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The Wonderful Creation
And The Awesome Creator

"Explore Science. Meet your Creator"
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Creation Days 1. Light 2. Water-Air 3. Land, Trees 4. Sun, Moon 5. Fish, Birds 6. Animals, Man 7. Sabbath
Creation Physics Chemistry Geology Geography Astronomy Biology Human Body Nutrition
Bible Science Creation - Evolution Geography Project History Maps Games Puzzles School

Solar system Alien Storm
Solar System Atmosphere The Weather
Science Insect Heart
Mishkan Science Camouflage The Human Body
Vegetables Water Cigarette
Nutrition Water Drugs and Alcohol
We will explore science from God's point of view. Beginning with nothing, each day of creation God created the next building block needed to make the rest of the universe.
On the first three days He created the containers needed to hold the systems. On the next three days He filled these places with life. On the final day, He started the social environment of love and community with a party.

  1. Electromagnetism, Physics and Chemistry. God made light, atoms and molecules in our corner of the universe.
  2. Space, Earth and Water. God created the three basic environments.
  3. Geology and Botany. God separated the different environments and made the food supply.
  4. Astronomy. God filled the sky.
  5. Zoology (Fish and Birds). God filled the oceans and skies with life.
  6. Biology (land Animals and Humans). God filled the land with life.
  7. Spiritual, Social and Psychological Foundations. God had a party to celebrate.

Science and Technology
Science has a way of finding what might be truth in the physical universe. This is called the scientific method. With every discovery made by one scientist, other scientists must be able to do the following:

  1. Duplicate the experiment
  2. Make a guess about what should happen if they change the experiment.

The fact is, evolution is based upon an interpretation of some observations. However, the quality of specimens observed are few and in poor condition and the evidence on which they base their conclusions are subject to many other interpretations.
For example, the difference in skeleton size of related animals is taken as proof of evolution. However, the same evidence could be used to show that they are just relatives (like different types of cats) or that they are built according to the same design.
Evolution requires millions of years for the theories to work.
Because they can make correct guesses about the unknown, such as the existence of objects in space, it is not proof that the theory of evolution works - it is proof that the physical laws of the universe are stable. Creationism does not discount physical laws, in fact YHWH is a God of law and order. Creation only disputes some of the meanings, theories and conclusions scientists place on what they observe especially when they try to extrapolate back to the past to say when and how the object was formed and how it behaved.
For example, if you go to a new planet one can expect to find a force called gravity because the planet has mass. Confirming the existence of gravity does not prove how or when the planet was formed, it proves that the theory of gravity is reliable.

How God created the world. Creationists and evolutionists believe different things about how the universe started. Evolutionists rely on the scientific method. Creationists claim that the scientific method is not good enough. It cannot measure the past accurately and it cannot measure some things that we cannot see. And God is so great, we cannot even think of a way to measure Him.
As we look at the wonderful things God created, I will try to point out facts that point to a creator.

This symbol will appear whenever we want to suggest an argument in favor of creation.
With each system or creature that God created, we will offer some basic arguments for you to think about as "proof" that they did not evolve over billions of years. Our proofs are based on the following:

Peace The Plan of Salvation
Before the world was created, God also designed a Plan of Salvation to recreate us and bring peace between earth and heaven when man sinned. This plan was encoded in the design of the creation and follows rules and laws just like any fundamental principles of science.

Light: The Foundations Of The Universe
Day 1
In the beginning there was nothing in our region of the universe but darkness. Then God spoke and the power of His voice produced electromagnetic waves that were the basis of all created things. When He spoke there was light.
Light Where did the light come from if the sun was not created yet?
In the process called nucleosynthesis, hydrogen can be burned to produce all the elements up to nickel. In this process light is produced. So on the first day Hydrogen, Helium and light were produced. Nucleosynthesis takes only 3 minutes, so there was more than enough time.
Our theory is that each day of creation corresponds to each period of the Periodic Table.

Physics: Explore a Tiny Universe
Physics The study of the atoms and the basic laws of the universe that govern the relationship between different particles or bodies with mass.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Sunlight is composed of a continuous stream of electromagnetic radiation. Those between 320-2000 nanometers reach the earth, while the short wavelengths below 320 are absorbed by ozone and the longer wavelengths above 2000 are absorbed by carbon dioxide, water vapor and ozone..
Absorbed by CO2, H2O, Ozone Light Reaches Earth (2000-320 nanometers) Absorbed by Ozone
Nonionizing Radiation Ionizing Radiation
Long wavelength Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Short wavelength
100km - 1mm 30cm-1mm 1mm-750 680 660 580 570 460 430 410 400 - 10 10 - .003 <0.003
Radio waves Microwave Infrared Visible Light (700-400 nanometers) Ultraviolet X-Ray Gamma
Ears (sound) Skin (heat)   Eyes (light, colors)    Invisible
Radio phone TV Oven Camera Television, camera Medical, military equipment
None COBE Spitzer IR Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV GALEX Chandra CGRO
Fast Facts! Speed of Light. 186,287 miles / second (299,792 km)
Fast Facts! Speed of Sound in Air. 761 miles per hour (330 meters per second).
Fast Facts! Mach Number: Measures the shock wave generated by an object in relation to the speed of sound Mach 1 is the speed of sound.
Subsonic: < Mach 1
Transonic: 1 (Speed of sound)
Supersonic: > Mach 1
Hypersonic: > Mach 5
Fact Facts! Light Year. The distance that light travels in one year (5,878,625,373,183.61 miles) 9,460,730,472,580.8 Km.
Fact Facts! It takes 499 seconds for light to travel from the Sun to the Earth.
Fact Facts! 1 MHz (megahertz) = 300 meters. 1GHz (gigahertz) = 30 centimeters.
Career Physicist. Studies physics Career Artist. Paints, sculpts, draws objects of beauty
Instrument Snooperscope. Instrument for viewing infrared radiation Instrument Sonograph. Records and analyses sound

