sign. There is truly only one covenant (the everlasting covenant) that has been in operation before time. All other covenants were merely temporary ones for humans to use in grasping the meanings through the symbolism until the reality can be experienced.

    A statement of faith. There are three creeds in the Christian faith. They are mostly said by Catholics, orthodox churches, not Protestant churches.
    1. The Niocene Creed (Nicene). Established between 325-381 at the first two ecumenical councils. Defines the nature of the Trinity.
    2. Athanasian Creed (Quicunque). Created around 500.
    3. The Apostle's Creed. Originally believed to be established by the apostles on the day of Pentecost. The first documented evidence of its use was around 692.

    The object on which Christ was crucified. The Romans nailed people on four points. They first tied the wrists to the cross bars, then nailed the hands and feet. The person usually suffocated to death when they no longer had the strength to push their bodies up to breathe.
    Titulus Cruces (Titulus Cross). This is the board that was nailed at the top that stated the crimes committed.

    Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews (John 19: 19). When Jesus was crucified these words were written on the Titulus in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. The three gospels have slightly different versions of the words, but this title is the longest version. The other references seem to concentrate on the title, not the entire inscription. See Matthew 27: 37. Mark 15: 26. Luke 23: 18.
    Hebrew. זה היה יוהשע הםלך היהודימ (This is Jesus the king of the Jews)
    Latin (Upper Case). IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDÆORVM. Abbreviated (INRI).
    Latin (Lower Case). Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Ivdæorvm.
    Greek (Lower Case). Ιησους ο Ναζωυαλος 'o Βασιδευς των 'Ιουλαιων
    Greek (Modern). Iésous o Nazóraios o Basileus tón Ioudaión. Abbreviated (INBI).
    This is the word Jesus in all three languages. יוהשע IESVS ΙΗΣΟΥΣ (Ιησους)
    Three Days and Nights
    Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
    Night 1 Day 1 Night 2 Day 2 Night 3 Day 3
    Nissan 14 Nissan 15 Nissan 16
    CrucifixionPassover Lamb Killed Sabbath Wavesheaf Resurrection
    Suffering Dead, Buried Resurrected
    Roast, Boil, Eat Swallow Vomit
    Arrow Jesus in the Bowels Arrow

    The Crucifixion
    These are the events on the day that Jesus Christ was nailed to the cross as the Lamb of God who was sacrificed for sin as they are recorded in the four gospels (Matthew 26-28, Mark 14-16, Luke 22-24 and John 13-20).
    After His resurrection Jesus was eating with them on Sunday evening when He said these words.
    And He said to them, "Thus it is written that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead on the third day". (Luke 24: 46)
    In the Bowels of the Earth. Jesus would spend three days and nights in the "bowels of the earth". This scripture says that He would "suffer and rise from the dead on the third day". We assume that His suffering was also a part of the experience of being "in the bowels of the earth" and that his phrase does not refer simply to the time He was buried.
    See the lesson on The Signs of the Crucifixion in the Seder.
    See the lesson on how Jesus Suffers the Wrath of God for three days.

    Crystals are materials which has its molecules arranged in a specific, highly ordered internal pattern. This pattern is reflected in the crystal's external structure which typically has symmetrical planar surfaces. Many common substances, from salt to sugar, from diamonds to quartz form crystals. They can be shaped so that they will vibrate at a specific frequency and are widely used in radio communications and computing devices.
    New Agers believe that crystals possess healing energy.
    See New Age

    A cult is usually any new or small sect with a difference in beliefs from the majority. Different beliefs is not bad. And being in the minority does not imply false doctrine. But cults sometimes have other practices that are dangerous to their members because it is a system that removes freedom. When cults are secretive or isolationists or have absolute power with a domineering leader it is a recipe for abuse. A cult can sometimes be the dominant system.

    Prostitution Cults. In ancient times there were temple prostitutes and men came to the house of worship to visit a prostitute. In modern times, such a blatant abuse of people and God is harder to establish. But in religions or sects that have the following characteristics, a modern version of a prostitution cult can emerge. In this situation, God is not the arbiter of right and wrong. Men are. Sometimes even marriage is not sacred. Cult leaders will swap wives, remove wives from one family to another and maintain the right to assign women to other men. This is a culture of sexual dominance. It is not religion. It is the perfect playground for perverts to flourish.
    When a sexual pervert gets into this group, they will abuse children and very young girls. They will remove younger or less powerful rivals. So women, children and young boys are the victims.

    Profile of Abuse. Christ instituted the concept of servant leadership. But the wisdom in this philosophy has just become a nice thing to say not a policy to practice. Instead religious abuse begins with the intent to dominate and control certain prized resources in order to obtain wealth, power and gratification of lust. There is no concept of developing the total potential or establishing a strong relationship of equals or emulating the merciful qualities of God. These are the areas that are targeted.
    See Abuses by the Clergy

    Depression (Economic)
    A period of economic crisis in business, commerce, finance, and industry, characterized by falling prices, restriction of credit, reduced production, lower profits, bankruptcies, and high unemployment.
    See Panic (Economic)

    The Theory of Divine Right
    A monarch was responsible to God alone not to the people governed.

    A person who follows a religious leader.
    See Pilgrim

    A belief common in the pretribulation rapture theory that God dealt with mankind in different ages or "dispen ations" for the last 6000 years. In each of these God deals differently with mankind. It is a period of time during which man is tested for obedience to a specific revelation of the will of God. Dispensational schemes vary slightly from one author to the next, for example:
    1. Biblical Age. The two biblical ages described in Matthew 12:32, Galatians 1:4 and Hebrews 6:5.
      • This age. Six thousand years.
      • The age to come. The millennium and eternity.
    2. Three Ages. Theorized by scholars.
      • The first dispensation approximately 1 - 2000 years. Age of Man
      • The second dispensation approximately 2001 - 4000 years. Age of the Jews
      • The third dispensation approximately 4001 - 6000 years. Age of the Church
    3. Scofield's Seven Dispensations.
      One of the most popular schemes is found in the Scofield Reference Bible divided the period into seven dispensations :
      Seven Dispensations Text Events Three Ages
      1 Creation to fall Genesis 1:28 Innocence 1Age of Man
      2 Fall to flood Genesis 3:7 Moral responsibility or Conscience
      3 Flood to Abraham Genesis 8:15 Human Government
      4 Abraham to Moses Genesis 12:1 Promise 2Age of the Jews
      5 Moses to Christ Exodus 19:1 Law
      6 Church Age Acts 2:1 Church or Grace3Age of the Church
      7 Millennium Revelation 20:4 Kingdom

    I would argue that God did not deal differently at different times. But that the everlasting covenant became clearer and clearer as each permanent foundation was put in place. God's part of the covenant was established at different points in history, but everyone has been under the rule of grace.

    Dispensation Covenant Events
    Creation to fall God Promises a Seed to save the world No need for the sacrifice of the covenant
    Fall to flood We are lost and cannot do good on our own
    Flood to Abraham Our formal organizations cannot civilize us
    Abraham to Moses Written Covenant God sends good news. He reminds us of the promise that He can recreate us.
    Moses to Christ Lamb of God Law is given so that we can know what is wrong
    Church Age Holy Spirit Christ ratifies the promise with His death
    Millennium Tabernacles The promise is realized in full by all who accept

    See The Gap Theory

    The use of various techniques to foretell the future, including I Ching, Pendulum movements, Runes, Scrying, Tarot Cards.

    The beliefs of the church. These are the five dogmas of Mary. Only four are official.
    1. Theotokos. Mary is the mother of God. (431 Council of Ephesus).
    2. Perpetual Virginity. She remained a virgin all her life.
    3. Immaculate Conception. She did not have original sin from the moment of her conception. (1854, Pope Pius IX). Other doctrines further state that she committed no sins during her entire life.
    4. Assumption. She was resurrected body and soul into heaven and her body did not decay. (1950, Pius XII).
    5. Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate. She participates in the saving of humans. (Pope John Paul II).

    Dominion Theology

    See Kingdom Now Theology

    The system where goods and services are exchanged. Generally, labor was the common asset that every human being could use in exchange for the goods needed to survive. There are several types of economic systems over the course of history:
    » Feudalism. An agricultural economic system prevalent after the ninth century to the period of absolute monarchs in which landowners granted arable land holding in return for fixed dues, money, services and an oath of allegiance.
    » Manorial System. A system based on the use of lands from a lord in return for fixed dues, money and services. The king owned all land. The estate was divided into arable land held by peasants, woodland held by the lord and meadow held in common, .
    » Slavery. In this system goods or services were produced without payment for the labor of people who were owned by the master. The cost to the land owner was the basic food and shelter needed to keep the workers alive.
    » Barter System. In this system, no money or negotiable instrument is used, instead goods are exchanged directly for other goods based on the value the traders place on the items of exchange.
    » Monetary System. It became impossible for the barter system to transact business where exchanges were of great value and where it was physically impossible to carry these items. So money or other negotiable instrument was used. Every item was now assigned a value based on this system so that all assets could be paid by these. Labor was assigned a value and workers paid with money.
    » Capitalism. In capitalism, prices of goods and services were based on the demand. Businesses were free to charge and pay any price as long as the buyer was willing to pay. Communism tended to work with price controls and guaranteed wages and services.
    » Jubilee. The biblical system of debt cancellation. The jubilee was a scheduled event. Every forty nine years all debts were to be cancelled. This applies whether or not the loan as made in the previous year or forty eight years before. In addition all slaves were to be set free and all property returned to the original owner.
    See Economic Problems, Negotiable Instrument
    See Historical Economic Events, Participants in the economic system

    Economic Problems

    » Depression. A period of economic crisis in business, marked by falling prices, restriction of credit, reduced production, bankruptcies, and high unemployment.
    » Recession or Downturn. A less severe form of a depression
    » Panic. A short period of fear marked by public loss of confidence in the financial structure resulting in a run on banks and a rapid fall of the securities market, and bank failures
    » Bankruptcy. The legal process by which debts are cancelled for a person or company who cannot pay. It usually means the loss of future loans and credit.
    See Economics, Negotiable Instrument
    See Historical Economic Events, Participants in the economic system

    Economic Events in History
    Several well known economic panics have occurred in the past.
    » Great Depression. A time in American history where there was high unemployment, bank failures and severe reversal of fortunes.
    » 1929 stock market crash. It precipitated a worldwide financial crisis and led to the Great Depression.
    » Black Friday. September 24, 1869 caused when speculators tried to corner the gold market.
    » Black Monday. October 19, 1987 caused by a convergence of many factors. Stock averages fell by 508.32 points or 22.6% of the total value with a volume of 604.33 million shares traded. The point decline and the volume traded exceeded all previous records.
    » September 17, 2001. When the markets opened after the events of September 11, the fall in the stock market was the highest point drop in history since the great depression.
    See Economics, Economic Problems
    See Negotiable Instrument, Participants in the economic system

    Economic System: Participants
    There were many types of social and economic system including Feudalism, communism and capitalism. Feudalism is based on land ownership and the exchange of services and goods expected. Capitalism is based on a free market and a free people, while communism is based on a government-controlled market, guaranteed minimum economic rights and limited personal freedom.

    » Fief. A grant of land or an estate.
    » Knight. A warrior who pledges loyalty to a Lord in exchange for land.
    » Lord. The landowner of the manor. A ruler who grants a fief in return for military service.
    » Vassal. A person who receives a fief. He then owes the Lord - knights, foot soldiers, ransom money if the Lord is captured in war and Housing and food for the Lord and his knights when they visit the fief.
    » Peasant. A person who works the land.
    » Serf. A peasant of the lowest class, who is bound to the land and cannot leave it. A half free peasant in the manorial and feudal system who performed servile labor on the land.
    » Villein. A free peasant in the manorial system. They performed servile labor for the lord of the manor and paid dues for his rent.
    » Slave. A person taken hostage and forced to work for no wages. The slave has no freedom and rights and can be sold and moved at will by his master.
    » Indentured Servant . A free person, generally in debt, who sold themselves into virtual slavery to pay back what was owed by agreeing to work for a fixed length of time.
    » Product (Goods and Services). The item that is being bought and sold.
    » Consumer. One who buys goods and services.
    » Producer (Manufacturer). One who creates goods and services to be sold.
    » Business (Retailer). One who sells goods and services. A place where a consumer can access the goods supplied by the producer.
    » Supply and Demand. An economic concept that sets the price of goods of services. Low supply and high demand usually leads to higher prices.
    » Price Fixing. An attempt to avoid the market forces of supply and demand that dictate prices. Manufacturers and retailers who should be natural competitors agree to set the price of a product.
    » Price Goughing. An attempt to extort an outrageous price when an item is in demand.
    See Economics, Economic Problems
    See Negotiable Instrument, Historical Economic Events

    A movement to unite the Christian churches split apart mostly by the Protestant Reformation and the Great Schism
    See The Protestant Reformation, The Great Schism

    Letters sent to all the bishops of Christendom, or one particular country, and intended to guide them in their relations with their flocks.
    See Papal Bull

    The study of end time events in prophecy.
    (See Antichrist. The evil person who fights against Christ.)
    (See Tribulation. The time of trouble.)
    (See Second Coming. The coming of Jesus Christ.)
    (See Resurrection. The raising of the dead.)
    (See Rapture. The rescue of the righteous.)
    (See Millennium. The one thousand years after the first resurrection.)
    (See Armageddon. The last battle.)

    In addition to the Sadducees and the Pharisees, a third political group, the Essenes, emerged during the Hasmonean period. The Essenes viewed both the Sadducees and the Pharisees as corrupters of Jewish law. Many Essenes were celibate and viewed the world as a conflict between the spiritual (good) and the physical (bad). They were tremendously concerned with ritual purity. The group that lived in Jerusalem kept itself separate from other Jews, fearing ritual contamination. Some scholars believe that Essenes lived in small commune-like groups separate from the rest of the Jewish world. There, they wore carefully washed white garments. Some scholars believe that a desert commune found at Qumran by the Dead Sea was, in fact, an Essene community. Whether it was connected to the Essenes or not, the Qumran Community was one of the most important archaeological finds of the past 50 years.
    See Pharisees, Sadducees

    See Sacrifice of the Mass, Communion and Transubstantiation,

    Fundamentalist Christians who have several beliefs in common:
    • Born Again through the Holy Spirit.
    • Believe we have a personal responsibility to share the gospel.
    • Believe in the existence of Satan.
    • Salvation through faith not good deeds.
    • Jesus Christ lived a sinless life on Earth.
    • God is perfect, all powerful and all knowing.
    See Fundamentalist, Pentecostal, Charismatic

    Fatima Decade Prayer
    This prayer arose out of the Visions of Fatima, where the apparition that claimed to be Mary requested that devotion be set up to her for the saving of mankind.
    O my Jesus,
    Forgive us our sins,
    Save us from the fires of hell;
    Lead all souls to heaven,
    Especially those in need of your mercy.
    See The Apostle's Creed
    See The Niocene Creed
    See Glory be
    See Rosary
    See Hail Mary
    See Hail Holy Queen
    See The Our Father or the Lord's Prayer

    A Christian who still believes in the basic, literal interpretation of the bible. A conservative believer.
    See Evangelical

    A belief system about the end times which states that all prophecies will be fulfilled in the future

    (see Historicist, Preterist)

    Gaia, (Mother Earth) a living entity
    See New Age

    The Gap Theory
    There are two separate theories called the "gap theory".
    1. The Gap Theory of the Second Coming. The gap is the time between the crucifixion and seven years before the Second Coming. Beliefs about it arise from the seventieth week of the prophesies of Daniel 9: 27 which are separated from the first 69 weeks by this time period. It has been interrupted by the 2000 year "gap" of the Christian dispensation. The final week will occur as a seven year period of tribulation just before the end. The Jewish dispensation begins again.
      Before The Gap Between The Gap After The Gap Second
      69 Weeks
      483 Years
      Before In the Gap 2000+ Year Gap1 Week
      7 Years
      Jewish Dispensation Christian Dispensation Jewish Dispensation
      There is debate over when Jesus died in relation to the start of this gap.
      Before the Gap. At the end of the 69 weeks and before the start of the gap.
      Between the Gap. After the end of the 69 weeks and before the start of the gap.
      In the Gap. Jesus died at the beginning of the gap.

    2. The Gap Theory of Creation. A 'long day' creationist theory that seeks to reconcile Genesis with the millions of years of evolution. The theory states that there was a gap between the events of Genesis 1: 1 and Genesis 1: 2. This was an infinite amount of time that included the destruction of a first creation after the fall. Then God resumed creation in Genesis 1: 2. But there is no biblical support for this.
      God created the heavens and earthMillions of Years Formless and Void
      First creation The FallDestructionThe Gap Second creation Day 1
    See Dispensationalism, The Rapture

    Gnosticism taught that Jesus was God in the appearance of a man and that the way to salvation was knowledge and understanding about God, not faith.
    (See also Adoptionism)

    Matter is evil, deliverance from material form is only through special knowledge revealed by special Gnostic teachers. The Gnostics deny the incarnation of Christ. It is believed that salvation is achieved through special knowledge.
    The material world is evil, and the unknowable, perfect and pure God generated lesser divinities to deal with the material universe.
    Evil came when one of these lesser beings named Wisdom, attempted to know God. He and others have kept humans and the material world in bondage trying to prevent the pure spirit souls from ascending back to god after the death of the physical bodies. Christ was the divine redeemer, a special Gnostic teacher, who came from the spiritual realm to reveal the knowledge necessary for our redemption.

    Goddess Worship
    Goddess worship is infiltrating the Christian church. (See also Worship of the Virgin Mary)

    The system by which a nation, the rulers and people interact to maintain law and order, justice, security and economic growth.
    Forms of Government include:
    Democracy. Rule by the many or the people through a representative body installed by a regular vote. The system characterized by freedom of its citizens. The term "capitalism" is usually associated with democracy. Problems may exist in a democracy when there is a majority with a vastly different agenda than the minority. In such cases, the representation of the minority can still be achieved.
      » Pure Democracy. By popular vote. A distinct majority may have the advantage.
      » Consociationilism. Guaranteed group representation. e.g. by religion or ethnic differences.
      » Confessionalism. A system is which power is distributed proportionally among religious groups. e.g. Lebanon (Shia, Sunni and Maronite Christians).
    Capitalism. Under a capitalist society, people are allowed to accumulate and retain their wealth. The government promotes the development of businesses and profit.
    Socialism. A system dedicated to the sharing of the wealth among its people. Common ownership is by the state, workers group or community.
    Communism. A classless, stateless, social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. by the state.
    Fascism. A philosophy of government that glorifies the nation-state and businesses at the expense of the individual.
    Feudalism. Reciprocal legal and military obligations in exchange for use of the land among the nobility of Europe. An economic system based on bartering military and agricultural services through leasing land to peasants.
    Jingoism. Bullying other nations to preserve ones own national interests.

    Autocracy. Rule by one person.
      » Monarchy. A head of state whose right to rule is hereditary and permanent. Rule by inheritance of a single individual in a single dynastic family.
      » Dictatorship. Absolute autocratic rule appointed by others in an emergency for a limited time.
      » Despotism. Absolute political power in an individual or tightly knit group. All others are slaves.
      » Papacy. Rule of the Catholic or universal church by the pope as the representative of God on earth.
      » Theocracy. A system in which God is the direct ruler.
    Plutocracy. Rulers can only emerge from one elite group. Power is centralized in an affluent social class. The system is characterized by low social mobility and high economic inequity.
      » Oligarchy. Rule by the few minority. Power rests in a small elite segment based on wealth, family or military power.
      » Aristocracy. Rule by "the best". Usually a hereditary plutocracy.
      » Kleptocracy. Rule by theft. A situation in which there is massive corruption and rule is taken for the sole purpose of personal gain.
    Anarchy. Rule by none imposed by the mob. Political philosophy that seeks the abolition of government because artificial institutions corrupt people.
      » Ochlocracy. Rule by the mob who intimidate the constitutional authorities.
      » Tyranny. Absolute power of an aristocrat gained through promises made to the people.
    Republic. Rule by law. A nation whose head of state and representative is elected by the people.
      » Kritarchy. Rule by judges. Decision is made by violation of a person's natural rights.
      » Krytocracy. Rule by judges. Decision is made by the opinion of the judges.