United States Radio Spectrum Allocations
Instrument Frequency (MHz)
Consumer Home Wireless Infrared Remote 38 kHz
Garage door opener 40
Alarms 40
Baby monitors49
Radio Controlled Toys Walkie talkie49
Cars, airplanes, boats 27 and 49
Advanced Models 72 and 75
Radio AM Radio 535KHz - 1.7MHz
FM Radio 88-108
Short Wave Radio 5.9-26.1
CB Radio 26.96-27.41
Deep space radio 2290-2300
Old Analog TV
and Services
VHF Analog TV (2-6)54-88
VHF Analog TV (7-13) 174-220
UHF Analog TV (14-69)470-806
CATV (Cable) 54-804
Wireless microphones700s
New Digital Services Digital TV (2-13) 54-470
Digital TV (14-51) 470-608. 614-698
Mobile Phones (52-59) 698-746
Emergency Services (60-69) 746-806
Wireless PhoneCell/Mobile Phone 824-849
900MHz Cordless Phone900
Wireless Microphones900
Old Cordless Phone 40-50
Wireless Data NetworksWiFi (IEEE 802.11) 2.4 and 5 GHz
Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15) 2.402-2.48 GHz
WiMax (IEEE 802.16) 2-11 and 10-66 GHz
Wireless BusinessBusiness Walkie Talkies 151-158; 462-469
Wildlife tracking collars 215-220
Air traffic control radar 960 - 1215
Satellite Bands L Inmarsat, meterology, sea and air traffic, OmniSTAR 1530-1650 MHz
Global Satellite Navigation SystemsGPS (NAVSTAR) 1227, 1575, 1176
GLONASS 1602-1615 and 1246-1256
Galileo 1176, 1207, 1278, 1575
Digital AudioWorldSpace 1467-1492
S XM, Sirius 2.3 GHz
Arabsat, Insat, Indostar 2535 - 2655 MHz
C Communications 3700 - 4200 MHz
C Military downlink 4500-4800 MHz
C C band uplink 5900-7000 MHz
Ku-1 Direct to HomeFSS, Intelsat 10.7 - 11.75 GHz
Ku-2 DBS, Hotbird 11.75 - 12.5 GHz
Ku-3 Telecom 12.5 - 12.75 GHz
Ku Telecom Uplinks 12.75 - 13.25 GHz
14-14.8 GHz
17.3-18.1 GHz
Ka ACTS, Superbird, N-Star, Italsat, DFS Kopernikus18.3 - 21.2 GHz
K Future telecom27.5 - 31 GHz
X Military, NATO 7200-7750 GHz
X Military Uplinks 7900-8400 GHz
UHF (300-3000 MHz) has the best coverage indoors and out especially 470-854 MHz. They travel farther and penetrate better in steel, concrete, large industrial or multi-story buildings. They are ideal for cellular phones
  FCC (Federal Communications Commission) manages and distributes the frequencies for commercial use in the USA.
  IEEE manages global standards

Electromagnetic waves are the basis of all matter. Depending on the wave length, it can either be seen, felt, heard or is totally invisible to the human senses. Long waves (like radio waves) have low energy and are very harmless. God created ears so that we could recognize them. Human beings have also created other equipment that can decode these waves.
The shortest, higher energy waves are gamma rays. They are harmful and the ozone layer helps to keep them from striking the earth.

Humans have used the electromagnetic spectrum to invent all sorts of wireless communications applications. We send and receive information with signals using frequencies that cannot be interpreted by the eyes and ears. But the receivers can interpret these signals and convert them to frequencies that the human eye and ear can interpret.
Space Observatories
NASA's Four Great Space Observatories
1Hubble Space TelescopeHSTVisible, UV, infrared
2Compton Gamma Ray TelescopeCGROGamma rays
3Chandra X-ray ObservatoryCXOX-rays
4Spitzer Space TelescopeSST
A series of four space observatories designed to conduct astronomical studies over many different wavelengths (visible, gamma rays, X-rays, and infrared).

European Space Agency (ESA) Systems
International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL)X-Ray, Gamma
Swift Gamma Ray Burst MissionUV, X-Ray, Gamma
X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton)X-Ray
Other Observatories and Satellites
Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)Ultraviolet
IMAGESolar wind
Wilkenson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Temperature fluctuations in the microwave background
Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)Dark matter, black holes, neutron star
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)Solar storms

Radio Waves. Radio waves are not as harmful to humans as other parts of the spectrum, but they have certain properties that make them ideal for transmitting information.

Harnessing the Power of Creation
1LightWireless technology
AtomsWeapons, energy
WaterHydroelectric, dam
3EarthMetallurgy, construction
TreesMedicine, construction
4Sun, moon, starsLight, navigation. Space exploration, energy
5Fish, birdsCarrier pigeons
6AnimalsTransportation (horse, donkey, camel), military
ManSlaves, military
Man has learned to harness the power of creation in reverse order.

Consumer Appliances. Engineers have divided up the frequencies of the radio wave and microwave spectrum into different channels for sending and receiving signals in consumer applications. They operate like one way private roads. A broadcaster can send signals to a receiver along this private electromagnetic highway on one channel (lane) and receive signals along another channel. The receiver translates the signals to pictures, sound, text or instructions. e.g. radio, television, phone, garage door opener.

Law and Order. We explored the application of the radio spectrum to demonstrate the creative power of law and order and organization. Marconi harnessed the potential of these waves when he realized that he could use them to transmit language. But if standards were not set about the use of these frequencies there would be interference and chaos and we could not have proceeded as far as we have done in making consumer applications that improve our daily lives. It took a leap in thinking to realize that one can harness the power of electromagnetic waves and it took rules to make them work better by setting boundaries. And it took a naming and identification system to further increase the capabilities. e.g. Boundaries allow us to broadcast on walkie-talkies without interference, but personal identification allows us to make private phone calls.
In the same way God set strict standards of behavior between human beings, without these there would be chaos and mistrust. The laws of God do not take away our freedoms. The laws of God create an environment where we can make great leaps forward to increase freedoms which make our lives much more happy and convenient. With these we can advance to a greater potential that is beyond our imagination. So if we embrace the basics of honesty, generosity, respect, contentment and faithfulness we can discover powers from God that we never thought were possible. God also gave names to each of His creation, setting up the possibility of personal communication.
So love can change things. Hope can see a future. Faith can also move mountains by talking to the personal God named YHWH.

Mishkan Bible Science: Quantum Physics And The Composition Of Matter.
The Bible models the relationships between the particles of matter better than all the current scientific theories. For years scientists believed that the electrons, protons and neutrons in the atom were the smallest objects in the universe. Now the Standard Model of Physics says that everything (all matter and radiation) in the universe is made up of 12 basic particles and 4 basic forces. However, they have not discovered the source of gravity or mass as of 2011.

Mishkan Unified Model of Everything Standard Model of Particle Physics
Mishkan Physics
Mishkan Chemistry
Quarks Bosons
1 2 3
 2.4 MeV
 1270 MeV
 172.7 GeV
 4.8 MeV
 104 MeV
 4200 MeV
 <2.2 eV
electron neutrino
 <0.17 GeV
muon neutrino
 <15.5 GeV
tau neutrino
 91.2 GeV
 0Z 0
weak force
 .511 MeV
 105.7 MeV
 1777 MeV
 80.4 GeV
weak force
Mass (eV)
Name Of Particle

The Mishkan Sanctuary Structure.
» Orientation. Walls on north, south and west. Doors on east.
» Most Holy Place. Three walls with 6 boards. The west wall has 2 boards supporting the corner.
» Holy Place. 2 Walls with 14 boards.
» Roof. 4 layers of different materials.
    • Layer 1. 10 panels of blue linen (5+5)
    • Layer 2. 11 panels of Goat's hair (5+6)
    • Layer 3. Ram skin dyed red
    • Layer 4. Porpoise skin
» Bars and Rings. They hold the boards together.
» Doors. Columns and curtains On the east side.
    • Door 1 (Holy Place). 5 columns.
    • Door 2 (Most Holy Place). 4 columns.
Peace Creation. Did you know that over 3500 years ago Moses described a mathematical model of the objects and their relationships in the periodic table and the elements of particle physics in the Torah?

Neither the Standard Model nor the String Theory Models demonstrate the number of particles, relationship between the particles and the appearance of the particles like the Mishkan Model does. The Mishkan is the portable sanctuary that Moses built in the desert using a pattern given to him by God on Mount Sinai (Exodus 26). It is a model of the fundamental particles of hydrogen.

» Fermions. There are two fundamental particles. The Most Holy Place is the nucleus and the Holy Place is the orbiting electrons.

» Bosons. There are four fundamental forces which hold the fundamental particles together. In the Mishkan, the forces look like the objects in the structure.

- 1 2 3 45 6 78 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 1718 19 20 -
7 123456 1 2 3 4 5 6 78 9 1011 12 13 14 East

Outer Court
1 Most Holy Place Column



Holy Place

2-D Floor Plan

Four Layer Fabric Roof
(Shown Below)




8 6
123456 1 2 3 4 5 6 78 9 1011 12 13 14
12345 0 678910 4
12345 0 67891011
Roof Layer 3 (Ram Skin Dyed Red)
Roof Layer 4 (Porpoise Skin)

» The Mishkan Periodic Table. The Mishkan also models the Periodic table blocks and their size and properties.

Atoms. One of the smallest items in the universe is an atom. Over 100 atoms have been discovered and the smallest of these is hydrogen.
An atom is made up of a nucleus in the center, inside the nucleus are protons and neutrons. Circling the nucleus in orbit is the electron. The electron has a negative charge, the proton is positive and the neutron has no charge.

Light. Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic waves. These are made by photons. Photons are released when electrons move from one orbit to another.

Color. White light from the sun is made up of many colors. Seeing these colors depends on what the object does to the light that reaches it. The color of the object we see is the color of the light it reflects because the eye recognizes the primary colors of light. We see color by two methods:

Primary Colors. In all color schemes it takes three primary colors to make all colors. But primary colors cannot be formed by mixing other colors. How color is made depends on the color system or whether we are using pigments or light.

Red Yellow Green
White Cyan
Magenta Blue

The additive and subtractive color systems are related. Two primary colors from one system creates a primary color in the other system. This is the combination of both.
White Yellow Green Cyan Blue Magenta Red Yellow Green Black

Color Wheel. An arrangement of colors in a circle.
Red Yellow Green
Cyan Blue Magenta

Complementary Color. Colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel.
Mixing two different complementary colors of light gives white light. If a color is absorbed, what your eye will see is the complementary color, which will be a mixture of all the light that is not absorbed.

Prism. A prism is a three dimensional glass pyramid that separates white light into its component colors to form a rainbow. White light enters the prism and each color bends at a different angle, separating the colors. Different objects bend light at a different angle. So when light travels from air through glass or water the light exits at a different angle.
Rainbow. A rainbow is caused when white light is broken up into its component colors as it passes from the air through water droplets which act like a prism. The classic colors of the rainbow are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
White Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Black

See how the eye processes color and the problems that result in color deficiency.

Imagine Our visible light is a fairly narrow frequency band. Suppose God and the angels have the ability to operate at other frequencies so that we can not see them. God said that He has to separate Himself from us physically because close contact would destroy us. Do you suppose God normally operates above the gamma ray frequencies? Suppose He can change frequencies at will so that He can be visible and invisible as He chooses?
What do you think? Since God created the sun, moon and stars on the fourth day, the light that He made on the first day may have been caused by photons.
But since God is a source of light, his presence may have caused the light. However, the universe is bathed in at least two other kinds of energy and it has a microwave background radiation. Are these or the microwave radiation the source of light on the first day? If so, then we have lost the ability to detect this energy with our eyes. Sin made us partially blind.

Forces of Attraction
Peace Did you know that God used the science of color combination to illustrate the Plan of Salvation?
He will take us from darkness to light through the Word. The Word He spoke to implement the plan was Jesus Christ. He was also the One Who created the world and He will recreate it again.

Same design pattern Atom

System Center Orbit Force
Atom Nucleus Electrons Strong
Cell Nucleus Organelles Electromagnetic
Solar SystemStar Planets Gravity
Galaxy Nucleus Solar system Gravity
Family Mother and Father Children Love
Life God Creation Love

The fact that solar systems, galaxies and cells follow this structure points to a designer. Each has a central core which is encircled by other bodies in orbit. You would not expect such order from random events.

Different types of forces are used to hold different systems together:

  1. Strong force. Also called the nuclear force, it holds the nucleus of an atom together against the strong forces of repulsion from the protons.
  2. Weak force. The weak force holds protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
  3. Electromagnetic force. Holds several atoms together when they create a molecule.
  4. Gravity. Is the weakest force. It holds large objects together. It keeps the planets in orbit and it keeps you from flying off the earth.
  5. Love. Holds people and intelligent life together. It is the character that is most like Him that God is trying to teach us.
    The Bible simply says that "God is Love".

Electricity is produced when the atoms produce a flow of electrons in one direction.

A magnetic force is created in another direction when an electrical force is turned on.

Chemistry: Atoms and Molecules
One of the most important things in chemistry is the periodic table of elements. It helps us to know how the elements will react.
Periodic Law: When elements (atoms) are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight their properties are repeated periodically.
The periodic table is divided into 7 rows called "periods" and 18 columns called "groups or families".
Chemistry The process of combining atoms to form new solids, liquids and gases.

Groups Or Families. Columns of elements that are related by the number of valence electrons in their outer shell. There are three grouping systems.

a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
b 1A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
c 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 1B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B
- +1 +2 +3 (2-4) (2-5) (2-6) (2-7) +2 or +3 (1-2) 2 +3 ±4 -3 -2 -1 0
- S (7x2) F D Block (Transition Elements) (4x10) P Block (6x6)
1 1
The Periodic Table of Elements ⚽ 2
2 ♼ 3
⚽ 4
Key 1 Atomic number. Number of protons or electrons
H Symbol for the element. This is Hydrogen.
1.008 Atomic weight.
⚽ 5
⚽ 10
3 ♼ 11
♼ 12
♼ 13
⚽ 14
⚽ 17
⚽ 18
4 19
♼ 20
♼ 22
♺ 24
♼ 25
♻ 26
♻ 27
⚽ 30
⚽ 31
⚽ 32
⚽ 33
⚽ 34
⚽ 35
⚽ 36
5 37
♼ 38
♼ 40
⚽ 48
⚽ 49
♼ 50
⚽ 51
⚽ 52
⚽ 54
6 55
♼ 56
Inner Transition 71
♼ 74
⚽ 80
⚽ 81
⚽ 82
⚽ 83
7 87
6 57
♼ 58
♼ 60
♼ 62
♼ 63
♻ 64
♼ 65
♼ 66
♼ 67
♼ 68
♼ 69
F Block
7 89
Color Key Box Metals Magnetic ☢Radioactive Soft Metals Metalloid Non-Metals
Text Solid Metals (Precious Metals) Liquid Gas Life
Paramagnetic (Unpaired Electrons) Diamagnetic (Paired d-Electrons)
Ferromagnetic AntiFerromagnetic Pemanent Magnet: NdFeB - SmCo - AlNiCo - Ceramic/Ferrite (FeO, BaCO3, SrCO3)
Metals Alkali Metals React readily with non-metals
Alkaline Earth Alkaline
Transitional Less reactive and rare earth metals
»Lanthanide Rare earth. Form magnetic alloys
»Actinide Rare earth, radioactive, dense metals
Non-Metals Noble Gas The noble gases are relatively inert
Halogens Reactive nonmetals which have seven valence electrons
Non-Metals Many are gases and liquids
Metalloids Semi metals with characteristics of metals and non-metals
Metals: They are located on the left side of the table. They are solids at room temperature (except mercury).
Non-Metals: The nonmetals are located on the upper right side of the periodic table
Transition Elements: These are defined as those that have partially filled "d" orbitals either in the element or any of its compounds. These partially filled "d" orbitals are responsible for the color generating property of the transition elements.
Rare Earth Elements (Metals). They are special transition metals that are magnetic or radioactive.
Life Elements. These are necessary for living systems and have important cycles to replenish them.
Peace The Sanctuary Chemistry. A pattern of the structure of the periodic table is in the sanctuary that Moses built.
GroupOuter ShellCharacteristic
Shell Orbit Electrons Block
S 1 2 2 Metal
P 3 6 8 Non-metal
D 5 1018 Transition
F 7 1432 Rare earth
G 9 1850 Theoretical
A shell has a fixed number of orbits, each has two electrons. Shells fill in this order (2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32):