    Populus RightBy NoneBy OneBy FewBy Many
    Authority DownAnarchyAutocracyOligarchyRepublic
    PeopleOchlocracyTyrannyRepresentative democracyDemocracy
    Merit-TheocracyAristocracyKritarchy, Krytocracy
    Hereditary-MonarchyConstitutional Monarchy-
    Economic-CommunismFascism, kleptocracySocialism, capitalism
    Heaven on Earth. A theocracy exists in heaven in which the economic distribution of wealth is based on a socialist model where rights of ownership of the land belongs to families permanently. The land may be used or leased for trade or debt. A capitalist system of trade may exist until a designated time (49 years) when the property rights revert to the family and debts are cancelled. This provides opportunities for acquisition of wealth, but guarantees that systemic poverty will never arise and every generation gets an opportunity.

    Glory be
    Glory be to the Father
    And to the Son
    And to the Holy Ghost;
    As it was in the beginning
    Is now, and ever shall be;
    World without end.
    See The Apostle's Creed
    See The Niocene Creed
    See Rosary
    See Fatima Decade Prayer
    See Hail Mary
    See Hail Holy Queen
    See The Our Father or the Lord's Prayer

    The Great Week
    The doctrine that the seven days of Creation correspond to seven 1000 year periods of human history. and that the millennium is the last 1000 years of this period. It is also known as the millennial week, six day or 6000 year theory.

    Hail Mary
    Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you,
    blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb Jesus.
    Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.
    See The Apostle's Creed
    See The Niocene Creed
    See Glory be
    See Rosary
    See Hail Holy Queen
    See Our Father (Lord's Prayer)
    See Fatima Decade Prayer

    Hail Holy Queen (Salve Regina)
    One of the prayers said with the rosary.
    Hail Holy Queen, mother of mercy, our life, our sweetness and our hope.
    To you do we cry poor banished children of Eve.
    To you do we send up our sighs, mourning, and weeping in this vale of tears.
    Turn then, most gracious advocate, your eyes of mercy toward us,
    and after this our exile show unto us the blessed fruit of your womb, Jesus.
    O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary.

    Pray for us, O holy Mother of God.
    That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.
    Let Us Pray

    O God, whose only begotten Son, by His life, death, and resurrection has purchased for us the rewards of eternal salvation; grant, we beg You, that meditating upon these mysteries of the most Holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we may imitate what they contain, and obtain what they promise: through the same Christ Our Lord.
    See The Apostle's Creed The Niocene Creed, Glory be, Rosary
    See Hail Mary, The Our Father or the Lord's Prayer, Fatima Decade Prayer

    The place where the righteous will live forever in the Christian Religion. Where God lives. There are differences in doctrine on When people go there and If it is a real place.
    The word Heaven is an all inclusive word that embodies several concepts in Christianity.
    Several religions and myths have defined heaven, the dwelling place of God, hell and a final battle.
    Religion Heaven Home of God Land of
    the Dead
    Hell Final Battle
    Judaism Heaven Zion Sheol - Gehenna Hamon-Gog
    Christian Heaven New Jerusalem Grave - Hell Armageddon
    Catholic Heaven New Jerusalem Purgatory Purgatory, Limbo Hell Armageddon
    Islam Falak al aflak, Djanna, Jannah Jahannam Barzakh Jahannam Qa'im
    Norse Asgard (Vingolf) Asgard Valhalla (warriors), Hel Ragnarok
    Greek Elysium Fields Mt. Olympus Hades Tartarus -
    Rome Elysium Mt. Olympus Avernus
    Hindu Moksha Mt. Meru,
    Mt. Kailasa
    Jain Kevala- Reincarnation
    Buddhist Nirvana, Ching Tu - Reincarnation
    New age Astral Plane, Summerland- Reincarnation
    Celts Gwenved, Avalon (Fortunate Isle) Reincarnation
    Aztec Tlalocan, Tamoanchan, Chalmecacivati Mictlan Reincarnation after four years
    Legendary heavens: Arcadia, bowers of bliss, Utopia, Bralgu (Australian Aborigines), Dilum (in the Epic of Gilgamesh), Chinvato Peretav (Zoroastrianism), Walhall (Scandinavian), Khun-Lun (Chinese), happy hunting grounds (Native American), Alfardaws, Assama. Celtic heavens are: Mag Mell, Tir na Nog and Annwn
    Legendary Edens: Garden of Eden and forbidden fruit, Tree of Life with 12 fruits, Djanna or Al-Janna (Garden of Allah), Garden of the Hesperides with golden apples (Greek), apples of discord, peaches of immortality (Chinese).
    See Hell, Tree of Life

    The place where the wicked people and the evil angels go for punishment according to Christian teachings. There are various differences in belief on the following: Other names related to hell are Tartarus, Hades, Avernus, Gehenna, Stygian creek, Mictlan, Xibalba, bottomless pit, abyss and purgatory.
    Limbo is the place for unbaptized infants in Catholic theology.
    Rivers of Hades. Acheron (river of woe), Cocytus, Styx, Phlegethon (river of fire). Lethe (river of forgetfulness).
    See Heaven, Purgatory

    A deliberate deviation from the orthodox doctrine. The crime of heresy was defined as a deliberate denial of an article of truth of the Catholic faith, and a public and obstinate persistence in that alleged error. At this time, there was a sense of Christian unity among townspeople and rulers alike, and most of them agreed with the Church that heretics seemed to threaten society itself. Originally convened to combat the heresies of the Albigensians, Cathari and Waldenses, the Inquisition later included witches, diviners, blasphemers, and other persons deviating from the faith.
    See Inquisition

    The principles or methods of interpreting the bible.

    The Jewish rulers.
    See Jewish Rulers during the time of Christ.

    Historians (Ancient)
    Our knowledge of ancient history is obtained from archaeological digs and the stone tablets and inscriptions obtained from these sites. We also get most of our information from the writings of historians of those era. The Bible has proven to be a very reliable source of history. It sometimes includes facts that trusted historical sources lack, but which are proven by archaeological records. Following is a list of well known people who are a source of historical material.
    Empire Historian
    Israel Josephus, Moses, prophets
    Babylon Berosus
    Persian HerodotusHerodotus, Xenophon
    Greece Arrian, Polybius
    ThucydidesDio Cassius
    Rome Julius Caesar
    Cato the Elder, Claudian, Procopius, Suetonius, Marcus Aurelius, Cornelius Tacitus, Titus Livy
    Papacy Eusebius, Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus
    The Old Testament is a reliable history of the ancient world

    Arrian. Third century historian wrote Anabasis of Alexander
    Berosus. Babylonian historian who lived during the time of Alexander the great (356-326 BC) up to Antiochus I Soter (280-261 BC). He dedicated his book 'History of Babylonia' to Antiochus.
    Cato the Elder. (234 - 149 BC) Roman historian and politician who hated the influence of the Greek culture
              Origines is part of his work that still survives.
    Claudian. (370 - 405 AD) Roman poet who wrote about the Barbarian invasion and wrote about the history of the Roman Empire in the late Fourth and early Fifth Century.
    Dio Cassius. (150 - 235 AD) Greco-Roman historian and politician who wrote 80 books. 18 still exist today.
    Eusebius. Wrote 'History of the Church'. A church historian in the fourth century.
    Herodotus. Greek historian known as the 'father of history'. He wrote one book called 'History' which has since been divided into nine parts.
    He wrote about the history and culture of the Assyrians, Egyptians, Lydians, Scythians, Medes and Persians and the conflicts between the Greeks and Persians in the fifth century.
    Josephus. A Jewish Historian to the Roman empire in the first century who wrote about Jewish history in the second temple period. He was taken hostage in the Jewish revolt which led to the destruction of the temple in 70 AD. His most famous works are:
              Jewish War
              Jewish Antiquities
              Against Apion
    Julius Caesar. (100 - 44 BC) Roman historian.
              Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. The conquest of Gaul.
              The Civil War. The defeat of Pompey
    Marcus Aurelius. (161 - 180 AD) Roman emperor and historian who fought against the German invasion.
              The Meditations
    Polybius. Greek historian around the time 200-118 BC who was captured by the Romans. He wrote a 40 volume set of history books called ' Universal History ' covering the period 264 - 146 BC in which he tried to document the fall of the nations to Rome.
    Procopius. Roman historian
              The Secret History. About Justinian, Theodora and Belisarius in which he describes them in the worst terms possible.
              The History of the Vandal Wars. Belisarius defeated the last Vandal king in North Africa
              History of the Gothic Wars. Belisarius takes Italy from the Ostrogoths.
    Suetonius. (69 - 140 AD) Roman historian who wrote about the private lives of Roman emperors and their families. He wrote -
              The lives of the Caesars sometimes named The Twelve Caesars.
    Socrates Scholasticus. A church historian in the fifth century.
    Sozomen. A church historian in the fifth century contemporary of Socrates Scholasticus .
    Tacitus, Cornelius (56 - 117 AD) Roman historian who produced two major historical works on political events:
              Historiae 14 books covering the history of the Roman empire from AD 69 to AD 96
              Annales 16 books covering the history of the Roman emperors from Tiberius to Nero in the period AD 14 to AD 68
    Thucydides. Greek historian who wrote History of the Peloponnesian War for the period 431 - 411 BC.
    Titus Livy. (59 BC - 17 AD) - Roman historian
              History of Rome From its Foundations. They are the first five books of 35 that still exist. He wrote 142 books about legend and epic drama.
    Xenophon. Greek historian around the time (430-355? BC) who documented Greek and Persian history. He studied under Socrates and lived during the time of Cyrus. He was a Greek mercenary for Cyrus.
              Anabasis. Describes the five month retreat of the Greek mercenaries after the defeat at the Battle of Cunaxa. Other books included:
              Hellenica. 411 to 363 BC a continuation of Anabasis
              Cyropaedia. Biography of Cyrus the Great
              Memorabilia. His memories of Socrates

    History (Revisionist)
    A term used to describe changes in the facts of History as written by the victors or by the ones who have an interest in casting their role in the best light or in spreading lies about their enemies.

    A belief system about the end times which states that prophecies are continuing to be fulfilled throughout history. Therefore some prophecies have been fulfilled. Some are in the process of being fulfilled. While others are still future.

    (see Futurist, Preterist)

    Holy Days
    Jewish. There are two types of Jewish holidays.
      • Sacred Feasts. The annual feasts commanded by God through Moses in Leviticus and the weekly Sabbath on Friday sunset to Saturday sunset.
    (see Jewish Feast Days)
      • Historical Feasts. Other celebrations based on memorable historic events. The most notable are Purim and Hanukkah.
    Christian. There are no annual or biblical holy days commanded by the Bible. However, the weekly Sabbath (Saturday) is still in force. There are four main Jewish holy days that it may also be wise to recognize because they teach us about Christ (Passover, Pentecost, Yom Kippur and Tabernacles). There are two major days that are observed but they have been tainted by pagan practices and there is no command to observe them.
      • Easter. Observed in the spring to commemorate the death of Christ at Passover. This feast used to be observed at Passover, on Nisan 15, until it was moved to coincide with the pagan festival of Easter. Now, the crucifixion is always celebrated on a Friday because Nisan 15 in the year of the crucifixion occurred on a Friday.
    The Greek and Russian Orthodox churches celebrate Easter one week later because they do not follow the Gregorian calendar changes.
      • Christmas. Observed on December 25 to celebrate the birth of Christ. Christ was not born on this day. However, the pagans used to celebrate this day as the birthday of the sun. There is no biblical command to observe His birthday.
      • Sabbath. Saturday is still the Sabbath day. However, Christians switched to Sunday during the fourth to sixth centuries to attract more pagans and to distance themselves from the Jews.

    African American. There is one holiday of significance that has been created to unify the African American community.
    Kwanzaa. The word kwanza comes from the Swahili phrase "matunda ya kwanzaa" which means first fruits of the harvest. This is a holiday celebrated for seven days starting on December 26 to January 1. It was created in the United States by Dr. Maulana Ron Karenga in 1966 as a community building tradition for African Americans. On each day a candle is lighted and a different principle is observed. The celebration uses seven symbols from African culture. These seven principles are called the Nguzo Saba.
    Nguzo Saba (Seven Principles)Seven Symbols
    Date# PrincipleMeaning Symbol Meaning
    December 261 UmojaUnity Candle Mazao Fruits, vegetables, nuts
    December 272 KujichaguliaSelf determination Candle Mkeba Place mat (foundation)
    December 283 UjimaCollective work, responsibilityCandle Kinara Candle holder
    December 294 UjamaaCooperative economicsCandle Vibunzi or Muhindi Ears of corn
    December 305 NiaPurposeCandle Zawadi Gifts
    December 316 KuumbaCreativityCandle Kikombe Cha Umoja Communal cup of unity
    January 17 ImaniFaithCandle Mishumaa Saba Seven candles
    Flame Flame Flame Flame Flame Flame Flame
    6 4 2 1 3 5 7
    Mishumaa Saba (Seven Candles). This has three red candles on the left, a black candle in the center and three green candles on the right. The black candle is lit on the first day, then alternates from a red to a green candle on each of the other days.

      •Friday. The Muslim day of rest is on Friday, because God created Adam on this day.
      •Ramadan. A month of fasting during the day light hours.
      •Eid-ul-Fitr (Feast of Breaking the Fast) or al-Eid Saghir (The Little Feast). It is held on the first four days of the month of Shawwal at the conclusion of Ramadan.
      •Eid-ul-Adha (The Big Feast) or Kurban Bayram (The Feast of Sacrifice). Occurs two months and ten days after the little feast. It celebrates Abram's sacrifice of a ram instead of his son Ishmael. (According to the Torah and the Bible, it was the son named Isaac who was almost sacrificed) The pilgrimage to Mecca or the Hajj is done before this date.
      •Ashura (10th day of Muharram). The day on which Husain (Husayn), the grandson of Muhammad and 72 others, were martyred in Iraq by the army of Caliph Yazid at the battle of Karbala in 680 AD (61 AH). The event helped to cause the split between Shia and Sunni. It is a day of mourning for the Shi'a. Saudi Arabia and fundamentalist Sunni forbids the celebration of this day. Shia men flagellate themselves with chains and cut their foreheads.
      •The Prophet's Birthday (Mawlid al-Nabi) (Al-Mawlidu n-nabawi sh-sharif). The twelfth of Rabi al-Awwal, 570AD. Its celebration is forbidden in Saudi Arabia.

    Holy Sites and Cities

    Jewish. There is basically only one Holy site in Israel. This is the location of the temple in Jerusalem. It is the only official place where Jews may build a temple and have sacrifices. This temple was first destroyed by Babylon in 586BC and the second temple was destroyed by Rome in 70AD. Since then, a Muslim structure has been built on the site.
    Islam. There are three holy places where it is desirable for Muslims to go and pray.
    1. Mecca (Makkah al-Mukarramah or Mecca the Blessed). This is the holiest city that is the location of the holiest place on earth. The sacred mosque (al-Masjid al-Haram) surrounds the Kaaba, a small cube shaped building that is supposed to have been built by Abraham and Ishmael. It is the destination of the Hajj, the annual pilgrimage.
    2. Medina. Muhammad is buried here. Formerly known as Yathrib, it is the place to which Muhammad fled on a 200 mile journey from Mecca in 622AD. This flight is known as the Hegira and Muslim calendars begin in this year.
    3. Jerusalem.
      • Qubbat al-Saqarah (Dome of the Rock) or Mosque of Umar. Built between 687 and 691 on the temple mount in Jerusalem. Muhammed ascended to heaven from this spot.
      • Masjid Al-Aqsa Mosque. Located next to the Dome of the Rock.

    Other sites are sacred to the Shi'a Muslim population. Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Azerbaijan, Lebanon and Bahrain have a majority Shia population.
    Christian. Christians in general believe that the land of Palestine is the holy land because their religion began here. Except for the Roman Catholic and Orthodox branch of Christianity, there are no holy sites. Roman Catholics have many shrines built to commemorate appearances of the virgin Mary and important places in the life of Jesus.
    (see Relics. Holy Days.)

    Days or months periodically inserted into a calendar system to adjust the system with the actual physical cycles. This allows the seasons to occur at the same time every year.

    Holistic Health
    This is a collection of healing techniques which have diverged from the traditional medical model. It attempts to cure disorders in mind, body and spirit and to promote wholeness and balance in the individual. Examples are acupuncture, crystal healing, homeopathy, iridology, massage, various meditation methods, polarity therapy, psychic healing, therapeutic touch, reflexology, etc.

    Human Potential Movement
    (Also known as - Emotional Growth Movement) This is a collection of therapeutic methods involving both individualized and group therapies, using both mental and physical techniques. The goal is to help individuals to advance spiritually. Examples are Esalen Growth Center programs, EST, Gestalt Therapy, Primal Scream Therapy, Transactional Analysis, Transcendental Meditation and Yoga.

    Religious art and objects used in the church. It was decided that the act of worship of an icon is in effect transmitted to the prototype that it represents. So that he who venerates the icon, venerated in it the reality for which it stands.

    Iconoclasts. Believed that the Church should rid itself of such art and that it should be destroyed or broken.
    Iconophiles. Believed that icons served to preserve the doctrinal teachings of the Church and was man's way of expressing the divine through art and beauty.
    The Decision of the Seventh Ecumenical Council on Icons
    "We define that the holy icons, whether in color, mosaic, or some other material, should be exhibited in the holy churches of God, on the sacred vessels and liturgical vestments, on the walls, furnishings, and in houses and along the roads, namely the icons of our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, that of our Lady the Theotokos, those of the venerable angels and those of all saintly people. Whenever these representations are contemplated, they will cause those who look at them to commemorate and love their prototype.

    We define also that they should be kissed and that they are an object of veneration and honor (timitiki proskynisis), but not of real worship (latreia), which is reserved for Him Who is the subject of our faith and is proper for the divine nature.
    Identity Movement
    The belief among white supremacist Christian organizations, that the Anglo-Saxon races are God's chosen people. These groups borrowed other theology and blended it with their racism. They claim that a battle is now being fought between the children of light (Aryan nations) and the children of darkness (Jews and blacks).
    Some of the most prominent groups are:
    Group FounderYearComment
    Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations Wesley A. Swift 1950'sHe was in the Klu Klux Klan. Their goal is establishing white aryan sovereignty over the lands of Aryan settlement and occupation.
    Christian Conservative Churches of America John R. Harrell1959Members are preparing and arming themselves for the collapse of the governments of North America
    Church of Israel Daniel Gayman1972Formed from a splinter group in the Mormon church

    See British Israelism. The Anglo-Saxon nations of England and America are the lost tribes of Israel.
    See Two Seed in the Spirit. We are born with either the seed of Satan or the seed of God.

    The process by which the God Christ took on human form and became a man.

    The performance of some act of merit which can be applied to departed friends to shorten their stay in purgatory, These acts of merit include, prayers, rosary, fasting, sacrifices, almsgiving. The official definition is the remission of the temporal punishment due to sin after the sin itself is forgiven.

    Indulgences will not save one from hell, but it can shorten one's stay in purgatory and they can only be done by the living and then credited to the dead.
    The pope announces indulgences and determines their value.

    For example, an indulgence of 500 days less in purgatory can be granted once a day, every day if the person carries a properly blessed rosary, if they kiss the rosary and recite the hail Mary.
    See Sins (Catholic), Supererogation

    Infallibility of the Pope
    The Pope is infallible (perfect and incapable of making errors) when speaking 'ex cathedra', That is, when as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church.

    The Immaculate Conception
    The doctrine that became official in 1854 which states not only was Mary a Virgin when she conceived Jesus Christ, but that she remained a virgin forever.

    The process by which God (Jesus Christ) became a human baby through a virgin mother.