2s2, 2p6
3s2, 3p6
4s2, 3d10, 4p6
5s2, 4d10, 5p6
6s2, 4f14, 5d10, 6p6
7s2, 5f14, 6d10, 7p6
S1A+1s1Alkali metals give up one electron
2A+2s2Alkaline earth metals
D3A-2B Transition metals with valence electrons in two shells instead of one
»8A+2-34s23d6-8Iron (4s23d6), cobalt (4s23d7), nickel (4s23d8)
»1B+1-23d104s1Copper. This is the coinage metals group
P3B+3s2p1 The Boron group, earth metals, whistogens
4B±4s2p2The Carbon group are the least reactive. They share 4 electrons
5B-3s2p3The Nitrogen Group, Pnicogens or pnictogens. Phosphorous makes fertilizer, bones
6B-2s2p4 Chalcogens. The acid formers
7B-1s2p5Halogens. They are salt formers that take one electron
8B0s2p6Noble gases. Their valence shells are full. Helium has 2 ("S"), the rest 8 ("S"+"P")
F»3A +34d105p66s24f14Lanthanides. Very reactive metals with magnetic properties that fill the 4f orbital
»3A- +35d106p67s25f14Actinides. Very reactive metals with radioactive properties that fill the 5f orbital
3A: (Np Pi Am Cm Bk) 4A: Th 5A: Pa 6A: U
G8s25g186f147d10Element 121-138. These have never been synthesized and may be too unstable
Periods. These are the seven rows. They have the same number of electron shells.

Electrons. The number of electrons that orbit the nucleus are equal to the atomic number.
S72 Hard Metals
P66 Non-Metals
D410Soft Metals
F214Hard Metals

Group (New IUPAC Number). Number of electrons in the outer shells.
Block. They have the same orbiting shell and the same set of groups.
Shell. The electrons orbit singly or in pairs in different levels called shells. They are named by a series of four letters, "S", "P", "D", and "F". By looking at the periodic table you can tell which type of orbit is probably in the outermost valence shell. Metals are in the "S" block, transition metals are in the "D" block, non-metals are in the "P" block and the rare earth elements are in the "F" block. These shells are filled according to rules.
  • Electrons fill orbits of lower energy first.
  • Pauli Exclusion Principle. Two electrons in the same orbit must have opposite spins.
  • Hund's Rule. Electrons fill empty orbits before pairing up.
  • Octet Rule. Atoms become especially stable when their valence shells are full. They tend to want 8 electrons in their outer shell and they will gain, share or lose electrons to complete this octet. Those with less than 4 lose their electrons, those with 4 share electrons and those greater than 4 tend to gain electrons to complete the octet.
Valence Shell. The outermost "s" and "p" orbit shells of an atom or the "d" shells in transition metals. It determines how atoms behave in a reaction. Here, electrons are gained, shared or lost to form chemical bonds because the elements are trying to achieve a status in which their shells are complete. Elements with the same number of valence electrons have the same properties. Each element has a number of valence electrons equal to its group number.
Transition Elements. The transition metals are the only elements that fill the "d" orbitals. They have the same arrangement of outer electrons, but the lower "3d" orbitals are different. The ten "3d" orbitals are filled before the lower "s" orbital.
Gold Standards: Fast Facts! 24 carat (karat) gold is 99.99% pure gold. 22 carat gold is 91.6% gold. 12 carat is 50% gold
Silver Standards: Fine silver is 99.9% silver. Britannia (95.84% silver and 4.16% copper). Mexican (95% silver and 5% copper). Sterling (92.5% silver and 7.5% copper). Coin silver (90% silver and 10% copper).
Other precious metals: Platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium. Radioactive : Plutonium, uranium.
Metal Alloys: Mixture of metals that increases their hardness and durability.
Brass is a mixture of copper and Zinc. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin.
Iron. There are three basic grades of iron with varying degrees of brittleness and hardness.
  • Pig Iron. Hard, brittle, raw iron with about 3.5% carbon made by melting iron ore with limestone and coke.
    Iron (90% or more), carbon (4-5%), manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon (roughly 3% in total).
  • Wrought Iron. This is a softer, pure iron with about 0.15% carbon and some impurities.
  • Cast Iron. Purified pig iron. 95% iron, 2.1-4% carbon and 1-3% silicon.
Steel is a mixture of iron and up to 5.1% carbon. Stainless steel also includes chromium and nickel.
Career Chemist. Creates or applies chemicals for treating various systems such as drinking water, manufacturing.
Career Forensic Chemist. Crime scene investigation by analyzing chemical compounds.
Career Pharmacist. Dispenses drugs for health care.
Career Pyrotechnics. The science and art of making fireworks.

The Periodic Table of Elements Electron Configuration
a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
b 1A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
c S1 S2 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
- S (7x2) F D Block (Transition Elements) (4x10) P Block (6x6)
1 1
11s Fill Seq Fill Seq Ground
2s2, 2p6
3s2, 3p6
4s2, 3d10, 4p6
5s2, 4d10, 5p6
6s2, 4f14, 5d10, 6p6
7s2, 5f14, 6d10, 7p6
1Fill SeqFill Seq 
23Fill SeqFill Seq 
457Fill SeqFill Seq 
681013Fill SeqFill Seq 
911141720Fill SeqFill Seq
121518212325Fill Seq
22s2p Fill Seq Fill Seq
33s3p3d Fill Seq Fill Seq
44s4p4d4f Fill Seq Fill Seq
55s5p5d5f 5g Fill Seq  
66s6p6d 6f6g6h   Excited
77s7p 7d7f 7g7h7i 
 8s8p 8d8f8g8h8i8j
2 3
3 11
4 19
4s1 3d5
4s1 3d9 ?
4s1 3d10
5 37
5s1 4d5
6 55
4F14 71
7 87
5f14 103
6 57
F Block
7 89

Elements have magnetic properties based on the pairing of electrons in the outer shell. Unpaired electrons can spin in any direction and are attracted to an external magnetic field.

Temperature is generated by the movement of atoms. Absolute Zero (0ºK) (-459.67ºF and -273.15ºC) is the temperature when no molecular activity occurs and the volume of the "perfect gas" vanishes.

Experiment Bake a cake. The air bubbles that are released when the baking powder reacts with the flour causes the cake to rise. Cooking is chemistry.

Two or more atoms form a molecule. Knowing how these will react is the study of Chemistry.
Stereochemistry. Did you know that complex molecules can have a mirror image twin. They look the same and react differently. The body is able to recognize them because they are oriented in the wrong direction. It is like trying to put a left handed glove on the right hand. The body uses the left handed versions while laboratory chemical reaction always produces the right handed version. When we die, these chemicals change to the right hand versions.
So how did random chemical reactions in nature consistently produce thousands of impossible compounds needed for life?
Biological systems are made from very complicated chemical reactions involving millions of chemicals and large molecules with many atoms. These systems are so complex and specific that a malfunction of any one chemical in millions can damage the creature.
The most important molecule is water. It is made from two hydrogen and one oxygen atom (H2O).
Some rare elements are expensive (gold (Au), silver (Ag), Copper (Cu) and Platinum (Pt)). They are used to make jewelry and coins.
Other elements like Uranium (U) are precious because they are needed for nuclear weapons.

Color can be caused by many different interactions of light or heat with different elements. Metal ions, oxides, sulfides, halides and chlorides of metals and organic compounds are used as coloring agents. Metal oxides are generally used in glass and metal chlorides in fireworks.
The transition metals tend to be coloring elements because the electrons in their outer "d" orbit absorb light to move from one orbit to another.

ColorCrystalsGlass FireworksArtificial Organic Natural Organic
RedCr3+, Mn3+, Mn2+CdAu, Cu, SeSr, Li C20H6I4Na2O5H20
Erythrosine (Red 3)
Leaf Lycopene (C40H56)
Leaf Betalains (beets)
PinkMn2+, Ti4+Mn, LiSe, Co + borosilicates-
Allura Red (Red 40)
Animal Hemoglobin
Animal Phaeomelanin
Reddish BrownFe2+, Co2+---
BrownFe2+, Ce3+ Pr3+ Nd3+V, FeCarbon oxides,
Iron oxides, S
- C17H18N4Na2O9S2
(Brown 3)
Leaf Tannin (C76H52O46)
Animal Melanin, Eumelanin
OrangeFe3+, Ce3+ Pr3+ Nd3+CdSeCa C16H10N2O7S2Na2
Acid orange (Orange G)
Leaf Carotene (C40H56)
Crocine (C44H64O24) saffron
AmberFe3+-Carbon oxides, Fe, S-C16H9N4 Na3O9S2
Tartrazine (Yellow 5)
Animal Lipofuscin (C42H58NO)
Gold---Fe, C C18H9N Na2O8S2
Quinoline (Yellow 13)
Leaf Lutein (C40H56O2)
YellowFe3+,Fe2+,Ni2+, UO22+N,V,Cd,AsSe, Pb + SbNa
Yellow GreenMn2+Zn, Ni, CdUranium- C37H34N2O10S3Na2
Fast Green FCF
(Green 3)
Leaf Chlorophyll
GreenCr3+, Mn3+, V3+, Ni2+,
Cu2+, Fe2+
Cd, Li, BeCu, Iron oxide,
Co + iodides
Cu, Ba
Forest Green-Cr, Fe- C27H25N2NaO7S2
Food Green S (Green 4)
Olive GreenTi4+---
BlueCu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, VO2+, Ti3+Cu-C37H34N2Na2O9S3
Brilliant Blue (Blue 1)
Animal Hemocyanin
BlueU4+, Co2+Cu, Ti, BeCopper oxideCu
Dark Blue-SCobalt oxide-C16H10N2O2
Indigo Blue
Leaf Anthocyanins
(C15H8O6-sugar) (cyanidin)
PurpleFe3+Fe Mn oxideK, Sr+Cu -Leaf Anthocyanins
(C15H9O6-sugar) (cyanidin)
Silver---Al, Mg, Ti -
Black-Iron oxideMn + Co + Fe- C28H17N5Na4O14S4 Animal Hemerythrin
White-TitaniumSb, SnMg, Al, BaTiO2
Isomers (Twins). Carotene and lycopene have the same chemical formula, but a different structure.
Stereoisomers (Chemical Identical Twins). Same formula and structure but mirror images
Leaf Plant Source.
Animal Animal Source

Iris Pink Violet Grey Blue   Green Amber Hazel Brown Black
Front No Pigment Lipofuscin More Melanin More
Back Blood No Pigment Melanin More
Eye Color. Eye color is a complex interaction of at least two genes and the concentration of pigments on the front and back surface of the iris and the natural grey color of the iris and the size and spacing of the fibers in the eye. Genes also create the flecks, specks and rings that dot the eyes.
Melanin, a brown pigment which is controlled by the brown-blue gene on chromosome 15 and the green-blue gene on chromosome 19, is mainly responsible for the range in eye color.
Lipofuscin, a yellow pigment produced by aging, is responsible for green and amber eyes. The natural color of the iris and the blood vessels at the back of the eye also contribute to the color.

Fast Facts! In the womb, all babies of all races have grey eyes. Eye color develops after birth when the melanin is exposed to light.

Hair And Skin Color. Human skin color is due to melanin, but hair color is due to Eumelanin for black and brown colors and Phaeomelanin for red and yellow colors. The low concentration or absence of either pigment causes gray or white hair.
Birds. Feather color is due to the structure of the feathers and the pigments. The feather scatters reflected light and affects the color because the distance between the melanin and air cavities is smaller than the wavelength of light. Blue and green color in animals is created this way. There are four types of pigments:

Fish. Color is achieved by the pigment cells and how many layers of skin in which they occur. These four chromatophores are melanin (black), xanthin (yellow), lipochrome (orange), and erythrin (red).

Imagine Will our skin, hair and eye color change with our emotions or at our will?

Autumn Leaves.
Leaf Chlorophyll
+ Carotenoids
The colors of autumn leaves are due to changing concentrations of many chemicals. Decreasing light levels in autumn causes chlorophyll production to slow and other pigments emerge in this order as the green color fades.

Air And Water
Day 2
On the second day God separated the land and the sky from the water, creating the sky and the sea. At this point the planet must have looked like a gaseous planet.
The theory of evolution cannot explain the source of water. Their theory is that the earth was bombarded for 400 million years with comets containing 5% water.
Air and Water On this day the elements of period 1 and 2 are available to produce water (H2O) and all the gases that produce air. ( H2, He, O2, O3, CO, CO2, N2, CH4 ).
Only fresh water could have been produced because there was no sodium.
Rainbow With the presence of light, air and water, a rainbow could have been formed.

Layer Details Deep space
Exosphere New Jerusalem
1500 miles (2400)
City of God
1000 miles (1600)
800 miles (1286)
Ionosphere 400 miles (643 Km)
380 miles (610 Km) Hubble Telescope
200 miles (320 Km) Space station
Aurora Borealis

Space shuttle
150 miles (241 Km)
Thermosphere 60 miles (97 Km)
Mesosphere 50 miles (80 Km)
Stratosphere 31 miles (50 Km)
Ozone (15-20 km)
Troposphere 11 miles (18 km)
Weather, clouds
Surface to 200 m Euphotic sea
200 m to 1500 m Bathyal zone
1500 m to floor Abyssal zone
Asthenosphere 200-300 km Mantle
Mesosphere 650-2890 km Mantle
Core 2890-6370 km Iron
Career Astronaut. Travels to outer space.
Career Pilot. Operates an airplane.
Instrument Altimeter. Measures altitude (height).