    The organized suppression of heresy instituted by Pope Gregory IX in 1231 to bring about the apprehension and trial of those accused of heresy. At this time, there was a sense of Christian unity, and most of them agreed with the Church that heretics seemed to threaten society itself.
    See Heresy
    The Successors of Muhammad (Mohammed)
    # Prophets or ImamsShiaSunni
    Twelvers Baha'i SevenersFivers
    - 1 Abu Bakr Rejected Not the best Abu Bakr
    2Umar Umar
    3UthmanRejected Uthman
    14Ali Amir al Mo'mineen (600-661) [Ali ibn Abu Talib] (Son-in-law of Mohammed by his daughter Fatimah)
    2Hasan al Mujtaba (625-669) [Hasan ibn Ali] No other Imams recognized
    3Husain al Shaheed (Husayn) (626-680) [Husayn ibn Ali]
    4Zain-Ul-Abdin [Ali Zainul Abideen] (658-713) [Ali ibn Husayn]
    5Muhammad al Baqir (676-743) [Muhammad ibn Ali] Zayd
    6Jafir As Sadiq (703-765) [Jafar ibn Muhammad] Elected other Imams
    7Musa al Kazim (745-799) [Musa ibn Jafar] Isma'il
    8Ali ar Ridha [Reza] (765-818) [Ali ibn Musa] No other Imams recognized
    9Muhammad at Taqi [al Jawad] (810-835) [Muhammad ibn Ali]
    10Ali al Hadi [Ali Naqi] (827-868) [Ali ibn Muhammad]
    11Hasan al Askari (846-874) [Hasan ibn Ali]
    12Muhammad al-Muntazar (868-?) [Muhammad ibn Hasan] [Muhammad al Mahdimahdaviat] Baha'u'llah
    Hidden Imam (Madhi) MuntazarBaha'u'llahIsma'il ZaydNone
    Population Iran, Iraq, LebanonIran, worldIndia, Pakistan, East Africa YemenSaudi Arabia, Indonesia. Many others

    The religion started in Saudi Arabia by the prophet Muhammad about 622 AD. There are three basic sects.
    Five Pillars of Islam. These are the five basic duties of Muslims.
    1. Shahada (the Creed). The recitation and acceptance of the creed.
      "There is no God but Allah, and Mahomet is the Prophet of Allah".
    2. Salat or Salah. Daily prayer, five times per day with the face towards Mecca.
    3. Zakat or Zakah. Paying ritual alms. About 2.5% of unused wealth.
    4. Ramadan. Observing the fast of Ramadan.
    5. Hajj or Haj. Making the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your life if you can afford it. This six day pilgrimage from Mecca to Medina occurs during January. About two million Muslims attend.

      Some Muslims include a sixth pillar.
    6. Jihad. The struggle.
      • Greater Jihad. The inner struggle against Satan.
      • Lesser Jihad. Holy war against those who oppose them. If a person dies in a jihad he is sent to heaven without punishment for any sins.
      Muhajadeen (Mugahid). Those who engage in the struggle. (Mujahideen, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin) Mugahid is the singular form of the word.
    Other Facts.

    This is the name of the patriach (father) of the nation of Israel through his twelve sons. He was born as the younger of a set of twins with the name of Jacob, but his name was changed after a period of trial with God. The nation of Israel occupied the land of Canaan after the exodus from Egypt. They inherited the land by dispossessing or purchasing the land after God had passed judgment that the former inhabitants were no longer fit to live on the land.
    When Israel became disobedient they were also exiled from the land for a period of time.
    1. The first major period of exile was in 721 BC when the Assyrians took the ten northern tribes of Israel.
    2. The second major wave came in 605 BC when the Babylonians took the remaining tribes out of the land.
    3. The third major wave came in 132 AD when the Romans exiled the Jews after the bar kokhba revolution.
    In 1948, the modern nation of Israel was created. Today it is comprised of Jews from all over the world.

    Jews and Judaism
    The Hebrews are descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob (Israel), the son of Abraham. The name of the people are the Israelites who were the people chosen by God to teach His covenant to the world. Around 722 BC ten tribes were captured and taken to Assyria and were lost to history. Only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin and some priests remained. Therefore, the term "Jews" really applies to the remaining tribes. Jews have several important traditions based on their covenant with God.

    Torah. The first five books of the Old Testament which were written by Moses.
    1. Genesis. The history of the world and the call of Abraham, the father of the nation of Israel.
    2. Exodus. The forty year journey from Egypt to the Promised land and the Ten Commandments.
    3. Leviticus. The laws of God, the feasts and the laws of Moses. They have grouped these and other laws into 613 mitzvot (commands).
      613 Mitzvot
      17-21Signs and Symbols (Circumcision, tzitzit, tefillin on the head and arm, mezuzah)
      22-25Prayer and Blessings
      26-39Love and Brotherhood
      40-52The poor
      59-81Marriage, divorce, family
      82-106Forbidden sexual
      107-142Feasts, times and seasons
      143-169Dietary Laws
      170-183Business practices
      184-202Employees, servants and slaves
      203-209Vows, oaths and swearing
      210-226Sabbatical and jubilee years
      227-262The court and judicial procedures
      263-266Injuries and damages
      267-277Property and property damage
      278-284Criminal laws
      285-308Punishment and restitution
      358-364Agriculture and animal care
      368-371The Firstborn
      372-401Kohanim and Levites
      402-425T'rumah, tithes and taxes
      426-458Temple, sanctuary and sacred objects
      459-560Sacrifices and offerings
      561-576Ritual purity and impurity
      577-580Lepers and leprosy
    4. Numbers. The counting of the people to distribute their heritage. and their adventures on the Exodus.
    5. Deuteronomy. The Second reading of the law or the repetition of the law before they crossed over the Jordan river into the Promised Land. Moses died just before this.

    SHMA (SHEMA). The most important theological statement in Judaism. It is the terms of the covenant contained in three important statements. SHMA means "hear or listen". It comes from the first sentence of the covenant in verse 4.
    "Sh'ma Yisrael Adonai Elohaynu Adonai Echad."
    1. Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord is One!
      You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. These words which I am commanding you today shall be on your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your sons and shall talk of them when you sit in your house and when you walk by the way and when you lie down and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand and they shall be as frontals on your forehead. And you shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.
      (Deuteronomy 6: 4-9)
      Exodus 13: 1-16 also contains some of these statements. To obey this command Jews have the following traditions.
      • Love the Lord God (Adonai).
      • Study and speak about the Torah.
      • Recite them in the morning and evening.
      • Teach the mitzvot (divine commandments) to their children.
      • Tefillin. Put on the Tefillin. A small black leather cube box that contains a piece of parchment with the words of the SHMA which commands them to bind the words on the hand and forehead. One is attached to the forehead and the other to the left arm with straps. The Greek word for this box is a Phylactery.
      • Mezuzah. Write them on the doorpost (mezuzot) of their houses. The Mezuzah is a small scroll (klaf) written with the SHMA. It is placed in a box and attached to the doorpost at an angle pointing towards the room. The mezuzah is placed in the top third of the door post on the right side or the side without hinges on every door except a bathroom.
    2. Deuteronomy 11: 13-31. It repeats the commands in Deuteronomy 6 and adds Blessings and Curses for obeying the covenant. The Reform movement objected to this idea of material reward and punishment and have removed it from their statements. Some just remove verses 22-31.
    3. Numbers 15: 37-41. A method to remind them of the commandments. A blue color was used because the commandments were written on a blue sapphire stone. The Reform movement objected to any dress that made them look different from the secular world so they have deleted this tradition.
      The Lord spoke to Moses saying, "Speak to the sons of Israel, and tell them that they shall make for themselves tassels on the corners of their garments throughout their generations, and they shall put on the tassel of each corner a cord of blue. It shall be a tassel for you to look at and remember all the commandments of the Lord, so as to do them and not follow after your own heart and your own eyes, after which you played the harlot. So that you may remember to do all My commandments and be holy to your God. I am the Lord your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt to be your God; I am the Lord your God." (Numbers 15: 37-41).
      Tzitzit. They wear a blue fringe on their clothes to obey this command.
    Jewish children become adults at a particular age and are personally responsible for following the laws. A special ceremony is performed to honor this occasion but all that is required is that the child reads from the Torah soon after his birthday.
    Brit Milah (Covenant of Circumcision). This was a covenant given by God in Genesis 17: 9-14. On the tenth day of Tisheri (Yom Kippur), at the age of 99, Abraham performed the first circumcision on himself and all the males in his whole house. Children born afterwards were circumcised on the eighth day. It is now the point at which the child enters into the covenant because the sign of the covenant is in his flesh. The foreskin is cut, then blood is drawn. The excised foreskin is buried.

    Kosher and Kashrut. The laws governing the preparation of food. The kitchen practices used to maintain these kosher laws are called kashrut. Only certain animals, birds and fish are allowed as food. They must be clean (on a list of food allowed), healthy, slaughtered in a particular way. Here are the basic rules.
    See Jewish Feasts and Holy Days, Sanctuary and Scapegoat
    See Hebrew Calendar and Bible Time Keeping and Weights and Measurements
    See Holy Sites, Messiah, Names of God in Judaism

    Jewish Feasts
    Spring Feasts (Chag he-Aviv).
    Pesach (Passover). (Nissan 15-22) A eight day feast that celebrates their deliverance from slavery in Egypt.
    The Seder meal is eaten at this time. Each food symbolizes their ordeal during slavery. Chametz (leaven) is not eaten during Passover. It include anything made from the five major grains (wheat,rye, barley, oats and spelt).
    Shavout (Feast of Weeks) (Pentecost). Fifty days after the last Sabbath of Passover.
    Matzah. This is unleavened bread.

    Fall Feasts (Chag Ha-Asif. "Festival of Ingathering").
    Rosh Hadhannah (Feast of Trumpets). The Jewish new year (Tishrei 1)
    Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Tishrei 10.
    Sukkoth or Succos (Feast of Tabernacles or Booths). (Tishrei 15-21) Seven day harvest festival.
    Hoshana Rabba. (Tishrei 21)
    Shemini Atzeres. (Tishrei 22)
    Simchat Torah. (Tishrei 23) Rejoicing in the Torah.

    K-Street Project
    Influence peddling in Washington. Politicians and their representatives tell business men that they must support Republican political campaigns and hire republicans in top positions of their companies or they will lose access to the White House and legislation that they want. The existence of this influence peddling became evident with the investigation of Jack Abramhoff in 2005.

    The good and bad deeds that we do add and subtract from our accumulated record, our karma. At the end of our life, we are rewarded or punished according to our karma by being reincarnated into either a painful or good new life. This belief is linked to that of reincarnation and is also derived from Hinduism.
    See New Age, Reincarnation

    Katun Prophecies
    These are recorded in the books of the prophet Chilam Balam around 1595. The katuns did not follow each other in numerical order although they were numbered. They were based on the belief that historical events followed in a particular pattern and the cycle was repeated after every thirteen katuns. The Katun is named after the last day of its cycle.
    The Maya Katun Cycles
    Toltec Eras
    Era Year
    0 1168
    1 1220
    2 1273
    3 1324
    4 1376
    5 1428
    6 1480
    7 1532
    8 1584
    9 1636
    10 1688
    11 1740
    12 1792
    13 1844-1896
    Katun Year Events in Each Cycle
    11 1539, 1796 Famine, invading foreigners
    9 1559, 1815 Bad rulers, priests gain power, carnal sins done openly
    7 1579, 1835 Drinking, adultery, a moral low
    5 1598, 1855 Famine, few births, leaders mistreated, people lose faith in their leaders
    3 1618, 1874 Drought, wars, homeless
    1 1638, 1894 Weak rulers, government rivalries, great war
    12 1658, 1914 Wise government, peace, prosperity, friendship. Six good years, six bad years
    10 1677, 1934 Drought, famine, foreign occupation, calendar change
    8 1697, 1953 Destruction, fighting
    6 1717, 1973 Bad government, famine
    4 1736, 1993 Arrival of Kukulchan. Recording knowledge
    2 1756, 2012 The end of the "word of God". Food and misfortune
    13 2032, 1776 Total collapse. Judgment of God. Epidemics, plague, famine
    A Toltec era is a 52 year cycle. It began August 6, 1168 AD.
    See kukulchan.

    Kukulchan or Kukulkan (Quetzalcoatl)
    Quetzalcoatl is his name in Aztec and Toltec legends. Kukulchan is his name in the Mayan legends for the new religion introduced to them by the Itza who were related to the Toltecs. He is the creator god, a feathered serpent. He is god of the wind, light, Venus (morning star). He and his brother Xolotl descended into hell to retrieve human bones. The bones were resurrected when he dripped his blood on them.
    The Prophecy of the Return of Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcoatl was a white man with a beard who wore long robes. He had a message of love, taught the Toltecs about One Supreme God, and gave them the calendar. He left because of the enmity and persecution of powerful religious leaders, but He promised to return the same way he left, from the east over the ocean. The return was expected in the Katun 4 cycle of the Mayans. The Toltecs expect him to return in the thirteenth Toltec era, which is 1844. In 1517, when the Spanish came from the east in ships, they thought that Cortes was Quetzalcoatl.
    Quetzalcoatl said that a new religion would come in the thirteenth katun. He would return, bringing a reign of peace and a new spiritual order. He would come in the year of his birth. This may have been the birth of the Toltec era in 1168 AD.
    See Katun prophecies.

    The Prophecy of Chilam Balam. Around 1500 AD, a prophet named Chilam Balam told the Maya about the coming of the white man with diseases and war. He said that a great spiritual leader would come in Katun 5 in the nineteenth tun.

    King James Version

    Lateran Treaty
    1929, concordat between the Holy See and Italy which created the new sovereign state of the Vatican City which returned some of the land of the former papal states to the church. It also declared Roman Catholicism as the only state religion of Italy. The treaty was signed by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri and Benito Mussolini.

    In some branches of Christianity, a period of fasting just before Easter.
    See Pentecost

    Lapis Lazuli
    The Blue Sapphire Stone on which God appeared on Mt. Sinai

    Latin Phrases
    Catholic Abbreviations.
    Ave Maria. "Hail Mary" or "Praise Mary".
    Ex Cathedra. "From the chair". Ecumenical councils of bishops and the pope are immune from error when they speak "ex cathedra" about faith and morals.
    Hoc est Corpus Meum. "This is my body". Said by the priest during Mass. Transubstantiation is supposed to occur with these words.
    Pater Noster. "Our Father". The first words of the Lord's prayer.
    Pontifex Maximus. "Great Pontiff". This title was adopted from the emperors of Rome as the acted as the heads of the pagan priesthood.
    Habemus papam. "We have a pope".
    Vox populi. "The voice of the people".
    Salve Regina. "Hail Holy Queen"
    Unum Sanctum. "One Faith". The hope to return Christianity to one Catholic church.
    Vicarius Filii Dei. "Vicar of the son of God".

    Other Historical.
    Anno Domini. "The year of our Lord", abbreviated as "AD" The calendar designation after year 0.
    In hoc signo vinces. "By this sign conquer". Part of Constantine's dream in 312 AD when he saw the cross.
    Sola scriptura. The scriptures alone. The Bible only.
    Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Ivdæorvm. Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.
    Via Dolorosa. Way of Grief/sorrow.
    Ordo Crucis. "The order of the cross".
    Caveat Emptor. Let the buyer beware.
    Ordo ab Chao. Order out of chaos.
    Deus Sol Invictus. God, the unconquerable sun.
    Dies Natali Invicti. Day of birth of the unconquerable [sun]. This is December 25, the saturnalia or winter solstice.

    Inscription on the St. Bartholomew's Day medal.
        GREGORIVS • XIII • PONT • MAX • AN • 1. Gregory XIII. The front shows the profile of the pope.
        UGONOTTORUM STRAGES 1572. Huguenots Slaughtered 1572.
    The back shows an angel with a cross and a sword killing the Huguenots.
    Inscription on the dollar bill and the great seal of the United States.
        » Annuit Coeptis. "Favors undertakings". Providence favors our undertakings.
        » Novus Ordum Seculorum. A new order of the ages.
        » E Pluribius Unum. Out of many, one.

    Document Abbreviations.
    id est. "That is", abbreviated as "i.e."
    et cetera. "and so on", abbreviated as "etc."
    circa. "about", abbreviated as "ca."
    exempli gratia. "for example", abbreviated as "e.g."
    "et alii" or "et aliae". "and others", abbreviated as "et al."
    nota bene. "note well", abbreviated as "N.B."
    sicut. "thus", "so", or "just as that". abbreviated as "sic"


    Natural Law. Laws that are fundamental to human nature and discoverable by human reason.
    Common Law. System of law based on common custom and precedent.
    Civil Law. Laws dealing with relationships between individuals.
    Criminal Law. Law dealing with offenses against the state, their prosecution and punishment.
    Canon Law. Law of the church courts in the Roman Catholic Church. They deal with the rule and administration of the church.
    Roman Law. A system of laws from the Romans which is the basis of modern Civil Law.
    Martial Law. A period when civil authority is inadequate and military force is used to suppress insurrection, riot, or disorder, or to deal with public calamity. It usually included the suspension of civil rights or liberties.
    The Ten Commandments. The laws of God for right human conduct to God and to other people.
    Noahide Laws. Seven laws given to Noah after the flood.
    See a list of biblical laws

    Canon Law
    Laws of the Roman Catholic church. Has certain terms that are explained.
    ferendae sententiae. A penalty is not binding upon the offender until it has been imposed.
    latae sententiae. A penalty is incurred automatically upon the commission of an offence.
    See Laws

    Actually means "what is it?". It was the bread from heaven which fell on the ground six days per week. God used this bread to feed his people during the Exodus. On the sixth day (Friday) it fell in double portions so that the people would have enough on Sabbath. The manna could not be kept overnight (except on Friday Night) otherwise it would rot.

    The worship of the virgin Mary. This argument is made because of the actions done by Catholics. And the quantity in which this occurs in relation to God. The Bible states that we should not

    See Rosary Hail Mary, Hail Holy Queen, Fatima Decade Prayer, Goddess Worship

    One who dies for his or her faith. A martyr is not a suicide bomber. A martyr is in danger because of their beliefs but does not give up their beliefs. In the process they are killed because they will not give up their faith. So a true martryr does not die in violent defense of their faith, nor does a martyr commit suicide or violent acts to defend their faith. That is the action of a warrior. It may be legitimate but it is not martyrdom. When a martyr is killed, all of the following situations must be true. When a whole country is threatened by violence and war to give up their faith, some martyrs may be found resisting by the legitimate violence of self defense in a declared war. They are soldiers and warriors in defense of their country. The definition becomes blurred because they also become martyrs in defense of their faith. The key is that if they did not exercise their right to defend their country, they would still be slaughtered as martyrs because the only cause of war is a direct threat to their faith.
    Hybrid Threats. The definition becomes even more blurred when the cause of war is disguised as another reason. But it does not become martyrdom until the direct religious threat is made. While the faithful can see that they will become martyrs in the future, the present actions are still only defense of life and property as warriors, not defense of faith. But under no definition is a suicide bomber a martyr.

    The Mass (Sacrifice of)
    A variation on the ceremony of the communion practiced in the Catholic Church. The bread (Eucharist) is not just a symbol of Christ's body it is his actual body that has been changed after it is blessed by the priest and is available to him. Therefore the priest actually moves the body of Christ whereever he wishes and the church members actually eat the body of Christ and drink his real blood.
    See Transubstantiation, Communion

    Measurements in the Bible
    MeasureValueCurrentMetric Value Source
    Gerah (1/20) Shekel.02 ounces.57 grams Leviticus 27: 25
    Bekahalf shekel.2 ounces5.7 gramsExodus 38: 26
    Shekel ("to weigh") .4 ounce11.4 gramsExodus 30: 13
    50 shekels (Babylon)-
    60 shekels (Israel)24 ounces684 gramsEzekiel 45: 12
    Talent3000 shekels75.6 Lbs34.3 kg-
    Liquid Measure
    MeasureValueCurrentMetric ValueVerse
    Cor, Chomer10 baths464 pints 220 litersEzekiel 45: 11-14
    Bath (1 Ephah)1/10 Chomer5.8 gallons22 liters1 Kings 7: 26,38
    Hin1/60 Chomer1 gallon3.6 litersExodus 29: 40
    Firkin (Metretes)3/4 hin7+ pints4 litersJohn 2: 6
    Log 1/2 hin .6 pint350 mlLeviticus 14: 10
    Dry Measure
    MeasureValueCurrentMetric ValueVerse
    Cab (kab) 1.3 quarts1.2 liters2 Kings 6: 25
    Omer2 cabs5 pints2.2 litersExodus 16: 16-36
    Seah "measure"8.25 cabs 16.5 pints7.3 litersGenesis 18: 6
    Ephah (1 Bath)25.5 cabs (10 omers)48 pints22 litersExodus 16: 36
    Letech5 ephah; half homer240 pints110 litersHosea 3: 2
    Homer (Cor, Kor)10 ephah480 pints222 litersEzekiel 45: 11-14
    Choenix <½ Cab2 pints or 1.5 pint 1 literRevelation 6: 6
    A quart of wheat for the slave's daily allowance indicates famine
    MeasureValueEnglishMetric Source
    Common Cubit (ammah) (the elbow to the tip of the middle finger) 18 Inches45.72 cm Deuteronomy 3: 11
    King's Cubit (Long Cubit) Common cubit and a palm21 inches 53.34 cm Ezekiel 40: 5; 43: 13
    Holy Cubit2 common cubits36 Inches91.44 cm -
    Span ("thumb to little finger spread out")1/2 cubit; 12 fingers~11 Inches29.94 cm Exodus 28: 16
    Hand breath (palm)1/6 cubit; 4 fingers3.5 inches8.89 cm Exodus 25: 25
    Fathom ("arm stretch")4 Cubits87.5 inches222.25 -
    Measuring reed6 cubits and
    1 hand breadth
    ~11 feet3.35 m Ezekiel 41: 8
    Measuring line80 cubits145 feet, 11 inches44.5 m -
    Pace 5 feet 1.52 m 2 Samuel 6: 13
    Stadia (Furlong)146 paces600 feet (604.375) 1/8 mile182 m Revelation 21: 16
    Sabbath Day's journey729 paces; 2000 cubits3648 feet1111 m Acts 1: 12; Numbers 35: 5
    Day's journey-33.164 miles62.08 km Genesis 30: 36
    Eastern mile-One mile and 2015 feet2.22 km -
    Finger breath - .75 inch2 cm Jeremiah 52: 21
    Gomedh1¼ span 12 inches44.5 cm -
    MeasureValueCurrent $
    Talent of gold 60 minas; 3000 shekels26280.00
    Shekel of gold 2 bekah8.75
    Golden daric -5.24
    Shekel of silver -0.55
    Bekah1/2 shekel0.28
    Pim1 ½ Beka¼ oz
    Gerah1/20 shekel0.25
    Maneh (Mina)50 shekels27.32
    Talent of silver3000 shekels1639.30
    Silver drachma (Greek)Slave's daily allowance0.16
    Tribute money2 drachmas0.31
    Piece of silver (stater)4 drachmas0.62
    Pound (Mornai)100 drachmas15.50
    Denarius (Roman penny) Slave's daily allowance0.16
    Farthing (Assarium)1/5 denarius0.03
    Quadrans1/2 Assarium0.015
    Mite1/2 quadrans0.0075
    SacredSacred FeastCivilCivil
    2Zif-8Bul, MarchesvanOctober-November
    7Tishri, EthanimYom Kippur
    8Bul, Marchesvan-2ZifApril-May
    13Ve-adarInserted every three years in intercalary years

    A process of blanking out the mind and releasing yourself from conscious thinking. This is often aided by repetitive chanting of a mantra, or focusing on an object.

    Menorah This is the candle stick used in the Jewish temple. But there are two versions.

    A word of Jewish origin, which referred to the great deliverer who would save Israel from her enemies. The Christian religion was called a sect of Judaism because it had this one difference in belief. They claimed that Jesus Christ is the Messiah who was predicted in the Jewish scriptures. At least three people were claimed as the Jewish Messiah.
    1. Jesus Christ. A Jew who lived in Palestine during the reign of Tiberius Caesar around 29 AD He was crucified by the Romans.
    2. Shimon Bar-Kokhba. The leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135.
    3. Shabbetai Zvi. Turkish Jew around the year 1665 and 1666.

    Many faiths believe in the return of a messianic figure who will save the world and establish their religion. Both the forces of Good and evil are preparing the world for a supernatural appearance. Atheists and others might interpret such an event as the arrival of a super human race of aliens.
    GroupMessianic Expectations
    Jews Messiah
    Christians Jesus Christ, the Messiah
    Catholics Mary comes to plead with the world
    Muslim: Imami Shiite Mohammed ibn al-Hanifiyah (the Madhi), the twelfth imam
    Muslim: Ismaili Shiite Ismail, the seventh imam
    Muslim Isa (Jesus) comes with the Madhi
    Druze al-Hakim, Hamza and al-Muqtana
    New Age Maitreya
    Buddhist Maitreya, the fifth incarnation of Buddha
    Hindu Kalki the tenth incarnation of Vishnu
    Zoroastrian The ninth Avatar, Shah-Bahram
    Zoroastrian Hushedar. The third of three Messiahs comes in 2310
    Maya Kukulchan
    Toltec Quetzalcoatl
    UFO watchers Aliens
    Adventists Satan. Appears as a False Christ to deceive the world.

    Since Christ, many have claimed to be the Messiah who has come back to earth.
    False Messiahs
    Bahaullah He founded the Baha'i faith. Bahaullah is the promised one of all religions who returned in 1844.
    Mother Ann Lee 1787, the Shakers.
    Reverend Sun Myung Moon Founded the Unification church. He came to finish the task that Jesus failed.
    Father Divine 1914, Universal Peace Mission Movement
    Marshall Applewhite Heaven's Gate Cult. 37 commit suicide on March 26, 1997
    Jim Jones The People's Temple. He murdered his followers
    Others William Branham, David Koresh, Sergei Torop

    From the Latin Mille Annum, which means 1000 years. This is only described in Revelation 20: 4-5. It describes a period of one thousand years that is between two resurrections.
    There are several views within Christianity about what happens during and preceding the millennium. But they all center around the time of the Second Coming and the reign of Christ as the King.
    Second Coming Millennium Third Coming
    Righteous ResurrectedGood 1000 YearsWickedWicked Resurrected
    Premillennial Period Reign of Christ Postmillennial Period

    In each of these views there is a variation on where Christ is during the millennium. There is also a variation on where certain groups are located (Jews, righteous, evil, dead) and what they will be doing.
    Several terms describe the different beliefs on the relationship to Christ's reign and the millennium.
    Amillennial. There will not be a future one thousand year reign of Jesus.
    Wicked Second
    Peace in Heaven
    Earth Destroyed

    Premillennial means "before the thousand years." The title refers to the fact that this viewpoint places the return of Jesus before a future one thousand year period.
    In one view, Christ and the saints reign in heaven while the earth is desolated and populated only by Satan and his angels. All the wicked are dead. There is no second chance. It is only after the millennium, after the third coming that there will be peace on earth when the new earth is created.
    Wicked Second
    Peace on Earth

    In another view, the return of Jesus is before a future one thousand year reign of peace upon the earth. The wicked get a second chance.
    Postmillennial means "after the thousand years."
    -Millennium Wicked Second
    Peace on Earth
    This viewpoint places the return of Jesus after a future one thousand year period of peace on earth. The wicked get a second chance because they will be taught by the Jews or Christ.
    Temporary Millennium. The popular view is that the gospel of Jesus Christ will yet so far control the minds and hearts of men that the whole world will be converted, and become holy by its influence, and that this happy state will continue one thousand years; and that during this time Christ will reign with his people spiritually, and that at the close of the millennium he will come physically the second time when the judgment will take place.

    An event that is caused by the power of God. It defies and even appears to contradict all known natural laws. Miracles are possibly done in several ways.

    Money and Economic Systems
    A token that can be used as a substitute for money in exchange for goods and services.
    Precious Metal Standards
    Metal Purity
    Gold (24 Karat) 99.99%
    Gold (22 Karat) 91.66%
    Gold (18 Karat) 75%
    Gold (14 Karat) 58.33%
    Gold (12 Karat) 50%
    Silver (Fine) 99.9%
    Silver (Britannia) 95.84%
    Silver (Mexican) 95.0%
    Silver (Sterling) 92.5%
    Silver (Coin) 90.0%

    Money (Cash). An abstract unit of account with a fixed value that is used to measure the value of goods and services. It is a portable, scarce item that is traded and exchanged for goods.
    Many things have been used for money. Valuable metals, rare shells such as conch and cowry, whale's teeth, bread, pigs, cattle, rum, cigarettes and artificial paper notes.
    Barter. Trading one valuable item for another. Usually, no abstract item such as money is used.
    Slavery. This is a barter system where one person trades his labor for food, clothes and shelter or payment of debt. In the most profitable systems the slavery is involuntary, because the cost of labor is not incurred.
    Indentured Service. Temporary voluntary slavery for a specific time.
    Debt Bondage. Voluntary slavery that never ends for many generations because the system ensures that the debt cannot be paid.
    Jubilee. "The year of release". A biblical system that ensures that generational debt bondage or poverty does not occur.

    Precious Metals. These are also traded and based on a standard of purity. Gold, silver and platinum are the most common. Since these metals are soft, they are usually mixed with another metal to harden them. Silver is mixed with copper.
    Touchstone. This is a type of field stone used to evaluate the purity of a metal. Precious metals leave distinct markings when rubbed on a touchstone.

    Paper Money or Cash. A fixed value public paper note or coin issued by the government.
    Checks. A variable value private note that can be redeemed from your bank.
    Commercial paper. A short term unsecured note usually given to businesses with good credit.
    Credit. The ability to obtain goods, services, or money in return for a promise of future payment in installments usually with interest.
    Credit Card. A reusable card used to obtain consumer credit during a purchase.
    Debit Card. A reusable card that is the electronic version of a check. Payment is made by direct withdrawal of the full amount from the purchaser's account.
    e-money. Any electronic debit transaction system.
    Stock Exchanges
    Market Location
    Dow Jones New York
    S&P 500 USA
    FTSE 100 London
    DAX Germany
    CAC 40 France
    ASX Australia
    Hang Seng Hong Kong
    Nikkei 225 Japan
    STI Singapore

    Bank. Institutions that deal in money and instruments of credit. There are several types of banks (Federal, commercial, credit unions, savings and loans).
    Stock Exchange. An organized market for the trading of stocks and bonds.
    See Economics, Historical Economic Events
    See Economic Problems, Participants in the economic system

    A new Age belief that all that exists is derived from a single source of divine energy.
    See New Age, Panentheism, Pantheism

    The Mysteries
    The fifteen mysteries of Catholicism. These are remembered during the recitation of the rosary prayers.
    1. The Joyful Mysteries. These are events related to the birth of Jesus.
      • The Annunciation. Gabriel announced the birth.
      • The Visitation. Mary visited her cousin Elizabeth in the sixth month of Elizabeth's pregnancy.
      • The Birth. of Jesus Christ.
      • The Presentation. Simeon saw the infant in the temple at His circumcision.
      • The Finding in the temple. Jesus at the age of 12. He was lost by His parents.
    2. The Sorrowful Mysteries are events related to the crucifixion.
      • The Agony in the garden. The Garden of Gethsemane where Jesus sweats blood.
      • The Scourging at the pillar. Jesus was beaten.
      • The Crown of Thorns. A crown of thorns was placed on His head. This was to mock the claim that He was king.
      • Carrying the cross. Jesus carried the cross on the way to His crucifixion.
      • The Crucifixion. The death of Jesus.
    3. The Glorious Mysteries are events after the resurrection
      • The Resurrection. Jesus rose from the dead.
      • The Ascension. Jesus went to heaven.
      • The Holy Ghost at Pentecost. The descent of the Holy Spirit.
      • The Assumption of Mary. The belief that she rose bodily into heaven.
      • The Coronation of Mary. As queen of heaven and earth.

    See Rosary

    Names of God in Judaism
    Name Meaning
    Michael Who is like God
    Emanuel God is with us.
    God is our protector
    Daniel God is my judge
    Gabriel Hero of God
    Ezekiel God will strengthen
    Eliezer God has helped
    There is only one God in Judaism, but there are many names or titles assigned to Him that describe His attributes.
    YHWH (Yahweh). The personal God.
    El. God.
    Elohim. Mighty God (plural of El). (Exodus 32:1)
    El Elyon. God most high. (Genesis 14:18-20)
    El Olam. The Eternal God. (Genesis 21:33)
    El Berith. God of the covenant. (Judges 9: 46)
    El Gibbor. Hero God.
    El Hai. Living God.
    El Ro'i. God of Seeing.
    El Shaddai. God Almighty. (Exodus 6: 2-3; Genesis 17:1-2)
    Elah. To worship and adore.
    Melech ha-Melachim. King of Kings.
    Kaddosh Israel (Qedosh Yisra'el). The Holy One of Israel. (Isaiah 1: 4)
    Elohei Zebaot. God of Hosts
    Adonai. Masters or Owners (plural word).
    Ehiyeh sh'Ehiyeh. I AM that I AM.
    YHWH. The ever revealing one. I AM that I AM. I AM what you need. The personal God.
    YHWH-Jereh. The LORD our provider. (Genesis 22:14)
    YHWH-Rophe (YHWH-Rapha). The LORD our health (healing). (Exodus 15:26)
    YHWH-Nissi. The LORD our banner. (Exodus 17:8-15)
    YHWH-M'Kaddesh (Mekoddishkem). The LORD our sanctifier. (Exodus 31:13)
    YHWH-Shalom. The LORD our peace. (Judges 6:24)
    YHWH-Tsebaoth (YHWH-Tzevaot). The LORD of hosts. (1 Samuel 17: 45)
    YHWH-Rohi (YHWH-Ra-ah). The LORD our Shepherd. (Psalm 23:1)
    YHWH-Tsidkenu. The LORD our righteousness. (Jeremiah 23:6)
    YHWH-Makkeh. The LORD that smites.
    YHWH-Gmolah. The LORD of recompenses.
    YHWH-Shammah. The LORD is there. (Ezekiel 48:35)
    YHWH-Hoseenu. The LORD our maker.
    YHWH-Eloheenu. The LORD of corporate righteousness.
    YHWH-Elohek. The LORD your God.
    YHWH-Elohay. The LORD my God.

    LORD. The word YHWH is sometimes translated as LORD in upper case.
    Because the name of God was too holy to pronounce, the Jews referred to Him as Adonai (Lord) or Hashem ("The Name"). In their writings they do not spell out the word, God. They will write G-d.
    See Names of gods of mythology

    The Nature of Christ
    Arianism. Jesus was the first being created by God. Jesus then created the universe and the Holy Spirit.
    Adoptionism. God tested Jesus and after he passed he was granted supernatural powers and then adopted him as a Son.
    Apollinarianism. Jesus had two natures but the divine nature overshadowed and replaced the human. He had a human body but a divine mind.
    Docetism. Jesus was divine and not human, he only appeared to have a body.
    Hypostatic Union. Jesus had two separate natures, divine and human. He was fully God and fully man in one person.
    Kenosis. Jesus voluntarily gave up the divine attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence while on earth so that he could function as a human.
    Monothelitism. One will. Christ had two natures (human and divine) but he acted as God only. His divine nature made all the decisions and His human nature only carried and acted them out.
    Monophysitism. Jesus had only one nature, divine. It denies the human nature of Christ. His less perfect human nature dissolved itself in the divine nature.
    Eutychian. Same as Monophysitism.
    The Nestorian Controversy. Mary gave birth to a man, Jesus Christ, not God. God lived in Christ, as in a Temple. Therefore, Christ, was only Theophoros.
    See Trinity

    Negotiable Instrument
    See Money

    New Age
    The New Age is a free flowing spiritual movement without any central organization; a network of believers and practitioners who share somewhat similar beliefs and practices, which they add on to whichever formal religion that they follow.
    New Age terms.
    See Gaia. Aura. Karma. Monism. New World Order.
    See Panentheism. Pantheism. Reincarnation. Universal Religion.

    New World Order
    As the Age of Aquarius unfolds, a New Age will develop. This will be a utopia in which there is one world government, and end to wars, disease, hunger, pollution, and poverty. Gender, racial, religious and other forms of discrimination will cease. People's allegiance to their tribe or nation will be replaced by a concern for the entire world and its people.

    Organizations. Several conspiracy theories and groups are associated with this new world order and groups determined to secure world domination.
    Rosicrucian ("The Rose Cross"). Began in 1407 in Germany by Christian Rosenkreuz and three other monks after he learned about the occult in the Middle East..
    The Illuminati. Founded in May 1776 by Dr. Adam Weishaupt, a Rosicrucian, a Jesuit priest and a professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt in Bavaria. A group which has existed since the French Revolution, it has infiltrated Masonry and has now emerged in this century to establish all these groups that are seeking a one world government.
    Council on Foreign Affairs. Began in Paris in 1919 as the "Institute of International Affairs". In 1921, the American branch expanded to form the CFR. Their goal is to bring the United States under submission to a world government.
    Bilderbergs ("The 500"). Began in May, 1954, with members from the powerful elite. They have an agenda to replace national laws with international laws and to promote European Unity and world unity.
    Trilateral Commission. Began in 1973 by David Rockefeller to unite the financial interests of the United States, Japan and Europe to create a global economic power that controls governments by controlling the world economies.
    Others. The United Nations, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) founded in 1947 and which was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, The World Bank, The International Monetary Fund (IMF), The Jesuits, The Catholic church, The Club of Rome and the Masonic Lodge.
    Secret Organizations. Other secret organizations such as Skull and Bones, on prestigious college campuses are implicated. Their contribution to the global conspiracy is to train the children of the rich and powerful and to make sure that they provide life long support for the best jobs, political power and opportunities to the members. This type of thinking is rational when we consider the tactics of the Jesuits and the recent revelation of the "K Street Project".

    American Concentration Camps. Theories abound about plans to incarcerate large portions of the population. The three maps that I have seen which identify locations are different. The speculation on their possible location makes sense. My perspective on this is that it will happen because it has been predicted, but if they exist now I will attribute it to prudent planning by the military for such a contingency. I do not believe that they were originally planned or are being planned with the specific goal of religious persecution. However, this is how they will be used.

    A One World Government or A Global Religion? It is the position of the author of this web site that if these organizations exist with the agenda ascribed to them by conspiracy theorists then it is still irrelevant prophetically. Why? Ultimately, prophecy only acknowledges three movements and powers at the end of time. So all organizations that are grabbing power will ultimately submit to these three powers. Trying to infiltrate and speculate about the secret workings of secret organizations may lead to some form of paranoia and single minded concentration on one group not specifically identified in prophecy. So we concentrate on the three powers and look for evidence of their growing power and their connection to works that they will do. It is the opinion of this author that the Utopian world envisioned by the new age movement and the global religionists will fail. The world will not blend religion into an amoral, cafeteria style, choose a god of your making religion. Terror or fear from the heavens will force us to consider the existence of a God with a moral agenda. But at the moment, terror of human origin is driving us to establish the infrastructure needed to fulfill the prophecies. When this preparation is complete, the dark spiritual forces will compel us to use these systems for different reasons.
    See New Age

    The Niocene Creed
    A statement of faith developed by the Catholic church at the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD.
    We believe in one God. The Father Almighty. Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.
    And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only begotten, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light; true God of true God; begotten not made; of one essence with the Father, by whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became man.

    And He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried. And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father; and he shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead; whose Kingdom shall have no end.

    And (We believe) in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father: who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified: who spoke by the prophets.

    In one Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church.
    I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.
    See The Apostle's Creed, Glory be, Rosary, Hail Mary, Hail Holy Queen
    See The Our Father or the Lord's Prayer, Fatima Decade Prayer

    New International version. A translation of the bible from the original language.

    Means "hidden" but mainly refers to all practices dealing with the illicit supernatural contact, such as satanic worship, psychic phenomena, communicating with the dead, witchcraft and black magic.

    Our Father
    This is known as the Lord's Prayer by Protestants. It is from Matthew 6: 9-13.
    It is also called Pater Noster (Latin translation meaning "our Father") by Catholics.
    Our Father, who is in heaven,
    Hallowed be your Name.
    Your kingdom come.
    Your will be done on earth,
    As it is in heaven.
    Give us this day our daily bread.
    And forgive us our trespasses,
    As we forgive those who trespass against us.
    And lead us not into temptation,
    but deliver us from evil.
    The Lord's prayer (Protestant version) continues with:
    For yours is the kingdom and the power and the Glory Forever and ever - Amen.
    See The Apostle's Creed
    See The Niocene Creed
    See Glory be
    See Rosary
    See Hail Mary
    See Hail Holy Queen
    See Fatima Decade Prayer

    Panic (Economic)
    Financial and economic crisis, marked by public loss of confidence in the financial structure characterized by runs on banks and a rapid fall of the securities market, bank failures and bankruptcies.
    See Depression (Economic)

    A new Age belief that all that exists is God; God is all that exists. Therefore, god is in everything and everyone. This leads naturally to the concept of the divinity of the individual, that we are all Gods. They do not seek God as revealed in a sacred text or as exists in a remote heaven; they seek God within the self and throughout the entire universe.
    See New Age, Monism, Panentheism

    A new Age belief that God is all that exists. God is at once the entire universe, and transcends the universe as well.
    See New Age, Monism, Pantheism

    Another name for the Second Coming of Christ.
    See The Second Coming

    Pascal's Wager
    "God is, or He is not." These are our two choices.
    Reason can decide nothing here because we do not know enough to make a decision. We are like a one month old baby trying to understand Einstei 's Theory of Relativity. We cannot. So what are the issues? Pascal's Wager is based on considering the costs and what you stand to win or lose based on the decision .
    1. Believe
      • Costs:   Significant, but finite. Let us agree that you have to give up some things. ("Take up your cross and follow me." It does not sound easy.)
      • Win:   (God exists): an "infinity of an infinitely happy life."
      • Lose:   (God does not exist): Big deal! You never even find out that you were wrong. And in this life you are much better off. The costs in this life were the only ones that you incur (offering, being kinder to your enemy, charitable works, lifestyle changes).
    2. Do not believe
      • Costs:   Let us assume that they are not great.
      • Win:   (God does not exist): Big deal ... You never even find out you were right.
      • Lose:   (God exists): You lose everything that God has to offer or even worse ... hell.