The air is made up of several layers.

  1. Magnetosphere. A highly magnetized and radioactive region above the ionosphere up to 70,000 km (10 earth radii). Within this space are the Van Allen radiation belts.
  2. Exosphere. Above 800 miles (1286 km). Geostationary satellites orbit Earth at 22,264 miles (35,790 km).
  3. Ionosphere. Any level above 20 miles (32 km) in which there are charged particles. It is in the mesosphere and thermosphere. Fast Facts! The official orbit height for a vehicle is 328,000 feet (100 Km).
  4. Thermosphere. 50 - 60 miles (80-97 km)
  5. Mesosphere. 35 to 50 miles (56-80 km) is the coldest layer.
  6. Stratosphere. From 10 to 35 miles (16-56 km). The ozone layer is in this zone between 9.5 to 12.5 miles (15 to 20 km). It protects us from ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
  7. Troposphere. The lowest level extends 11 miles (18 km) in the air. All weather activities occur here.

Our weather is affected by the large amount of water exposed to the heat from the sun. Warm air rises and cold air falls, causing a cycle of flowing air. The combination of air mass, pressure, the flow of air, moisture from the oceans and lakes and ocean temperature creates our global weather patterns.

Air Mass.
Region Water Air Flow Air Mass
ArcticIce Easterlies Flows from East Polar
Polar Polar Jet Flows East Ferrel
Westerlies Flows from West
25º-35º Subtropical jet Hadley
25º Trade Winds Flows from North East NE
Equator Doldrums
5º-30º Intertropical Convergence Zone
(Monsoon Trough) Flows West and North
25º Humboldt Trade Winds Flows from South East SE
25º-35º Ocean
Subtropical jet Flows East
35º-65º Westerlies Flows from West Ferrel
Polar Polar Jet Flows East
Antarctic Ice Easterlies Flows from East Polar
Instrument Barometer. Measures air pressure
Career Meteorologist. Predicts the weather
A block of air with the same temperature and moisture. The boundary of an air mass is called the "front". At the boundary of two fronts, the difference in the air causes the most severe weather as the molecules try to reach equilibrium.


Air Flow. Winds are named by the direction from which they flow.

  1. Jet Stream. A current of fast moving air flowing west to east found at 10-15 km (6-9 miles) in the upper levels of the atmosphere at a speed of 56-400 miles per hour. It separates a mass of cold air in the north from a warm air mass in the south.
  2. Trade Winds. These are the lower level winds from the Equatorial Hadley cells which blow from the east to the west. The rising warm air in the tropics creates a void that is filled by air coming from higher latitudes, causing the trade winds. As the trade winds cross over Africa, they form the disturbances that form hurricanes.
  3. Westerlies. Winds that blow from the west to the east in the temperate region. They are caused by the trade winds which are reflected and turn toward the poles and loop back east.
  4. Easterlies. Arctic polar air moves from the poles and creates turbulence in the air when it meets a warm front moving in the opposite direction. This exchange of heat releases rain, hail and other weather phenomenon.

Ocean Temperature
Ocean temperature affects the weather by bringing moisture and changing the temperature of the air.

  1. Ocean Conveyor Belt (Thermohaline Circulation). This acts as the ocean's circulatory system and distributes tropical heat around the planet. This is a 1600 year cycle that imports warm surface water from the Pacific and sinks cold deep salt water from the Atlantic near Greenland. The North Atlantic and Southern Ocean give their cold deep waters and nutrients to the Pacific and the warm surface waters, driven by surface winds, sink to replace it.
  2. Nordic Heat Pump (Atlantic Heat Conveyor). Heat moves from the Caribbean and the tropical South Atlantic to the North Atlantic along the Ocean Conveyor belt. Heat is pumped into the Nordic sea and gives Europe warm temperatures by a transfer of heat from the sea to the air.
  3. Gulf Stream. Warm ocean current in the north Atlantic that flows north east from Cape Hatteras near Florida, to Newfoundland and then towards Britain. It brings warm air to northern Europe, a region of the earth that should normally be cool. Global warming is affecting the gulf stream. Warm air melts the polar ice caps and sends chunks of ice into the sea. This cools the water in the north and counteracts the warming effect of the gulf stream.
  4. El Niño and La Niña. Periodically, major changes in the global weather pattern occur because of the changes in the temperature of the Pacific ocean surface water near the coast of Peru.
    Normally, cold air from the arctic and Antarctic circle converges at the equator off the coast of Peru and heads west towards Indonesia. If it is stalled by a high pressure system over Indonesia, the cold air stops flowing and water near Peru heats up. The opposite happens with La Niña. Changes in the Peru current (Humboldt current) creates the cyclical changes in weather pattern.

LocationName AppearanceComposition
High Cirrus White filaments Ice crystals.
(6,500-23,000 feet
or 2,000-7,000 meters)
Cirrocumulus Small Ripples
Cirrostratus Transparent sheets
Medium Altocumulus White, layered ripples Ice crystals and water droplets.
(18,000-45,000 feet
or 5,500-14,000 meters)
Altostratus Thin, grey layer
Nimbostratus Thick, low, dark with rain or snow
Low Stratocumulus White, layered rolls Water droplets.
(6,500 feet
or 2,000 meters)
Stratus Grey, layered sheets
Cumulus Vertical towers
Cumulonimbus Cauliflower shaped towers and anvil tops. Thunder storm, ice crystals, snow, rain
Pyrocumulus Produced by fires, volcano and industries when they cause the air to heat up with a lot of moisture and no wind
Creation This is a representation of the second day of creation.
God is separating the waters that are part of Himself. The lower layers will remain to form the seas and the upper layers will remain with Him. They form the heavens that cover our universe. They are not the clouds we see. Our sky is only a little representation of what it looks like if God hovered over us.

Just as a baby is surrounded by amniotic fluid in the womb, our universe was born out of the waters of God.
Fast Facts! March 25, 2000. The USA "IMAGE" satellite is the first weather satellite for space storms. It studies the effects of solar wind on the earth's magnetic sphere.
When water condenses (forms liquid) it is called different things depending on where it forms.

Clouds bring much of the weather we experience. There are different formations of clouds. A cloud is a collection of water droplets or ice crystals. They are formed when water evaporates from the surface of the earth. As this moist air rises it expands and cools because of the lower pressure of the upper atmosphere. Cooler air holds less water.

Clouds are named based on their appearance, contents and the altitude (height) at which they form. They have at least one of the following characteristics in their appearance.

Clouds are named by combining the descriptions of several of these features.

Pyrocumulonimbogeostratus Megacell. This is the name we created for the cloud that surrounds God. It is a huge fire producing system of clouds that covers the earth and rains fire.
God always describes Himself as being surrounded with fire, clouds, rainbow, a blue floor and elements from the weather. He is His own gigantic weather system. Lightning and thunder come from His throne. This weather system can rain fire and stone.
What would you name it?