    The Jewish ceremony that celebrates the exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt through powerful miracles from God. In Christianity, Jesus Christ, the true lamb of God died on Passover and so allowed us to exit from the slavery of sin.
    See Jewish Feast days

    Good deeds that can lessen temporal punishment
    See Sins (Catholic)

    From the Greek word meaning fifty. It is the fiftieth day after Passover. On this occasion the Holy Spirit appeared in the form of tongues of fire above the head of the disciples after the death of Christ.

    See Lent

    Any group, person, church or movements which believes that speaking in tongues is the primary or only initial evidence of the baptism in the Holy Spirit;
    See charismatic, Baptism of the Holy Spirit

    The Pharisees represented a new stream of Jewish thought. They maintained that, in addition to the written Torah, God had handed down an Oral Tradition at Mount Sinai. The Pharisees claimed divine authority for this Oral Tradition. They challenged the priests and maintained that the priests did not know the correct laws because they did not study the Oral Tradition. The Pharisees believed that the soul was immortal; there was a divine reward and punishment system which began at a person's death. All actions in this world affected the person's future in the World to come. It was the Pharisees who were involved with the people in the synagogues, teaching and encouraging study and prayer as Jewish forms of worship. Although apparently supported by most Jews, the Pharisees did not enjoy real political power during the Hasmonean period. However, their representatives did eventually write down a great deal of material that provides us with our historical understanding of that period and forms the core of rabbinical Judaism.
    See Essenes, Sadducees

    A person who makes a journey to a sacred place.
    Hegira (Hijra). Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD.
    Hajj. The annual pilgrimage that a Muslim makes to Mecca around January.
    See Disciple

    A journey to a sacred place.
    » Jew. The males must go to the temple in Jerusalem three times each year. At Passover, Shavu'ot and Tabernacles.
    » Muslim (Hajj). The pilgrimage to Mecca which must be made at least once in a lifetime. About 2 million make this trip every year.
    » Hindu (Kumbh Mela). Ganges river pilgrimage. Every 12 years about 50 million people gather kumbh mela festival in the town of Haridwar during three months for a spiritual cleansing dip in Ganges river.
    » Christians. There are none ordered in the Bible. We will make one to the New Jerusalem at the end.
    » Protestants do not have any religious journeys that they must make.
    » Catholics have many pilgrimages to many holy sites and shrines erected to apparitions of Mary.

    The head of the Roman Catholic church. The Vicar of Christ or representative of Christ on earth in Catholic theology. The successor to Peter who is supposed to have been the first pope. It is the longest continuous monarchy still surviving today. As of 2005, there have been 265 or 266 popes.
    Names Year
    1Peter 33-64/67
    31Saint Eusebius 309-310
    Edict of Milan 313 Gift of Rome 334
    32Saint Miltiades 311-314
    33Saint Sylvester I 314-335
    34Saint Mark 336
    35Saint Julius I 337-352
    40Saint Innocent I 401-417
    45Saint Leo I 440-61
    Popes at the coming to power 538
    54Saint Felix IV 526-30
    55Boniface II 530-32
    56John II 533-35
    57Saint Agapetus 1 535-36
    58Saint Silverius 536-37
    59Vigilius 537-55
    92Stephen II 752-757
    Popes - Crusades, Inquisition And Wars
    159Blessed Urban II 1088-99
    167Blsd. Eugene III 1145-53
    173Gregory VIII 1187
    176Innocent III 1198-16
    177Honorius III 1216-27
    178Gregory IX 1227-41
    180Innocent IV 1243-54
    181Alexander IV 1254-61
    184Gregory X 1271-76
    Popes - Avignon Papacy (French Popes)
    197Benedict XII [State of the Dead] 1334-42
    198Clement VI 1342-52
    199Innocent VI 1352-62
    200Urban V 1362-70
    201Gregory XI 1370-78
    202Urban VI 1378-89
    203Boniface IX 1389-04
    204 Innocent VII 1404-06
    205 Gregory XII 1406-15 R
    206Martin V [Hussite Wars] 1417-1431
    207Eugene IV [Beubonic Plague]1431-1447
    208Nicholas V [Conquer Others] 1447-1455
    212Sixtus IV [Inquisition] 1471-84
    214Alexander VI [Divided Earth] 1492-03
    216Julius II [Terrority Expansion] 1503-13
    217Leo X [Inquisition] 1513-21
    230Innocent IX [Huguenot] 1591-92
    233Paul V [Bank of the Holy Spirit] 1605-21
    234Gregory XV [Propaganda Wars] 1621-23
    235Urban VIII [Territory by Force] 1623-44
    236Innocent X [Heresy] 1644-55
    Popes since the wounding in 1798
    250Pius VI 1775-99
    251Pius VII 1800-23
    252Leo XII 1823-29
    253Pius VIII 1829-30
    254Gregory XVI 1831-46
    255Blessed Pius IX 1846-78
    256Leo XIII 1878-03
    257Saint Pius X 1903-14
    258Benedict XV 1914-22
    Popes since the Lateran Treaty
    259Pius XI 1922-39
    260Pius XII 1939-58
    261Blsd John XXIII 1958-63
    262Paul VI 1963-78
    263John Paul 1 1978
    264Blsd John Paul II 1978-05
    265Benedict XVI 2005-13 R
    266Francis I 2013-
    (#92) Pope-elect Stephen [752] is sometimes added to the list

    The Avignon Papacy (1309 - 1377). The period from 1309 to 1377, in which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (part of the Holy Roman Empire, in France) rather than in Rome.

    The Interregnum. The time between the death of the pope and the election of a new pope. The church is ruled by the Cardinal Camerlengo (Interim governing cardinal). Who has the following duties.
    The Election of a Pope.
    Fast Facts! The longest conclave was two years and nine months in 1268 in the city of Viterbo. Gregory X was elected. The people locked them into forced seclusion, supplying only bread and water and they quickly made a decision. Afterwards Gregory introduced tough rules. They should be secluded in one common area. They should get no pay, have only one servant and get only one meal a day after three days of unsuccessful voting and bread and water after five days.
    Fast Facts! Gregory XII abdicated in 1409.

    Catholic Laws.
    Prayers: Jewish
    Aleinu - Closing Prayer of Praise. The closing prayer for the three daily services.
    It is our duty to praise the Master of all, to ascribe greatness to the Molder of primeval creation, for He has not made us like the nations of the lands and has not emplaced us like the families of the earth; for He has not assigned our portion like theirs nor our lot like all their multitudes.
    For they bow to vanity and emptiness and pray to a g-d which helps not
    But we bend our knees, bow, and acknowledge our thanks before the King Who reigns over kings, the Holy One, Blessed is He.
    He stretches out heaven and establishes earth's foundation, the seat of His homage is in the heavens above and His powerful Presence is in the loftiest heights.
    He is our G-d and there is none other. True is our King, there is nothing beside Him, as it is written in His Torah: 'You are to know this day and take to your heart that Hashem is the only G-d--in heaven above and on the earth below--there is none other.
    Therefore we put our hope in You, Hashem our G-d, that we may soon see Your mighty splendor, to remove detestable idolatry from the earth, and false g-ds will be utterly cut off, to perfect the universe through the Almighty's sovereignty.
    Then all humanity will call upon Your Name, to turn all the earth's wicked toward You.
    All the world's inhabitants will recognize and know that to You every knee should bend, every tongue should swear.
    Before You, Hashem, our G-d, they will bend every knee and cast themselves down and to the glory of Your Name they will render homage, and they will all accept upon themselves the yoke of Your kingship that You may reign over them soon and eternally.
    For the kingdom is Yours and You will reign for all eternity in glory as it is written in your Torah: Hashem shall reign for all eternity.
    And it is said: Hashem will be King over all the world--on that day Hashem will be One and His Name will be One.
    Al Chet. The 44 mistakes. It is said at the Yom Kippur services.
    1. For the sin that we have sinned before You under duress and willingly;
    2. And for the sin that we have sinned before You through hardness of heart.
    3. For the sin that we have sinned before You without knowledge;
    4. And for the sin that we have sinned before You with the utterance of our lips.
    5. For the sin that we have sinned before You in public or in private;
    6. And for the sin that we have sinned before You through immorality.
    7. For the sin that we have sinned before You through harsh speech;
    8. And for the sin that we have sinned before You with knowledge and deceit.
    9. For the sin that we have sinned before You through inner thoughts;
    10. And for the sin that we have sinned before You through wronging a neighbor.
    11. For the sin that we have sinned before You through insincere confession;
    12. And for the sin that we have sinned against You in a session of vice.
    13. For the sin that we have sinned before You willfully and carelessly;
    14. And for the sin that we have sinned before You by showing contempt for parents and teachers.
    15. For the sin we have sinned before You by exercising power;
    16. And for the sin we have sinned before You through desecration of the name.
    17. For the sin that we have sinned before You through foolish speech;
    18. And for the sin that we have sinned before You through impure lips.
    19. For the sin that we have sinned before You with evil inclination;
    20. And for the sin that we have sinned before You against those who know and against those who do not know.
      For all these, O God of forgiveness Forgive us, pardon us, atone for us.
    21. For the sin that we have sinned before You by causing subservience through bribery.
    22. And for the sin that we have sinned before You through denial and false promise.
    23. For the sin that we have sinned before You through evil talk;
    24. And for the sin that we have sinned before You through scorning.
    25. For the sin that we have sinned before You in commercial dealings;
    26. And for the sin that we have sinned before You with food and drink.
    27. For the sin we have sinned before You through interest and extortion;
    28. And for the sin we have sinned before You through haughtiness.
    29. For the sin we have sinned before You with prying eyes;
    30. And for the sin we have sinned before You with idle chatter of our lips.
    31. For the sin we have sinned before You with haughty eyes;
    32. And for the sin we have sinned before You with brazenness.
      For all these, o God of forgiveness, Forgive us, pardon us, atone for us.
    33. For the sin we have sinned before You for throwing off ( Your ) yoke;
    34. And for the sin we have sinned before You in Judgment.
    35. For the sin we have sinned before You through entrapping a neighbor;
    36. And for the sin we have sinned before You through a begrudging eye.
    37. For the sin we have sinned before You through light-headedness;
    38. And for the sin we have sinned before You with obstinacy.
    39. For the sin we have sinned before You with legs that run to do evil;
    40. And for the sin we have sinned before You by gossip-mongering.
    41. For the sin we have sinned before You by vain oath-taking;
    42. And for the sin we have sinned before You through baseless hatred.
    43. For the sin we have sinned before You in the matter of extending a hand;
    44. And for the sin we have sinned before You through confusion of heart.
      For all these, O God of forgiveness, Forgive us, pardon us, atone for us.
    Amidah (Shmoneh-Esreh). This prayer is said on Sabbath and holidays. It means the eighteen because the original version had eighteen benedictions. Number twelve was added later. The prayer is said without the topic headings.
    1. THE GOD OF HISTORY. Blessed are you, O Lord our God and God of our fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, the great, mighty and revered God, the Most High God who bestows lovingkindnesses, the creator of all things, who remembers the good deeds of the patriarchs and in love will bring a redeemer to their children's children for his name's sake. O king, helper, savior and shield. Blessed are you, O Lord, the shield of Abraham.
    2. THE GOD OF NATURE. You, O Lord, are mighty forever, you revive the dead, you have the power to save.
      [Insert from the end of Sukkot until the eve of Passover:] You cause the wind to blow and the rain to fall.
      You sustain the living with lovingkindness, you revive the dead with great mercy, you support the falling, heal the sick, set free the bound and keep faith with those who sleep in the dust. Who is like you, O doer of mighty acts? Who resembles you, a king who puts to death and restores to life, and causes salvation to flourish? And you are certain to revive the dead. Blessed are you, O Lord, who revives the dead.
      [Reader.] We will sanctify your name in this world just as it is sanctified in the highest heavens, as it is written by your prophet: "And they call out to one another and say:
      [Congregation.] 'Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory.'" (Isaiah 6: 3)
      [Reader.] Those facing them praise God saying:
      [Congregation.] "Blessed be the Presence of the LORD in his place." (Ezekiel 3: 12)
      [Reader.] And in your Holy Words it is written, saying,
      [Congregation.] "The LORD reigns forever, your God, O Zion, throughout all generations. Hallelujah." (Psalm 146: 10)
      [Reader.] Throughout all generations we will declare your greatness, and to all eternity we will proclaim your holiness. Your praise, O our God, shall never depart from our mouth, for you are a great and holy God and King. Blessed are you, O Lord, the holy God. You are holy, and your name is holy, and holy beings praise you daily. (Selah.) Blessed are you, O Lord, the holy God.
    4. PRAYER FOR UNDERSTANDING. You favor men with knowledge, and teach mortals understanding. O favor us with the knowledge, the understanding and the insight that come from you. Blessed are you, O Lord, the gracious giver of knowledge.
    5. FOR REPENTANCE. Bring us back, O our father, to your Instruction; draw us near, O our King, to your service; and cause us to return to you in perfect repentance. Blessed are you, O Lord, who delights in repentance.
    6. FOR FORGIVENESS. Forgive us, O our Father, for we have sinned; pardon us, O our King, for we have transgressed; for you pardon and forgive. Blessed are you, O Lord, who is merciful and always ready to forgive.
    7. FOR DELIVERANCE FROM AFFLICTION. Look upon our affliction and plead our cause, and redeem us speedily for your name's sake, for you are a mighty redeemer. Blessed are you, O Lord, the redeemer of Israel.
    8. FOR HEALING. Heal us, O Lord, and we will be healed; save us and we will be saved, for you are our praise. O grant a perfect healing to all our ailments, for you, almighty King, are a faithful and merciful healer. Blessed are you, O Lord, the healer of the sick of his people Israel.
    9. FOR DELIVERANCE FROM WANT. Bless this year for us, O Lord our God, together with all the varieties of its produce, for our welfare. Bestow ([from the 15th of Nissan insert:] dew and rain for) a blessing upon the face of the earth. O satisfy us with your goodness, and bless our year like the best of years. Blessed are you, O Lord, who blesses the years.
    10. FOR GATHERING OF EXILES. Sound the great shofar for our freedom, raise the ensign to gather our exiles, and gather us from the four corners of the earth. Blessed are you, O Lord, who gathers the dispersed of his people Israel.
    11. FOR THE RIGHTEOUS REIGN OF GOD. Restore our judges as in former times, and our counselors as at the beginning; and remove from us sorrow and sighing. Reign over us, you alone, O Lord, with lovingkindness and compassion, and clear us in judgment. Blessed are you, O Lord, the King who loves righteousness and justice.
    12. FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF APOSTATES AND THE ENEMIES OF GOD. Let there be no hope for slanderers, and let all wickedness perish in an instant. May all your enemies quickly be cut down, and may you soon in our day uproot, crush, cast down and humble the dominion of arrogance. Blessed are you, O Lord, who smashes enemies and humbles the arrogant.
    13. FOR THE RIGHTEOUS AND PROSELYTES. May your compassion be stirred, O Lord our God, towards the righteous, the pious, the elders of your people the house of Israel, the remnant of their scholars, towards proselytes, and towards us also. Grant a good reward to all who truly trust in your name. Set our lot with them forever so that we may never be put to shame, for we have put our trust in you. Blessed are you, O Lord, the support and stay of the righteous.
    14. FOR THE REBUILDING OF JERUSALEM. Return in mercy to Jerusalem your city, and dwell in it as you have promised. Rebuild it soon in our day as an eternal structure, and quickly set up in it the throne of David. Blessed are you, O Lord, who rebuilds Jerusalem.
    15. FOR THE MESSIANIC KING. Speedily cause the offspring of your servant David to flourish, and let him be exalted by your saving power, for we wait all day long for your salvation. Blessed are you, O Lord, who causes salvation to flourish.
    16. FOR THE ANSWERING OF PRAYER. Hear our voice, O Lord our God; spare us and have pity on us. Accept our prayer in mercy and with favor, for you are a God who hears prayers and supplications. O our King, do not turn us away from your presence empty-handed, for you hear the prayers of your people Israel with compassion. Blessed are you, O Lord, who hears prayer.
    17. FOR RESTORATION OF TEMPLE SERVICE. Be pleased, O Lord our God, with your people Israel and with their prayers. Restore the service to the inner sanctuary of your Temple, and receive in love and with favor both the fire-offerings of Israel and their prayers. May the worship of your people Israel always be acceptable to you. And let our eyes behold your return in mercy to Zion. Blessed are you, O Lord, who restores his divine presence to Zion.
    18. THANKSGIVING FOR GOD'S UNFAILING MERCIES. We give thanks to you that you are the Lord our God and the God of our fathers forever and ever. Through every generation you have been the rock of our lives, the shield of our salvation. We will give you thanks and declare your praise for our lives that are committed into your hands, for our souls that are entrusted to you, for your miracles that are daily with us, and for your wonders and your benefits that are with us at all times, evening, morning and noon. O beneficent one, your mercies never fail; O merciful one, your lovingkindnesses never cease. We have always put our hope in you. For all these acts may your name be blessed and exalted continually, O our King, forever and ever. Let every living thing give thanks to you and praise your name in truth, O God, our salvation and our help. (Selah.) Blessed are you, O Lord, whose Name is the Beneficent One, and to whom it is fitting to give thanks.
    19. FOR PEACE. Grant peace, welfare, blessing, grace, lovingkindness and mercy to us and to all Israel your people. Bless us, O our Father, one and all, with the light of your countenance; for by the light of your countenance you have given us, O Lord our God, a Torah of life, lovingkindness and salvation, blessing, mercy, life and peace. May it please you to bless your people Israel at all times and in every hour with your peace. Blessed are you, O Lord, who blesses his people Israel with peace.
    Avodah (Retzeh). Prayer is now the sacrificial offering that we bring to God instead of the animal sacrifices.
    Be favorable, Hashem, our G-d, toward Your people Yisrael and their prayer,
    and restore the service to the Holy of Holies of Your Temple.
    The fire-offerings of Yisrael and their prayer accept with love and favor,
    and may the service of Your people Yisrael always be favorable to You.
    May our eyes behold Your return to Tziyon in compassion.
    Blessed are You, Hashem, Who restores His Presence unto Tziyon
    Avinu Malkaynu - Our Parent, Our Sovereign.
    Our Father, our King, teach us how to make this year a new beginning. Our Mother, our Queen, teach us how to grow from the harshness of life. Our Source and our Destiny, teach us how to accept what we must accept. Our Guide and our Truth, teach us to change what must be changed.
    Our Father, our King, teach us how to face disease and death. Our Mother, our Queen, teach us how to enjoy the gifts of life. Our Source and our Destiny, teach us how to make peace with our enemies. Our Guide and our Truth, teach us how we can best help our people, Israel.
    Our Father, our King, teach us how we can best help all humanity. Our Mother, our Queen, let us find pardon for our wrongdoings. Our Source and our Destiny, let us return to You, wholly and completely. Our Guide and our Truth, teach us how to help those who are ill.
    Our Father, our King, let us write our names in the Book of Life. Our Mother, our Queen, help us to find meaningful work. Our Source and our Destiny, help us to find inner freedom. Our Guide and our Truth, help us to learn how to love.
    Our Father, our King, receive our prayers. Our Mother, our Queen, teach us how to be good lovers. Our Source and our Destiny, teach us how to be good parents. Our Guide and our Truth, teach us how to be good children.
    Our Father, our King, teach us how to be good friends. Our Mother, our Queen, teach us how to be good Jews. Our Source and our Destiny, teach us how to be good people. Our Guide and our Truth, teach us how to be one with Your universe.

    Grant us justice and bring us salvation, Grant us justice and loving kindness and bring us salvation.
    U'netaneh Tokef ("Let Us Tell How Utterly Holy This Day Is").
    This prayer is recited on the first two days of Rosh Hashannah and on Yom Kippur.
    We shall ascribe holiness to this day. For it is awesome and terrible.
    Your kingship is exalted upon it. Your throne is established in mercy.
    You are enthroned upon it in truth.
    In truth You are the judge, The exhorter, the all-knowing, the witness,
    He who inscribes and seals, Remembering all that is forgotten.
    You open the book of remembrance Which proclaims itself,
    And the seal of each person is there.
    The great shofar is sounded, A still small voice is heard.
    The angels are dismayed, They are seized by fear and trembling
    As they proclaim: Behold the Day of Judgment!
    For all the hosts of heaven are brought for judgment. They shall not be guiltless in Your eyes
    And all creatures shall parade before You as a troop. As a shepherd herds his flock,
    Causing his sheep to pass beneath his staff, So do You cause to pass, count, and record,
    Visiting the souls of all living, Decreeing the length of their days, Inscribing their judgment.
    On Rosh Hashanah it is inscribed, And on Yom Kippur it is sealed.
    How many shall pass away and how many shall be born,
    Who shall live and who shall die,
    Who shall reach the end of his days and who shall not,
    Who shall perish by water and who by fire,
    Who by sword and who by wild beast,
    Who by famine and who by thirst,
    Who by earthquake and who by plague,
    Who by strangulation and who by stoning,
    Who shall have rest and who shall wander,
    Who shall be at peace and who shall be pursued,
    Who shall be at rest and who shall be tormented,
    Who shall be exalted and who shall be brought low,
    Who shall become rich and who shall be impoverished.
    But repentance, prayer and righteousness avert the severe decree.

    For Your praise is in accordance with Your name. You are difficult to anger and easy to appease. For You do not desire the death of the condemned, but that he turn from his path and live. Until the day of his death You wait for him. Should he turn, You will receive him at once. In truth You are their Creator and You understand their inclination, for they are but flesh and blood. The origin of man is dust, his end is dust. He earns his bread by exertion and is like a broken shard, like dry grass, a withered flower, like a passing shadow and a vanishing cloud, like a breeze that blows away and dust that scatters, like a dream that flies away. But You are King, God who lives for all eternity! There is no limit to Your years, no end to the length of Your days, no measure to the hosts of Your glory, no understanding the meaning of Your Name. Your Name is fitting unto You and You are fitting unto it, and our name has been called by Your Name. Act for the sake of Your Name and sanctify Your Name through those who sanctity Your Name.

    May we merit to accept Ol Malchut Shamayim and understand the "Tshuva" that is required of us, and to bring the redemption swiftly and gloriously without needless suffering. "May it be a year of the full revelation, the "knowledge of HaShem" that will flood all of reality with the revelation of Moshiach, Amen.
    Prayer Beads
    Rosary Prayer beads are used to help a person to count the repetitions of a prayer and when to start a new cycle of prayers. They can be found in many religions.
    See Catholic Rosary

    Preparation Day
    The sixth day - Friday, the day before the weekly Sabbath. It was called the preparation day because it was the last day that one could use to prepare for the Sabbath so that no work would be done on that day.
    Note that feast days could occur on any day of the week, therefore their preparation day would be the day before.
    The Jews did not allow two consecutive Sabbaths because this would be too hard. However, this prohibition may have been instituted after the calendar reform and may not reflect what was done during the time of Christ and the years before.
    See Sabbath

    A belief system about the end times which states that all prophecies have been fulfilled in the past.

    (See Futurist, Historicist)

    The ability to predict the future. The telling of future events.
    See the Katun prophecies.

    The person who tells the future. In Christianity, a prophet cannot predict the future through his own ability or enhanced powers. God reveals it to him in a vision or dream. A true prophet must be 100% accurate all the time. The only exception is a "conditional" prophecy. Where the prophet clearly states that IF "X" is done then event "Y" will happen.
    (See psychic)

    Prosperity Ministry
    The teaching that God wants us to be rich. Some even go as far as to say that it is a sin to be poor. A critical part of this teaching is that the one who wants this blessing from God must show some 'seed faith'. They must first give to God then God will give back in proportion to their generosity.
    Can you say the word confidence men and religious extortionist?

    To all who are trapped into this cycle, I suggest you read the book of Job. All who will live Godly can suffer. The measure of God's love for you or your love for God is not dependent on His response as Santa Claus to every desire. The just shall live by the faith - not by the evidence of prosperity. The appeals are often based on a warped use of a biblical truth, but with the added message that obeying will lead to instant prosperity and disobedience or "lack of faith" is the cause of your misery. Most of these people live opulent lifestyles in grand mansions with many expensive cars and jewelry. They stay at the most luxurious hotels, own private airplanes and are chauffeur driven. Some of these schemes include:
    » Tithe. Send them the tithe. It is God's money and they are God's ministers. However, they usually do not obey any other old testament laws.
    » Seed Faith. Send money as a seed or small sample of your faith. Larger donations show greater faith and may release a greater response.
    » Divine Transfer or "Point of Contact". By touching or using a blessed object that they sell or send for a "donation" you can have the blessings of God transferred to you.
    See Abuses by the clergy

    The process of convincing another person to convert from one belief to another. Evangelism is an organized system of proselytism.

    Any branch of the Christian church that broke away from the Catholic church after the reformation. Their motto was "Sola scriptura" or "the bible and the bible only". The Eastern Orthodox church broke away several centuries earlier.
    See Catholic, Ecumenism, The Reformation

    One who tells the future or a fact unknown to him or her about the person who consults the psychic. This ability is through their own powers or powers granted to them by "the spirits or the dead". In Christianity this is not considered a prophet or a messenger from God, but rather communication that God forbids. The explanation of their abilities is that the unseen evil forces know all the past information and is privy to a person's private life. They in turn tell the psychics what to say. They cannot, however, predict the future with 100% accuracy because they do not know the future. These evil spirits can appear to predict the future either because they know that they are going to make certain things happen or they are privy to the ongoing plans of human beings.
    (See Prophet)

    Catholic. According to Catholic beliefs, the death of Jesus only paid for the guilt of sin, not the penalty. Purgatory is the place where we all go for an indefinite period of time to suffer the penalty of sin.
    It is an intermediate place between heaven and hell where the soul spends an unknown length of time, depending on the seriousness of unpardoned sins and the number of indulgences granted on behalf of the soul.

    Purgatory is necessary for everyone (except Mary) because even though the guilt of sin is taken away by the death of Christ - the punishment for sin is not.

    Other religions have a view of salvation in which people are kept until some event happens that will finally send them to heaven or hell.
    Limbo. The place for unbaptized infants in Catholic theology.
    Spirit Prison. A Mormon belief. The place where non-Mormons go at death. They can be released if a living human Mormon is baptized by proxy for them and they accept the gospel while in prison.
    Barzakh. The Muslim purgatory.
    See Hell, Indulgence

    Rain (Former and Latter)
    Agricultural Reference. In the agricultural period, rain fell from early Autumn to spring. This early rain allowed the ground to be ploughed and the seed to be planted, it also helped the fruit harvest which ripened at this time. The late rains in spring allowed one final period of growth for the grain harvest.
    Spring Summer Autumn
    Late Rain Dry SeasonEarly Rain Rain
    Rain Barley Harvest Holy Spirit Wheat Harvest2000+ years Rain Holy Spirit Fruit Harvest Ploughing
    Jesus Old Covenant Pentecost PersecutionTabernacles 1000 Years
    Ploughing Early Spiritual Rain -Late Spiritual Rain Rapture

    Spiritual Reference. A symbol of the Holy Spirit is water. It washes and cleans and helps the seed to grow. Like the rain, the Holy Spirit is sent to cleanse the church from sin and make it grow. Like the rainy season, there will be two important periods for the work of the spirit, the beginning and the end.
    The beginning of His work started at Pentecost. The end will be just before the Second Coming. So, the rain is a reference to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost (50 days after the crucifixion). The purpose was to bring in the harvest of righteous people. Joel 2: 23, 28-32 predicts that this miraculous event will occur twice in history. (See our lesson on Spiritual Gifts)

    The method by which Christ will take his people to heaven at the Second Coming. We will be changed in the "twinkling of an eye". Then the dead in Christ will rise up from the graves (resurrected) and with the righteous living their bodies will be (changed). Both groups will rise to meet the Lord in the air and go to heaven.

    Visible Rapture. The visible rapture occurs after an unknown period of tribulation before the Second Coming. In the Adventist perspective, there is no gap. After their return from Babylon, 490 years were given to the Jews to be faithful to their mission from God. Christ and the disciples witnessed in the last seven years. Then the Christians were given that mission.
    Before the Cross After The Crucifixion Tribulation After Millennium
    483 Years 3.5 In the Gap 3.52000+ years Unknown time 1000 Years
    Jewish Dispensation Christian Dispensation Israel (Jews and Christians)

    Secret Rapture. One variation of this is the secret rapture. In this scenario, the process will happen but no one will see it. But millions of people will suddenly be missing or disappear at the same time.
    The rapture is also closely tied with the end, especially the time of trouble or Tribulation. Depending on when the rapture occurs in relation to the tribulation, the following terms have become popular in the premillennialist viewpoint and tells when the Church will be raptured:
        • pre-tribulation rapture. Before the great tribulation.
        • mid-tribulation rapture. During the great tribulation.
        • post-tribulation rapture. At the end of the great tribulation.
    Before the Gap The Gap Before During After Millennium
    483 Years In the Gap 2000+ Year Gap 7 Years 1000 Years
    Jewish Dispensation Christian Dispensation Tribulation Jews

    See The Gap Theory. The separation of the 490 years into 483 years and 7 years.
    See The Dispensations

    The Reformation
    A social movement officially started by Martin Luther in 1517 when he nailed his 95 thesis to the door of the church and started the movement that eventually led to the formation of the Protestant church. Luther was upset about many problems within the church, particularly the sale of indulgences.
    See Ecumenism, Protestant

    The belief that after death, we are reborn and live another life as a human. This cycle repeats itself many times. This belief is similar to the concept of transmigration of the soul in Hinduism.
    See New Age, Karma, Resurrection

    In the Catholic church, these are physical objects that have a connection to Jesus, the saints and apostles. These objects are worshipped (or venerated). In the past these were sold, but now only third class relics are sold.
    There are three classes of relics:
    1. First Class. These are the bodies or body parts of the saints, martyrs and the apostles. These can be bones, head, finger, corpse, skin, ashes, limbs, toe nails, foreskin, tears, sweat, hair, teeth or any part of the body.
    2. Second Class. These are objects that touched the living saints and have become sanctified. They can be objec s that they used or objects that killed them or imprisoned them. Chains, wood from the cross, ropes, nails, bullets, clothes, underwear, furniture, houses, cups and spoons.
    3. Third Class. Modern objects like pieces of cloth that have been touched to a first or second class relic. These can be sold.
      Therefore, this is an example only. If you bought one yard of fabric for $3.00 and touched it with the finger nail of Mary, then it could be cut up into 1620 one inch squares and sold for $1.00 or more each. In addition, this could be worshipped.

    The Official church position on relics is that they are to be honored and those that do not believe in them are condemned.
    The Seventh Ecumenical Council (787 AD) Condemned "those who dare to reject any one of the things which are entrusted to the Church, the Gospel, or the sign of the cross, or any pictorial representation, or the holy relics of a martyr".
    The Council of Trent. Asks bishops and pastors to instruct their flocks that "the holy bodies of saintly martyrs and others now living with Christ are to be venerated by the faithful, for through these bodies many benefits are bestowed by God on men;

    so that they who affirmed that veneration and honor are not due to the relics of Saints, or that these and other sacred monuments are uselessly honored by the faithful, . . . are wholly to be condemned, as the Church has already long since condemned and now also condemns them".
    See Worship (adoration, veneration and honor)

    Most religions have some features common to Judaism. It is my belief that while stories might have changed throughout the centuries, that one religion did not borrow or steal the legends of another. The modern phenomenon of creating a universal religion may be the first attempt to create a god of our own making because we reject the other stories.
    So, it is more likely that they are the distortions of one story that was passed down through Adam and then Noah. My belief is that the Judeo-Christian story is the most pure form of the knowledge of God. In other beliefs, the satanic figure always makes himself a god and evil and good will coexist. Satan distorts the true stories about God in order to discredit and confuse the issues. However, most of the confusion may have occurred because the old stories have been distorted as man has sought meaning for his present condition. See Messiahs Names of God in Judaism , Sacred writings,
    Read the article on Myths and Legends.

    Names of the Gods of Mythology
    Greek and Roman Egyptian
    Realm Greek Roman
    Realm Name Appearance
    Amun Ra
    Amun Ra
    Chief god Amun Ra Ram
    Desert, evil Satan Seth Beast
    Dead Osiris Mummy
    Living, Pharoah Horus Hawk
    Embalming Anubis Dog
    Sun god Khepri Beetle
    Pottery Khnum Ram
    Cats Bastet Cat
    Justice Ma'at Feather crown
    Destruction Sekhmet Lion
    Magic Isis Throne on head
    Music Hathor Cow
    Earth Geb Plants and Nile mud colors
    Sky Nut Blue, gold stars
    Yearly flood Hapy Man with breast
    Childbirth Tawaret Hippopotamus
    Crocodile Sobet Crocodile
    Writing, knowledge Toth Baboon, Ibis
    Writing, measurement Seshat Panther
    Sun Re Hawk
    Babylonian and Sumerian Gods
    Realm Name
    Chief God (older) Anu
    Chaos, primordial waters Satan Tiamat
    Underworld ocean Apsu
    Underworld Nergal
    Dead Ereshkigal
    Moon Sin, Nanna
    Sun, crop fertility Baal (Bel)
    Love, fertility Ishtar
    National god of Babylon Marduk
    National god of Assyria Ashur
    Sun, vegetation (death and rebirth) Tammuz, Dumuzi, Adonis
    Sweet Waters, wisdom Ea
    Underworld, fertility Dagon
    Light and Fire Girra (Gibil)
    War, death, disasters Erra
    Dreams, divine messages Zakar
    Dreams and prophecy Nanshe
    Aztec Mythology Location Tezcatlipoca
    Creator Ometeotl Omeyocán -
    Wisdom, Wind god, breath of life Quetzalcoatl West White
    Sun Tonatiuh South Blue
    Spring, seasons Xipe Totec East Red
    Underworld god Mictlantechupi North Black
    Underworld Mictecacihuatl Goddess of dearh
    "Feathered Serpent"
    Fertility, war Tlazolteotl
    Human sacrifice,war Huitzilopochtli
    Lightning, Death Xolotl
    Medicine Patecatli
    Maize Cinteotl
    Rain Tlaloc
    Infant Mortality Itzpapalotl
    Music, dance Macuilxochitl
    Wind, Creator Ehecatl
    Rising Sun Piltzintecuhtli
    Moon Metztli
    Norse (Viking) Mythology
    Chief god Odin
    Trickster Satan Loki
    Underworld Hel
    Fertility, war Freya
    Mother goddess Frigg
    Immortality Idun
    Thunder Thor
    War Tyr
    Darkness and night. Blind god. Hoth (Hoder)
    The dying god. God of light, peace Balder
    The Watcher Heimdall
    Nine choosers of the slain Valkyries
    Chief god Zeus Jupiter
    Underworld Satan Hades Satan Pluto
    Sea Poseidon Neptune
    War Ares Mars
    Sun god Apollo Apollo
    Messenger Hermes Mercury
    Fire Hephaestus Vulcan
    Medicine Asclepius Aesculapius
    Sky Cronos Saturn
    Love Eros Cupid
    Sleep Hypnos Somnus
    Sky Uranus Uranus
    Wine, vegetation Dionysus Bacchus
    Civilization, agriculture Athena Minerva
    Mother earth Gaea Terra
    Grain Demeter Ceres
    Marriage Hera Juno
    Victory Nike Victoria
    Mother goddess Rhea Ops
    Moon, hunter Artemis Diana
    Memory Mnemosyne -
    The Muses of Greek Mythology
    Realm Name Symbol
    Epic poetry Calliope Tablet, stylus
    Love poetry Erato Lyre
    Music Euterpe Flute
    Sacred song Polyhymnia Veil
    Tragedy Melpomene Mask, Sword
    Comedy Thalia Mask, Staff
    Dancing Terpsichore Lyre
    Urania Globe
    History Clio Laurel crown, Scroll
    The Muses are goddesses who inspire artists and creative people. They are the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne.
    The Furies of Greek Mythology
    Realm Name
    Jealousy Megaera
    Evil Tisiphone
    Justice, vengeance Alecto
    The Erinyes are the three furies who were the punishers of crimes against God and nature. They looked like old hags with bat wings and snakes as strands of hair.
    The Graces of Greek Mythology
    Realm Name
    Splendor Aglaia
    Mirth Euphrosyne
    Good cheer Thalia
    The daughters of Zeus and Eurynome who sing and dance for the gods.
    The Fates of Greek Mythology (Moirai)
    Realm Name Symbol
    Spins the thread Clotho Spindle
    Length of life Lachesis Scroll
    Cuts the Thread Atropos Shears
    The daughters of Zeus and the Titan Themis. The fates decide the destiny of man by manipulating the thread of life. They are known as the Moirai in Greek mythology and Parcae in Roman myths.
    The Gorgons of Greek Mythology
    Nature Name
    Killed by Perseus Medusa
    Immortal Euryale
    Immortal Stheno
    The daughters of Ceto and Phorcys. They had serpents for hair, bronze claws, scales on their bodies. Their look turned people to stone. They shared one tooth.
    The Fates of Norse Mythology (Norns)
    Realm Name
    Past Urda (Weird)
    Present Verandi
    Future Skuld
    The Norns guarded the Urdarbrunnr (Weird's well or Urda's well or Well of Wyrd). They live in a cave and decide the fate of humans.
    Satan Satanic figures

    See Avatars

    The process by which Christ raises people from the dead. Bringing the dead body to life. According to this we die once, all are resurrected to face the judgment and the sinner will face a second eternal death. We are the same people when we are resurrected. There are two general resurrections that occur at the Second and Third Coming of Christ. The righteous are resurrected at the Second Coming. The wicked are resurrected at the Third Coming.
    Second Coming Millennium Third Coming
    Good 1000 YearsWicked
    Righteous Resurrected Righteous In Heaven Wicked Resurrected
    See Reincarnation, Second Coming, Millennium

    What God tells us about himself.
    See Theology

    The Rosary
    The Catholic rosary is a string of beads used in the recitation of prayers. A series of ten beads is called a decade. The beads are also used to remember the fifteen mysteries.
    The rosary has 166 beads, representing 166 prayers as follows:
    » One creed (Apostle's Creed).
    » 15 Pater nosters ("our Father").
    » 150 "Hail Marys".
    In addition other prayers are said while the rosary is being recited and the worshipper meditates on the mysteries.
    See The Mysteries, The Apostle's Creed, The Niocene Creed Glory be, Our Father
    See Hail Mary, Hail Holy Queen (Salve Regina), Fatima Decade Prayer, Prayer Beads

    Rulers and Leaders (Babylon and Persia)
    The Babylonians measured a king's reign from the first full year, beginning with the start of the year. The partial year prior to that is called "the year of ascension" or "the year he became king." The Jews measured a king's reign from the day he became king.

    Rulers and Leaders of Palestine
    These are the rulers of Palestine at the time of Christ.
    Julius Caesar 27 BC Augustus Caesar 13 ADAugustus and Tiberius14 AD Tiberius Caesar37 AD Caligula41 AD Claudius
    Antipater37 BC Herod the Great 1 BCHerod Antipas 39 ADHerod Agrippa 144 AD Herod Agrippa 2
    4 BC 30 Years27 AD3.5 Years 31 AD
    Birth 33 Years (Jesus Christ) Death
    The Disciples
    6 AD Annas---18 ADCaiaphas 37 AD
    The High Priests

    Sabbath (Shabbat)
    The term Sabbath means rest during a Holy Day. There were several kinds of rests commanded by God. The cycle was generally based on a period of seven days, but there are special Sabbaths based on a week or year.