Smog. A cloud formation that has occurred since the twentieth century because of the burning of fossil fuels in cars and electric plants. It is a mixture of exhaust gases, dust and moisture in the air that generally forms over big cities situated in valleys. In these locations, the air is not easily refreshed by winds. The air remains trapped in the valleys because it cannot get over the high mountains. So, since these clouds of pollution can travel thousands of miles, this same problem causes pollution to be trapped in the mountains, forests and national parks.

The air quality changes because of the amount of modern pollution in the atmosphere from automobiles and factories. This caused scientists to develop a system to measure the air quality. It was necessary because ozone damages the lungs and quickly affects the breathing of people with respiratory illnesses. On hot summer days when there is no rain, the air quality becomes the most dangerous. Five causes of pollution are measured.
Air Quality Index
Color CodeAQI Category
Green1 - 50 Good
Yellow51 - 100 Moderate
Orange101 - 150 Unhealthy for sensitive people
Red151 - 200 Unhealthy for all
Purple201 - 300 Very Unhealthy
Maroon301 - 500 Hazardous
Fast Facts! Sulfur Dioxide. Over 69.4% is produced by industrial combustion. 3.7% is caused by transportation.
Fast Facts! Oxides of Nitrogen. Transportation causes 43% of this pollution. Industry causes 32%
Career Environmentalist. Protects the environment through public awareness and legal action
Career Human Rights Monitor. Protects exploited people through public awareness and legal action
Instrument Eudiometer. Measures air purity

  1. Ground level Ozone (O3). Ozone in the upper atmosphere protects the planet from ultraviolet radiation, but it is hazardous near the surface. Remember "Ozone is good up high, bad near by". Ozone is created as the pollution interacts with the sun. Therefore, levels are higher in the summer.
  2. Particulate Matter (soot and dust). These are tiny solid particles suspended in the air.
  3. Carbon Monoxide (CO).
  4. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2). Creates acid rain with sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
  5. Oxides of Nitrogen (NO and NO2). Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. They attack the respiratory system and damage the ozone. They create acid rain with nitric and nitrous acid (HNO3 and HNO2).

    Acid Rain. A cloud of smog produces acid rain which kills lakes and forests. Any precipitation with pH less than 5.6 is acid rain. This rain kills young fishes and insects, pine needles and strips the wax coat from a leaf. Animals who eat insects die when their food supply is gone. Fish die when their young babies do not grow up. Acid reacts with minerals in the soil and strips away the nutrients that plants need. It also releases heavy metals that are normally trapped by the soil.

Climate Change: Pollution has contributed to several global effects on our planet.

As this information becomes more political than scientific, proponents offer up information that is designed to ignore the warming trend and stop efforts to start making personal changes before it is too late.

Palmer Drought Index
Color CodeRain fall Category
Maroon-4.0 or less Extreme drought
Red-3.0 -3.9 Severe drought
Orange-2.0 -2.9 Moderate drought
White-1.9 - 1.9 Near normal
Light Green2.0 - 2.9 Moist
Green3.0 - 3.9 Very Moist
Dark Green4.0 + Extremely Moist
Precipitation falls from clouds to the ground in several forms.
  1. Rain. Water or other liquid
  2. Snow. Small ice crystals
  3. Sleet. Icy Rain
  4. Hail. Chunks of ice
When precipitation falls in a large volume or at a fast rate it creates a storm. A persistent lack of precipitation over time creates drought. The Palmer index measures water balance by considering supply, demand and loss. That is precipitation, transpiration and evaporation and run off.
Fast Facts! Ten inches (25 cm) of snow can contain 0.10 to four inches of water (.25-10 cm).
With strong winds, ten inches of snow contains about one inch of water.
Instrument Hyetometer, Udometer. Measures rainfall

Tropical Cyclones. A low pressure system originating in the tropics with thunderstorms and a circulation of winds near the Earth's surface around the low pressure. They are classified by the wind speed. The Atlantic storm season occurs between June 1 and November 30.
They form in the region that is 5º to 30º latitude for these reasons.

  1. Moisture. They are close enough to the warm waters of the equator to gain moisture.
  2. Rotation. Only at that location does the rotation of the earth cause the air mass to get a spin. The radius of the earth in that region changes sharply. Therefore, the wider end spins at a slower rate. The difference in spin at both ends of the cloud causes the air mass to rotate.

There are three categories of cyclones based on the wind speed.

  1. Tropical Depressions. Have winds of less than 17 metres a second or 38 miles per hour (mph).
  2. Tropical Storms. Have winds between 17 and 33 metres a second or 39-73 mph.
  3. Hurricane. A tropical storm in the Atlantic with wind speed over 33 metres per second, 119 kph or 74 miles per hour. They form in waters in the ocean that are about 80º between latitude 5º and 30º and move west then north. Hurricanes that are south of the equator spin in a clockwise direction, while those in the north spin in the opposite direction.

    Storm Names. They are named by the region in which they originate. Hurricanes in the Pacific Ocean are assigned a different set of names than Atlantic storms. Tropical storms are given names in alphabetical order and alternate between masculine and feminine names. This list rotates every six years for each regional group.

    High speed tropical storms which originate in other oceans also have different titles.

Funnel Cloud. A funnel cloud is a vortex of condensed water vapor and air spinning at high velocity.

Tornado or Twister. A huge, swirling vortex of rapidly rotating air that contacts the ground. It is caused by a rotating storm system rather than by local wind rotation. It is called a funnel if it does not contact the ground. When it forms on the water it is called a water spout. They are formed during a thunderstorm.
The storm is rated on the Fujita Scale. While hurricanes may be hundreds of miles wide, a tornado may only be 150 feet wide and move across the surface at about 0-60 mph for about five minutes causing damage to a path up to 100 miles (160 km).
Saffir-Simpson Scale of Hurricane Strength
Fujita Scale
(Tornado Wind Speed)
Old Scale New
  #  Mph KphMph
F040-72 64-116 65-85
F173-112 117-18086-110
F2113-157 181-253111-135
F3158-206 254-331136-165
F4207-260 332-418166-199
F5261-318 419-511> 200
F6> 318 > 511-
The 2007 new scale is called the enhanced Fujita scale.
F12 is the speed of sound.
A cyclone is a storm with winds that swirl around a central eye.