    The Hebrew word for seven also means oath. So the seventh day is the oath day or the covenant day. God's covenant was to give His people rest from work and rest from sin.

    Weekly Sabbath. Saturday, the seventh day of the week was a Sabbath of days. The day of rest from the time of creation. God created the world in six days and rested on this day and made it holy time. This holiness was also encoded in the ten commandments to 'remember the Sabbath day' to keep it holy. This Sabbath is fourth of the Ten Commandments.

    Ceremonial Sabbath. There are also rest days that are related to the religious feast days and ceremonies. These could occur on any day of the week, and changed annually because they were based on calendar dates.

    Pentecost. This was a Sabbath of weeks. Both the forty ninth and the fiftieth day are Sabbaths. The fiftieth day is Pentecost.

    Jubilee. This was based on a Sabbath of years. It was a Sabbath for the land and for all slaves. Every seven years was a Sabbath for the land, every forty nine years was a Jubilee. Both the forty ninth and the fiftieth year were Sabbaths.
    In the fourth century the Jews tried to organize their calendar so that there would not be two consecutive Sabbaths.

    High Sabbath. When the weekly Sabbath day coincided with a ceremonial Sabbath day. The period of the crucifixion occurred during a high Sabbath. It probably occurred during a jubilee year.

    See Preparation Day, the day before the Sabbath.

    Sabbath Day's Journey
    The furthest distance one could walk on a Sabbath day. It was about 1000-1200 yards (914 - 1100 meters) approximately the distance between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives.
    The distance is also thought to represent the distance between the portable temple and the outer edges of the camp during the exodus. This allowed everyone to go to the temple on Sabbath.
    See Sabbath

    Sabbath Keeping Groups
    Sabbath observance survived in many countries until the twelfth century when the organized persecutions increased. It was during the Council of Laodicea 364 AD that the church ruled against it.
    There are many organized and independent churches that keep the Sabbath.
    It was at the Council of Clermont (1095 AD) that Pope Urban II set aside the Sabbath as the day to honor Mary.
    Sabbath Keeping Groups
    Group Century History
    Jews AllThis is a part of their heritage from the beginning in 1500 BC
    Waldenses 10French from the Vaudes valley region.
    Pasagini -People in southern France, Italy, Germany and Hungary
    Eastern Churches -Egypt, Persia, Ethiopia, Kurdistan, Nestorians.
    Ethiopian Coptic 4Sabbath keeping groups survived in the Eastern Roman empire. The Ethiopians churches are one of these.
    India 2-18An inquisition was called in Goa in 1560 to stop Sabbath keeping. For over 1000 years Sabbath keeping survived.
    Wales 2-12Kept the Sabbath until a Roman bishop came in 1115.
    China 5-19For over seventeen centuries, the Abyssinian churches
    Nestorians 5Fifth century. Did not believe in the deity of Mary, did not eat pork and kept the Sabbath.
    Scotland and Ireland 6The celtic churches kept the Sabbath for centuries. Queen Margaret abolished the Sabbath and instituted Sunday worship.
    Bohemia 16-18As late as 1500, Bohemians were called Sabbatarians because 25% of the population kept the Sabbath. By the eighteenth century persecution caused many to go to America.
    Norway 15In 1435, the church forbid keeping the Sabbath, because groups of Sabbath keepers were all over the country.
    Sweden 16 Sabbath keepers were found in these regions up to the sixteenth century. By the eighteenth century they were being severely persecuted. Moravia, Rumania (Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia) also had many Sabbath keepers.

    For 250 years they were forced to work on Sabbath and go to church on Sunday.
    Lichtenstein 16
    Austria 16
    Baptists 16
    Finland 16
    Switzerland 16
    Russia 16-18Executed. Many moved to Crimea and the Caucasus in the eighteenth century.
    Germany, Holland 16People were executed
    Seventh Day Baptists 171671, broke from the Baptist church in order to keep the Sabbath
    Messianic Jews 19Jews in the nineteenth century who accept Jesus Christ as the Messiah and embrace their Hebrew identity like the early church.
    Seventh Day Adventists 19Accepted the belief after being taught by a Seventh Day Baptist.
    Church of God, Seventh Day 19Later broke up
    Worldwide Church of God 20Broke from the Church of God, Seventh Day

    The belief that an ordained Catholic priest has the power to forgive sins.
    See Infallibility

    There were three groups prevalent at the time of Christ. The first of these groups was the Sadducees. They came primarily from large land-owning aristocratic families and priestly families. Many were involved in the sacrificial cult of the Second Temple. For most of the Hasmonean period, and probably until the year 70 CE, they were politically powerful. The Sadducees recognized the authority of the written Torah and viewed the sacrificial cult as the primary form of worship. They viewed the priests as the only authoritative representatives of Jewish law. They did not believe in the immortality of the soul, and denied that there was a divine reward/punishment system in a life after this life.
    See Essenes, Pharisees

    In the Bible a saint is simply any one of the righteous living or dead who will go to heaven.

    Saint (Catholic)
    Persons in heaven who had lived lives of great charity and heroic virtues. People can make intercession to God through these special people.
    There are three steps to become a saint.
    1. Venerable. The title given to a dead person who lived a life of heroic virtues.
    2. Blessed. The title given to a dead person after a beatification procedure is done for one who has showed charity and heroic virtues and must have one miracle acquired through them after an intercession to them. This process of investigation and verification normally takes five years.
    3. Saint. The title given to a dead person after a canonization procedure and two miracles attributable to them. A martyr does not require any miracles.
    Currently the beatification and canonization authorizations are done by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints and the pope. In 1588 Pope Sixtus V created this branch. Before this, the proclamation of saints was made by the "vox populi", the spontaneous local attribution and recognition as a saint.
    See Worship

    Salve Regina
    See Hail Holy Queen

    The process by which a person is saved from the penalty of sin. According to Christianity, the penalty of sin is death. But God has provided a way for us to escape eternal death through His own death.
    There are two main views about how that salvation can be achieved.
    Salvation by Faith. Nothing you do will get you into heaven. It is what Christ has done that will save you. You only have to believe God.

    Some who believe this criticize others who appear to believe in salvation plus some evidence. Both groups get into trouble. Those who believe that changes in behavior should not enter the argument are charged with believing in "once saved - always saved". The fallacy of this position is that once a person is saved, he can commit any crime he wants and he will still be saved. Why? Because nothing a person does can get them saved. This is true. But they fail to account for what Christ, through the Holy Spirit, will be doing once you accept Him.

    The other group believes that behavior will change, but not because you can make yourself change. It is the result of the work of the Holy Spirit. That leaves us with the logical position of the other group that we can expect changes because the Holy Spirit comes to transform you into a new person. Where they get in trouble is the emphasis they appear to make on what is possible and the judgments and expectation they appear to impose on themselves and others.
    Because their position is logical and correct, we get the famous arguments from Paul and Jesus who warns us not to judge anything before the time. The one exception to this is that we are supposed to choose our church leaders based on these expected changes. The pastor should not be a thief or an adulterer. If you ask both groups they will say that they would expect their pastor to not be the owner or frequent customer of a brothel.

    So what is the truth?
    Christ did it all. He paid for the death penalty, the guilt and the suffering. We must believe this, and believe that nothing we do can change God. He will not love us any more.

    After we have accepted this, we receive the gift of the Holy Spirit and it is His job to convince us what is right and wrong. Therefore, we will eventually have a changed life because we are being changed into a new kind of person whose heart only longs for God.
    Salvation by Works. It requires the sinner to do something to earn salvation. The theory is, if you are good enough you can get to heaven. God looks at all these things when He judges you. Some of the things people do are:

    The Sanctuary
    This is the layout of the Hebrew house of worship that was described by God during the Exodus. It is a picture of the Plan of Salvation and the actions of God. It is a system of knowledge about God. There have been three sanctuaries.
    The Mishkan ("Portable Sanctuary"). Built during the exodus.
    Ark of the Covenant
    Ark of the covenant. The Throne of God. It contained the Ten Commandments, a jar of manna and Aaron's walking stick



    Incense Altar
    Incense Altar. Prayers were said here.
    Table of Shewbread
    Table of shewbread. Had the food and drink offering. There were twelve loaves of bread arranged in two stacks of six.

    Menorah. This gave light to the sanctuary.





    Laver. The priests washed here before entering the Holy Place.
    Altar of Sacrifice
    Altar of Sacrifice. The animal was killed here by the sinner.
    High Priest
    Most Holy Place Holy Place Outer Court
    Glorification (Father) Sanctification (Holy Spirit) Justification (Jesus Christ)
    Bronze bullBronze bullBronze bull
    Bronze bullBronze SeaBronze bull
    Bronze bull Bronze bull
    Bronze bull Bronze bull
    Bronze bullBronze bullBronze bull

    The Temple of Solomon. A permanent structure built by Solomon. The shekinah glory of God was in this temple. It was destroyed by king Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586 BC. There are several differences.
    The Temple of Herod. A permanent structure built by the returning exiles and remodeled by king Herod between 37 BC and 4 BC The shekinah glory of God was not in this temple, but the Messiah would come to it. It was destroyed in 70 AD by the Roman emperor Titus and his general. The foundation stones were dug up and removed in 363 AD but a new sanctuary was never built.
    - Porch --


    - Altar of Sacrifice
    - - -

    The Sanhedrin was the highest court of the Jews. Its membership included 23 priests, 23 scribes, 23 elders, and two presiding officers.

    Proceedings and Rules of Evidence.

    Scapegoat (Azazel)
    In Judaism the name is Azazel, the angry or furious goat which belonged to the demon Azazel. In the modern, secular usage of the term this is defined as the person who bears all the blame for sin or wrong doing. They imply that the scapegoat is either wrongly accused or bears the total guilt when others are also to blame.
    The origin of this term is from a Hebrew ceremony on the Day of Atonement when the sins of Israel were removed. There are two goats used on that day.

    Schism (The Great Schism)
    A schism is any formal and willful separation from the unity of the Christian church. The Great schism occurred in 1054 when the Eastern church formally split from the Western church.
    The term also refers to a period (1378-1417) in the western church when three rival popes declared themselves to be legitimate The Council of Constance (1414-18) made Martin V the legitimate pope.
    See Ecumenism, The Reformation

    The sacred writings of a religion.
    Religion Date God Founder Scriptures
    Judaism 2085 BC YHWH Abraham
    Moses (author, 1500BC)
    Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim).
    Talmud (Mishnah, gemara)
    Christianity 31 AD YHWH Jesus Christ Bible (Torah and New Testament)
    Islam 610 AD Allah Mohammed Qu'ran
    Druze 1016 AD Al Hakim Hamza bin Ali ibn Ahmad Rasahl al-Hikma
    Zoroastrianism 600 BC Lord Ahura-Mazda Zoroaster Avesta, Pahlavi Texts (Zend)
    Hindu 1500 BC Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva Many Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gitam, Mahabharata, Puranas
    Buddhism 560 BC First Cause Siddhartha Gautama (Sakyamuni) Sutras. Tripitaka
    (Tao, Dao or Dow)
    550 BC Tao (Yin and Yang) Lao-Tzu Tao Te Ching (The Book of the Way). Chuang-tzu. Tao Tsang
    Confucianism 520 BC ? K'ung Fu Tzu (Confucius) Five Classics (Wu Jing)
    Four Books (Si Shu)
    Shinto 500 BC Nature worship ? Kojiki, Rokkokushi, Shoku Nihongi, Jinno shotoki
    Jainism 420 BC ? Mahavira -
    Sikh 1530 AD Sat Nam Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji Granth Sahib
    Norse 1200 AD Odin Saemundr Eddas, Codex Regius, Havamal
    Quiche (Maya) 1000 AD Hunabku - Popol Vuh
    There are other religious scriptures.

    Second Coming
    The time when Christ will come back as King and Ruler to take his faithful people to Heaven. His first coming was his birth as a baby in Bethlehem. His third coming will be after the millennium to recreate a new Earth and to pass the final Judgment on the wicked.
    Old Covenant New Covenant Visible Millennium Visible
    Birth In the Gap 2000+ Years Tribulation 1000 Years
    First Coming Crucified Wrath of God Second Coming Third

    The Two Stage Coming.
    The theory of a secret rapture imposes a two stage Second Coming.
    Secret (Invisible). He comes secretly for the saints during the tribulation.
    Visible. He comes with His saints.
    Before the Gap The Gap Secret
    Secret Visible
    Millennium Visible
    483 Years In the Gap 2000+ Years 7 Years 1000 Years
    Birth Christian
    Secret Coming Visible Coming Third
    First Coming Second Coming

    Other terms associated with the Second Coming.
    See Parousia, Tribulation, Rapture
    See Resurrection, Translation, Millennium Theories related to the Second Coming.

    Second Coming and End of the World Predictions
    Many people have predicted either the date of the Second Coming or the end of the world or have expected it at some point in their life because of the signs that they saw.
    Year Person or Group Date and Comments
    Quickly Jesus In a vision to John around 90 AD
    Soon Disciples The Antichrist must first be revealed
    1000 Europe Many European Christians
    1420 Taborites Christian sect
    1533 Melchior Hoffman Anabaptists. Strassburg will be the New Jerusalem
    1666 Sabbatai Zevi 1648 and 1666. He is the Messiah
    1697 Cotton Mather 1716 and 1736 were also predicted
    1792 Shakers Mother Ann Lee was the beginning of the Second Coming
    1844 William Miller October 22. Millerite movement
    1847 Joseph Wolff A converted Jew in Palestine
    1874 Charles Taze Russell Christ returned invisibly in October 1874
    1878 Good Friday. The church waited for the rapture 3½ years later.
    1890 Joseph Smith Son of Man will not come until he is 85 years old-1891
    1914 Jevohah's Witness The "Times of the Gentiles" begins
    1975 Armageddon starts
    1948 Sir Isaac Newton Jews will reclaim Jerusalem in 1899 and Second Coming would occur 49 years later in 1948
    1960 Sun Myung Moon He is the lord of the second advent. Died 2012
    1981 Chuck Smith May 1981. Founder of Calvary Chapel. Reset dates in 1992, 1995
    1988 Hal Lindsey In the book, "The Late Great Planet Earth" based on Jesuit futurism
    1988 Edgar C. Whisenant
    And TBN Network
    In the book, "88 REASONS Why The Rapture Will Be In 1988"
    Also changed dates to 1989, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997
    1992 A Korean Group October 28. Mission for the coming days
    1994 John Hinkle June 9. Christ Church pastor
    1994 Harold Camping Family Radio founder. September 6
    1996 Sheldon Nidle December 17. Psychic. Millions of space ships and angels
    1999 Nostradamus Century X, Quatrain 72
    2000 Father Stefano Gobbi Virgin Mary visions
    2001 Edgar Cayce A devastating pole shift
    2011 Harold Camping May 21 (Secret Rapture) and October 21 (end of the world)
    2012 Mayans December 21 or 23, the calendar cycle ends
    2060 Sir Isaac Newton The earth will end no earlier than 2060
    I was surprised when Harold Camping did this because he always ridiculed the Advent origins from the Millerite movement. He quoted "no one knows the date or the hour".

    Contrary to one impression, the Adventist church never predicted the Second Coming and William Miller was never a Seventh Day Adventist. He was a Baptist. The Adventist church was organized about 20 years later by people who believed in the Millerite movement. Other groups were also formed from the Millerites.

    Serpent Seed

    See Two Seed in the Spirit

    Second Coming Theories
    There are many theories about the Second Coming ranging from whether or not the event is literal or symbolic, whether or not it has actually occurred or what events will be accompanied by the Second Coming. Most people are concerned with prophecies that might predict when it will occur.
    See Second Coming
    See The Great Week. When it will occur?
    See Chiliasm. Events after the Second Coming.
    See The Gap. When, and the events before the coming.

    Seven Deadly Sins
    These were first listed by pope Gregory 1 (590-604). They are anger, pride, greed, gluttony, lust, envy and sloth.

    Seven heavenly virtues
    The seven heavenly virtues are, Prudence, temperance, justice, fortitude, charity, hope and faith.
    7 Wonders

    Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

    Sheep Stealing
    In Christianity a sheep represents any individual Christian.
    Sheep stealing is the act of trying to convert the members of another Christian faith to your own.

    This is an ancient battle strategy. In ancient times many cities had walls surrounding them for protection. In this strategy, an attacking army simply surrounded the city and waited. Eventually, the city would run out of food and water and they would either die of starvation or surrender.
    Sin is defined as the transgression of the Law (1 John 3:4). Unbelief (Romans 14:23). Stubbornness (1 Samuel 15:23). Not meeting the goal or the mark.
    See Sins (Catholic Belief), Sins (Seven Deadly)

    Sins (Catholic)
    Sin is a moral evil, a deficiency in perfection which can be divided into these categories:
    Original Sin. The sacrament of baptism frees us from original sin. This is why infants are baptized.
    Mortal Sins. The penalty is hell. An action undertaken with knowledge and free will in defiance of God's law or right reason. Its affect that is contrary to the eternal law and affects the unity of the church. The problem is, that the church makes up its own laws and claims the right to speak for all Christians when the infallible pope speaks.

    Venial Sins. The penalty is purgatory. The sinner is still connected to God, but is on an imperfect path. The sin is pardonable. meriting, not eternal, but temporal punishment. Evil deprives people of some moral good by depriving them of conformity to right reason and to the law of God.

    A sin has two penalties and only confession helps to free us from some of its guilt, purgatory frees us from its punishment:
    1. An eternal punishment. This punishment and the guilt is pardoned by confession. Christ's death only frees us from the guilt of sin.
    2. A temporal punishment. It is suffered in this life or in purgatory or both - this may be remitted by penance or indulgences. Every one must suffer temporal punishment. Nothing done at the cross frees us from temporal punishment for sin.

    The punishment of sin is also separate from the guilt and forgiveness. Punishment must always be experienced whether or not one is forgiven.
    See Confession, Sin (A general definition), Seven Deadly Sins,
    See Indulgences, Penance, Purgatory

    A type of bribe. It is paying money or giving gifts in return for a church office.
    See Abuses by the clergy

    The excess supply of good works accumulated by some special souls which can be applied to those in purgatory who failed to satisfy God's demands for good works. These special souls can immediately go to heaven because they have built up a supply of good works far beyond their own needs by living lives of sacrifice and devoting themselves to an unbroken life of reciting prayers, reciting the rosary, hail Mary, attending masses.
    See Confession, Indulgences, Penance, Purgatory

    Dwelling with God. A community that includes God and His people.

    Islamic OrganizationsLeader
    Year Organization Location Founder
    1928 Muslim Brotherhood Jordan, Egypt Egypt
    1959 Fatah Kuwait Yasir Arafat
    1964 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) West Bank and Gaza Arab states
    1974 Fatah
    (New name for the PLO)
    Lebanon, West Bank and Gaza Abu Nidal (Sabri al-Banna)
    1979 Peace between Israel and Egypt (March 26)
    1981 Islamic Jihad Islamic Jihad Palestine Iran. Fathi Shqaqi
    1982 Islamic Jihad Hizbullah (Hezbollah) Lebanon Hassan Nasrallah
    1987 HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) Gaza Sheikh Ahmed Yassin
    1988 Al Qaeda (Qaida) Afghanistan Osama Bin Laden
    1992 Salafist Group Algeria -
    1994 Peace between Israel and Jordan (July 25)
    2002 Al Aqsa Martyr's Brigade West Bank and Gaza -
    2004 Al Qaeda in Iraq Iraq Abu Mus'ab al-Zarquawi
    2008 Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Yemen -
    Merging of Al Qaeda in Yemen and Al Qaeda in Saudi Arabia
    2003 ISIS orISIL Syria- Iraq al-Zarquawi
    Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
    Islamic Jihad These are Shi'a groups
    Terrorist Organizations
    Generally, home grown resistance movements tend to be labeled as "terrorist" organizations by the powers with whom they are fighting. They generally have no internationally recognized political leadership and do not adhere to established rules of war. Consequently, their methods of warfare are unconventional and difficult to counteract. Depending on the benefactor, they can be viewed a freedom fighters or terrorists.

    While Irish and Spanish resistance movements are making peace, Islamic movements are expanding. Their Jihad or holy war is not just against infidels within their own religion, or against Israel who is seen as an occupier of Palestinian lands, their war has expanded to all western organizations and countries.
    Muslim Brotherhood. They began in Egypt in the 1928 and increased their activities in the sixties and seventies. Many militant organizations broke away from their policy of gradual spreading of Islam through passive social, political and religious movements. These include HAMAS. They are often referred to or linked with terrorist organizations, but the evidence suggests that they are a peaceful organization devoted to spreading Islam and Sharia worldwide. However, they seem to spawn a lot of violent children. Although all famous leaders of violent Islamic movements can be traced back to the Muslim Brotherhood it might be like painting all Christians with the brush of the most extreme of Christian bad behavior. So their first real danger lies in their goal to spread Sharia law to all the world because we will all be forced to participate once it becomes the law of the land.

    Hizbullah (Hizballah) or Party of God. A Shi'a group which was formed in Lebanon in 1982 by clerics after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Mostly located in southern Lebanon, it is supported by Syria and Iran.
    Palestinian Islamic Jihad. This is the first Sunni terrorist group that cooperated with a Shia movement. In 1988 their leaders were exported to Lebanon and they established headquarters in Syria. Iran gave more direct support after this time. The export of the Iranian Revolution was limited to Shia areas in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, the Gulf emirates and the Islamic Jihad. Because they were linked to Iran and the Shia sect, the Sunni organizations generally shunned any ties until Hamas and Islamic Jihad finally cooperated in 1991 after the Gulf War.
    Al-Qaeda. Founded in the 1980s by Usama Bin Laden and the Arabs who went to Afghanistan to fight the Russians in the Afghan resistance movement. Ironically, they were supported by the United States because they were fighting the Russian communists. However, after their victory they formed a repressive Islamic regime in Afghanistan under the leadership of the Taliban. Then they turned their Jihad to the elimination of all western forces and businesses in the Islamic countries, including the United States. Many groups and individuals have formally linked up with the war against the United States.
    ISIS or ISIL. Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
    The Levant includes Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Kuwait, Cyprus and part of southern Turkey (Hatay) part of the former Aleppo Vilayet of Ottoman Syria.
    They are a jihadist militant group of Sunni Muslims formed from many insurgent groups. They carry a black flag and are attempting to form a caliphate. They started fighting against the government in the civil war in Syria, then invaded Iraq in June 2014.

    A Covenant or promise made between God and his people to agree that He would be our God and we his people. Only people of Faith (who believe God) can enter into this covenant relationship. This agreement is usually ratified by a blood sacrifice.
    Old Testament. Was a temporary covenant made with God's people (Israel) until the permanent covenant could be ratified by the perfect sacrifice. This covenant used the blood of clean animals.
    New Testament. Is a permanent covenant made with God's people when the perfect sacrifice was given. This is Jesus Christ.
    See Covenant

    The four letters, YHWH is considered God's "personal" name. In the Jewish tradition this name is too holy to be pronounced.

    The study of God, What humans conclude and speculate about God based on revelation. There are several branches of theology:
    Angeology. The study of angels.
    Anthropology. The study of man.
    Bibiology. The study of the bible.
    Christology. The study of Christ.
    Ecclesiology. The study of the church.
    Eschatology. The study of last things.
    Hamartheology. The study of sin.
    Pneumatology. The study of the Holy Spirit.
    Soteriology. The study of Salvation.
    See Revelation, Other Theology

    Theology, Other
    Kingdom Now Theology. Jesus cannot return unless and until the Church subdues and rules the earth. It goes by other names such as Dominion Theology (dominionists). Proponents take over public institutions, the government, courts and schools in order to unleash their theocracy. As a result of bringing on the Second Coming, these people do not care about the environment, animals, retirement obligations, wages, health care and worker's rights. But they have somehow adopted a doctrine that favors businesses and obtaining wealth at any cost.

    Christ is The "Bearer of God". He is not God. Just the body God used.
    See Christotokos, Theotokos

    Mary is the mother of God. She gave birth not to man but to God who became man. Mary was defined as the Theotokos in the third ecumenical council in Ephesus 431 AD.
    See Christotokos, Theophoros

    Time and Time Zones
    Time Current Time Ancient Time Relative Time
    Day 6:00 AM First Hour Sunrise Morning
    9:00 AM Third Hour Morning
    12:00 Noon Sixth Hour Midday Evening
    3:00 PM Ninth Hour Evening
    Between the Evenings
    6:00 PM Twelfth Hour Dusk, Sunset
    Night 6:00 - 9:00 PM First Watch Early night (Eve) Evening
    9:00 - Midnight Second Watch Midnight Watch
    12:00 - 3:00 AM Third Watch Cockcrow Watch
    3:00 - 6:00 AM Fourth Watch Morning Watch
    Bible Time Keeping.
    During the time of Christ, the calendar in effect was the Julian calendar. The Jews used their own lunar calendar. But the daily time was divided into two distinct sections. The present 24 hour time system is a more modern variation based on the old 12 hour sundial system. Without precise mechanical instruments people could not keep such accurate time. They used a sundial to measure twelve hours of time during the day. They referenced time with relation to the light or darkness. What does the Bible mean by "the third watch of the night" and "between the evenings"?

    The Jewish Day started at sunset while the Roman day started at midnight. They divided the light part of the day and the dark part in two different ways.
    Dawn. The time the first light appeared after cockcrow. This could be as early as 4:00 AM.
    Sunrise. 6:00 AM when the sun rose.
    Cheilek (pl. Chalakim) (Parts). Jews also divide the time into days, hours and parts. There are 3-1/3 seconds in one part, 18 parts per minute and 1080 parts per hour.
    Twilight: Between the Evenings (Between the Two Evenings). This was half way between noon and sunset, 3:00 PM. This was called the "little evening" or twilight. Night time or sunset was also called evening. The Passover lamb was killed between the time the sun began to descend and sunset (from the sixth to the twelfth hour). (Exodus 12: 6)

    Modern Time Keeping.
    Standard Time.
    Date Decreases Arrow Date and Time Arrow Increases
    Lines | Arrow International Date Line (180º) | Arrow Prime Meridian (0º) |
    Adjustment-12 -11 -10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2 -10123456789101112
    Longitude180º 150ºW 120ºW 90ºW 60ºW30ºW 30ºE 60ºE 90ºE 120ºE 150ºE 180º
    Continent Pacific
    Hawaii North America Greenland Europe Middle
    Russia, China Australia
    Alaska South America Africa India SE Asia Pacific
    Standard time = Universal Time + Number of hours of adjustment for the zone.

    Lines of Longitude.
    Time is divided into twenty four standard time zones between the lines of longitude. These create similar local time zones from the north pole to the south pole. Two important lines of longitude are used to establish date and time.
    International Date Line. This is located at 180º along a crooked line between the "M" and "Y" time zones. The line passes between Russia in the west and Alaska in the east. Then it separates Ellice Islands, and New Zealand on the West and Solomon Islands on the east. The date changes on this line. West of this line the date is one day ahead.
    Prime Meridian. This is located at 0º and passes through Greenwich, England. Universal Time is established here.

    Time Measurement.
    Universal Time (UT). Average time as measured in Greenwich, England. All time is referenced relative to this time. All scientific measurement is given in terms of this time.
    0000 to 1200 hours is equivalent to midnight to noon (1200).
    1200 to 2400 hours is equivalent to Noon to midnight (2400).
    Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Same as Universal time.
    Zulu Time. Same as Universal time. This is named because Greenwich is in the "Z" time zone.
    Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This is atomic time that is coordinated to stay within nine seconds of the Universal Time. A leap second is sometimes added to the UTC to keep it synchronized with the UT.

    United States Local Time. All local time is given in reference to the UT. They may be adjusted to take advantage of local conditions.
    Atlantic Standard Time (AST). UT - 4 hours. (The "Q" zone).
    Eastern Standard Time (EST). UT - 5 hours (Eastern United States). (The "R" zone).
    Central Standard Time (CST). UT - 6 hours. (The "S" zone).
    Mountain Standard Time (MST). UT - 7 hours. (The "T" zone).
    Pacific Standard Time (PST). UT - 8 hours (Western United States). (The "U" zone).
    Daylight Savings Time (Summer time). This is a seasonal change that occurs within the standard time zone. When it is in effect, add one hour to the standard time in the region.
    See Calendar

    The ability to speak in a known language for which you have not been trained.
    Xenoglossia. Speaking a known foreign language.
    Glossolalia. Speaking in a language unknown to you, (ecstatic speech) or the gift of speaking in tongues.
    See the lesson on Spiritual gifts.
    See the lesson on The gift of tongues.

    Torah Codes
    See Bible codes

    The process by which God changes the body of the righteous (resurrected dead and the living) into incorruptible, immortal bodies at the Second Coming.

    The Roman Catholic belief about the process by which the Eucharist becomes the actual body of Christ during the mass.

    Tree of Life
    A tree of life grows in the Garden of Eden near the throne of God on the banks of the river of life. It bears twelve fruit. The tree and the entrance to the Garden of Eden is now guarded by two angels with flaming swords.
    There is also a tree of the knowledge of good and evil which the serpent tempted Eve to eat. It brought sin and evil to the world.
    In mythology there are other trees which bear fruit that give immortality or which are the focal points of the worlds.

    Edens and Forbidden Fruit: In Christianity there is a Garden of Eden and a tree of the knowledge of good and evil with a forbidden fruit. Djanna or Al-Janna (Garden of Allah in Islam), Garden of the Hesperides with golden apples (Greek), apples of discord, peaches of immortality (Chinese). It bears one peach every 3000 years. Pandora's box releases evil on the world.
    Trees of Religion and Mythology
    Tree Group Comment
    Tree of Life Judaism It was located in the garden of Eden. It is guarded by two serpahs with flaming swords
    Christian It is now located at the throne of God. It bears 12 fruit every month
    Norse An ash tree which connected nine worlds. The roots produced the fluid Aurr which gives life
    Irminsul Saxon An oak which connected heaven and earth
    Tooba Islam Gives shade and feeds the newly dead with rivers of milk, honey and wine
    Erica Egyptian Used to wrap Osiris when he died
    Khuluppu Babylonian On the banks of the Euphrates
    Jambu Hindu On Mt. Meru with the roots in the underworld. An extension of Shiva. It produces Soma, the drink of immortality.
    Asvotha India -
    Ahuehuete Aztec Known as the tule tree, it represents unity.
    Whac Chan
    Maya A ceiba tree that unites the 13 heavens to earth with the roots in the nine levels of the underworld (Xibalba)
    Izlucoco Mexico -
    Gao-Kerena Persia The roots are in the middle of the world ocean Voura-kasa. The seeds can resurrect the dead and give immortality to the living. The bird called Camros sits on top.
    Pantao Chinese Peach of immortality grows one peach every three thousand years
    Golden apples Greek Golden apples give virtue and immortality. Located in the Garden of Hesperides and guarded by Ladon, the hundred headed dragon.

    See Mythological Worlds

    Tribes of Israel
    The Twelve tribes of Israel originated from the twelve sons of Jacob. Israel was the new name given to Jacob by God. The most significant tribes were the sons of Levi. They served as priests and were scattered throughout the kingdom. The second is the tribe of Judah, who were the ancestors of Jesus Christ.

    The Ten Lost Tribes. Because of disobedience, God allowed the ten tribes and the priests in the Northern part of the kingdom to be captured by the Assyrians. The destiny of these tribes have been a mystery ever since and they became known as the lost tribes. They may have been released after the Persian empire fell to the Greeks and some came back as the Samaritans. They are a mixture of Jews and Gentiles. The ten tribes were Reuben, Simeon, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Manasseh, Ephraim and some Levites.

    The Jews. In the southern kingdom, only two tribes survived. Judah and the small tribe of Benjamin and some of the Levites. They became known as the Jews.
    See British-Israelism. They claim that the lost tribes are the Anglo-Saxon peoples.

    An intense time of trouble and persecution. There will be a final great tribulation at the end. Also see rapture.

    In some beliefs the tribulation lasts exactly seven years. In others it is an unspecified, but short time. The
    Antichrist orders this persecution.
    The three persons or Personalities that form the One Being called God. It is difficult to define this physical structure of God because we have never seen anyone like him. They consist of: The word "Godhead" is used to define the Trinity.
    See Trinity - Different views

    Trinity - Different views
    Modalism. God is one person revealed himself in three consecutive modes that never overlapped. He first appeared as the Father in Old Testament, then as the Son and then as the Holy Spirit.
    Monarchianism. Monotheism. God is only one person, the father. Jesus Christ was a man and the Holy Spirit is a force of the Father.
    Trinity. There is one God in three separate persons Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
    Tritheism. Three Gods in three separate persons. But they are One in agreement.
    The Macedonian Controversy. The Holy Spirit is not a separate person but a power from God. God consists only of the father and son.
    See Nature of Christ

    Two Seed in the Spirit (Serpent Seed)
    A belief promoted by Baptist minister Daniel Parker based on Genesis 3: 15. According to this belief, Cain and Abel represented two seeds that are carried within the human race. Cain was born through Satan's impregnation of Eve. So, Cain carried the seed of Satan while Abel and Seth was from God and Adam. This evil seed continued through Noah's son Ham. Everyone carries one of the seeds and so we are predestined to belong to God or Satan.
    Daniel Gayman from the Church of Israel has blended his racial views into this belief. He claims that blacks and Jews are descendants of Cain and white gentiles are descendants of Seth.

    Various groups teach that Cain's descendants are among these groups.
    See Identity Movement

    Universal Religion
    Since all is God, then only one reality exists, and all religions are simply different paths to that ultimate reality. The universal religion can be visualized as a mountain, with many sadhanas (spiritual paths) to the summit. Some are hard; others easy. There is no one correct path. All paths eventually reach the top. They anticipate that a new universal religion which contains elements of all current faiths will evolve and become generally accepted worldwide.
    See New Age

    The belief that all will be saved. Every person will go to heaven after death.

    Veneration of the Saints
    Homage or worship given to humans who have died and supposedly gone to heaven and have influence with God.
    See Canonization

    War: Warriors
    Roman Soldiers
    Formation Total Soldiers Commander
    Legion 4000-6000 Legate
    Cohort 480-360 infantry Tribune
    Maniple 120 infantry -
    Century 80-60 infantry Centurion
    (tent group)
    8 infantry -
    Turmae 30 cavalry -
    Phalanx. A formation of troops in battle used by the Greeks and Romans for level ground warfare. A close line of soldiers with their shields making an impenetrable wall. The long spears protruded at many angles.
    Echelon. Arrangement of troops in a line
    Military Specialties
    Specialty Description
    Cavalry Soldiers on horses
    Infantry (Hoplite) Foot soldiers
    Paratrooper Jumps from aeroplanes
    Logistics Support Food, laundry, supplies
    Navy Seal Amphibious specialist
    United States Military
    Army Formations Total Soldiers Commander
    Region, theatre 2 army groups General, field marshall
    Army Group 2 armies
    Army 50,000-60,000
    Corp 30,000 Lieutenant general
    Division 10,000-20,000 Major general
    Brigade 2,000-5,000 Brigadier general+
    Regiment, group 2,000-3,000 Colonel
    Battalion 300 - 1000 Lieutenant colonel
    Company, squadron 60-250 Captain, major
    Platoon, troop 30-40 1st-2nd Lieutenant
    Section, patrol 8-12 Corporal, staff sergeant
    Squad, crew 7-14
    Fire team 4-5 Lance corporal, sergeant
    Air Force Formations. Division, wing, air group, squadron, flight
    Navy Formations. Marine Corp, division, squadron, naval unit, flotilla, fleet
    Mercenary. A soldier for hire.
    Hoplite. A Greek infantry group
    Muhajadeen, Mujahideen. A struggler. Those who engage in Jihad (struggle, holy war).

    World Cosmology of Mythology

    Norse Mythology. Yggdrasil (Mimameid or Lerad) is a tree of life with three roots that support the nine worlds and three magic wells. Humans live in Midgard or Mannheim. It is fed by honey dew falling from Vanaheim. The serpent Nidhogg lives in Nastrond and gnaws on one of the roots of the tree above the cold spring Hvergelmir in Niflhelm. The worlds will end when Yggdrasil collapses at Ragnarok (Gotterdammerung).
    Yggdrasil (Mimameidr)
    Highest Level
    1AsgardWarrior Gods (Aesir)
    ValhallaHall of the Heroes
    Bifrost BridgeRainbow bridge
    2VanaheimNature Gods (Vanir)
    UrdarbrunnrWell of fate (Wyrd)
    3Alfheim Light Elves
    Middle Level
    4Midgard Humans (Mortals)
    5SvartalfheimDark Elves
    MimisbrunnrWell of Knowledge
    MirkwoodDense forest
    Lower Level
    7Niflheim Ice, cold, darkness
    HvergelmirRoaring kettle well
    8Muspelheim Flame land
    9Helheim (Hel) Dead
    The Animals of Yggdrasil
    Audhumbla Cow Sister of Ymir. Four rivers of milk flowed from her teats
    - Eagle Wise. Sits on top of the tree. His wings create the wind
    Vedrfolnir Hawk Sits between the eyes of the eagle
    Gullinkambi Rooster The golden cock
    Salgofnir Cock Lives on the roof of Valhalla and wakes the warriors
    Ratatosk Squirrel He carried malicious gossip between Nidhogg and the eagle
    Nidhogg Serpent He gnaws at the root near Niflheim
    Jormungand Serpent The sea serpent who lives in the ocean surrounding Midgard
    Heidrun Goat Feeds on the leaves. Udder gives mead to feed Odin and the warriors of Valhalla
    Four stags Stags Dain, Duneyr, Durathror, Dvalin. Feeds on the leaves.

    Aztec Mythology. The myth states that the world is divided into thirteen regions that revolve around the pole star. The Pole Star is the Aztec universe. Mictlan, one of these regions is the land of the dead. It is the lowest of the nine underworlds. It is divided into four paradises in the land of the dead. North - Chalmecacivati (Babies and young children). West - Tamoanchan (Women who die in childbirth). South - Tlalocan (Those who die by water). East - warriors, sacrifices and tradesmen.

    Buddhist Mythology. Shambhala is in the center of an area surrounded by eight petal shaped regions. In the center is Mount Meru and the King's palace.

    The Great Abyss. A great chasm of darkness of turbulent sea existed before the creation of many worlds. In Christianity it is called the Abyss, the deep or the bottomless pit. It is called Chaos by the Greeks and Ginnungagap by the Norse. Ginnungagap was the space between Niflheim in the north and Muspelheim in the south. The giant Ymir was created in the center from the water formed when ice from Niflheim met fire from Muspelheim. His body was used to create Yggdrasil.
    See Tree of Life

    The actions performed by humans when they worship their God. In the pure Judeo-Christian tradition, God requires us to worship no other god and He tells us not to make images and bow down before them in worship.
    In Catholicism, this has evolved to mean three levels of worship.
    1. Latria. Worship belonging to God alone. Adoration.
    2. Hyperdulia. Worship belonging to Mary. Veneration.
    3. Dulia. Worship belonging to saints and angels and relics. Veneration and honor.
    In practical actions there appears to be no difference in the outward form of worship. People kneel and bow before these objects, kiss them, make pilgrimages and pray to them.
    See Mariolatry

    YHWH (Yahweh)
    The personal name of God.
    See Names of God.

    Yeshua (Jesus)
    The Hebrew form of the name Jesus. It means salvation.

    A mental, physical or spiritual exercise that attempts to obtain spiritual union and enlightenment through the right discipline. There are several types of yoga.
    God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God.   Romans 8: 28 Time: 400 minutes
    Print: 77 pages
    Copyright     Updated : March 2008.
    Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (March 2008)
    Use this as a source of related keywords and links, but check a second source.
    All images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.
    • The Moby Dick codes information from a 1997 internet article by Brendan Mckay (http://cs.anu.edu.au/~bdm/dilugim/torah.html).
    • How the Federal Courts are Organized. URL: http://www.fjc.gov/federal/courts.nsf/0/a783011af949b6bf85256b35004ad214?opendocument
    • U.S. Federal Court System Primer. URL: http://usgovinfo.about.com/blfedcourts.htm
    • Measurements from URL:www.bible.christiansunite.com
    • The Roman Calendar. URL: http://www.ortelius.de/kalender/rom_en.php
    • 613 Mitzvot. URL: http://www.jewfaq.org/613.htm
    • Weapons. URL: http://www.answers.com/weapons
    • Source: http://www.ourgardengang.com/companions.htm
    • Egyptian Kings. URL: http://www.touregypt.net/kings.htm
    Since I could have made a mistake, use this information as a starting point to find related concepts and confirm with another source.