Wind direction is counter clockwise (west to east) in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise (east to west) in the Southern Hemisphere.
Estimates Property Damage and Flooding by Category
#Mph Kph Surge Damage
5 > 155 > 249 18 ft Most roofs, curtain walls, all trees
4131-155 210-249 13-18 Curtain walls, small home roofs
3111-130 178-209 9-12 Mobile homes destroyed
296-110 154-177 6-8 Doors, windows, roof material,
mobile homes
174-95 119-153 4-5 Trees, unanchored mobile home
- 35-73 56-118 0-3 Tropical Storm. Flooding, trees
-< 35 < 56 < 3 Tropical Depression. Flooding
Fast Facts! Jupiter. The great red spot on Jupiter is caused by a permanent hurricane. It is 340 years old and 2 to 3 times wider than earth.
Fast Facts! Saturn. A storm 5000 miles (8000 km) wide, swirling at 350 mph (560 kph) with clouds between 20-45 miles (30-75 km) high was discovered at the south pole in 2006. It has a central eye and eye walls like a hurricane.
Fast Facts! Mars. Dust storms can cover over two thirds of the planet and last for months.
Fast Facts! On March 25, 2004 a tropical cyclone, Catarina, formed in the south Atlantic for the first time since satellite observations began. It struck Brazil on March 28. There has been only one other cyclone in the south Atlantic, and it stayed out at sea.
Career Carpenter. Builds homes, furniture, wood structures
Career Mason. Builds structures using stone, bricks, cement
Career Plumber. Installs pipes and ducts to carry air and water
Career Electrician. Installs electrical systems and wiring
Career Architect. Designs houses and buildings
Career Interior Designer. Decorates with color, furniture
Career Sanitation Engineer. Garbage management
Career Civil Engineer. Designs roads and bridges

Tornado Alley. The region in the central United States where tornadoes are common. The land in the Great Plains in northern and central Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska is very flat, and allows cold dry polar air from Canada to meet warm moist tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico. Tornadoes are formed by the thunderstorms along the front between these two air masses.
Hazardous Weather Alerts
WarningConditions are occuring or will occur in 24 hours
WatchConditions are favorable for development in 24-36 hours
AdvisoryConditions are occurring, imminent or likely
Severe Weather StatementImportant information on the progress of the weather
OutlookHazardous weather may occur in several days
Some of the tornadoes in the southern states such as Florida, South Carolina, and Georgia are caused by hurricanes.

The Seasons
The Six Seasons
MonthNorthern Hemisphere EquatorSouthern Hemisphere
Pole Temperate Tropics TropicsTemperate Pole
- Solstice -Equinox-Solstice -
(low) Lower Temperature Rain Belt Temperature Lower (low)
3March Night Winter Dry Dry Sun over equator
Wet Dry Summer Day
Equinox DaySpringAutumn Night
4April South
5May South
6 June
Solstice Sun far north
Dry Winter
8August Dry
9September DrySun at equator
Equinox NightAutumnSpring Day
10October Rain
11November Wet
Solstice Winter Dry Sun far south
CountriesAlaska Russia, EuropeIndia, CaribbeanS. Asia Argentina, Australia
North America, ChinaIsrael, Africa Africa, South America, Chile
Temperate Climate1 Autumn
Tropical Climate5 Wet
(rainy, green, monsoon)
6Dry Cool
Dry Hot
Sun Follow the Sun.
When the sun is directly overhead, there are long days, hot summers, high humidity or rainy season.
Sun Solstice. Sun is farthest north (summer solstice) or south (winter solstice) and hot weather occurs.
Sun Equinox. Sun is directly over the equator. Day and night are equal length. This occurs in spring and autumn.
The seasons are the result of the 23.45º tilt of the Earth's axis and angle at which the sun's rays strike the earth and the location of the sun, not our distance from the sun. This affects the number of daylight hours and the angle of the rays of the sun as they strike the earth and the amount of rainfall.

There are six seasons which are created by the action of the sun affecting temperature and rain. This mix of seasons is dependent on the heat cycles in three basic locations, the northern hemisphere, southern hemisphere and the equator.

Instruments Weather Instruments Meteorologists use many types of instruments to measure temperature, water vapor, pressure and wind speed and direction.

Continents and oceans
The Biggest in the World
CategoryPlace Size (km2)
ContinentAsia 44,579,000
IslandAustralia 7,617.930
CountryRussia 6,592,846
DesertSahara 3,500,000
MountainEverest 8850m (29035ft)
OceanPacific 155,557,000
SeaSouth China 2,974,600
LakeCaspian Sea 371,000
RiverNile 6,825 km
The map shows the continents, oceans, air flow that affects weather, tectonic plates and the ring of fire around the Pacific ocean
Tectonic Plates There are seven large plates and twenty small onesFaults
Continental and Oceanic Plates
cNorth American
hSouth American
See another map.
gNazcaWest coast of South America
iJuan de FucaWest coast of the USA
jScotiaBelow South America
kCocosWest coast of Central America
mArabianArabia, Sinai Peninsula
oCaribbeanCentral America and the Caribbean Sea
Faults on the ring of fire.
  • Java Trench - Curve near Indonesia
  • Aleutian Trench - Alaska to Russia
  • Marianas Trench - Mariana Island
        Challenger Deep - Deepest point (11,000 meters)

    Faults at the junction of the plates.
  • San Andreas Fault - Pacific plate. California
  • Nojima - Japan
  • East Pacific Rise - Nazca and Pacific
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge - African and North American
  • Cascadia Subduction Zone - West USA
  • Instruments Fathometer. Measures under water depth with sound Instruments Bathymeter. Maps contours of deep oceans

    Earth Statistics
    Population : Annual growth rate = 1.3%
      » 2007 = 6,602,224,175 (July)
      » 2002 = 6,233,821,945
    Physical Characteristics
      » Weight = 5,940 x 1018 metric tons.
      » Circumference at the equator (40,066 km)
      » Diameter at the equator (12,753 km)
      » The earth orbits the Sun at (66,700 mph), (107,320 km per hour)
      » The earth orbits the Sun every 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds
    Surface Area (510,066,000 km2)
      » Land Area (148,647,000 km2) 29.1%
      » Water Area (361,419,000 km2) 70.9%
    Ocean Water Volume (1.37 x 109 km3)
      » Polar Ice Caps (3.3 x 107 km3)
      » Glaciers (2 x 105 km3)
      » Lakes (1 x 105 km3)
      » Rivers (1.2 x 103 km3)
      » Precipitation (2.2 x 105 km3)
    The Earth is only 6000 years old. Its surface is 70.9% water and 29.1% land.
    There are imaginary lines on the earth that help us to locate any place on the globe.

    Land Water
    The earth is divided into seven large bodies of land called continents. Smaller areas are called islands.
    Continents of the World 2002 Statistics
    #Continent Size
    103 km2
    1North America 24,256 23 483 McKinley
    6194m (20320ft)
    2South America 17,819 12 342 Aconcagua
    6959m (22831ft)
    3Africa 30,065 53 778 Kilimanjaro
    5963m (19563ft)
    4Europe 9,938 43 732 Elbrus
    5633m (18481ft)
    5Asia 44,579 47 3,674 Everest
    8850m (29035ft)
    6Australia (Oceania) 7,687 14 31 Puncak Jaya
    4884m (16023ft)
    7Antarctica 13,209 0 0 Vinson Massif
    4897m (16066ft)
    Facts Eurasia. The joined continents of Europe and Asia
    Career Politician. Rules countries and makes laws

    Major Islands of the World
    #Island Size km2
    1Australia 7,617,930
    2Greenland 2,175,600
    3New Guinea 792,500
    4Borneo 725,500
    5Madagascar 587,000

    Major Deserts of the World
    #DesertLocation Size km2
    1Sahara North Africa 3,500,000
    2Arabian Middle East 1,000,000
    3Gobi China 500,000
    4Patagonian Argentina 260,000
    5Great Victoria Australia 250,000
    6Great Basin United States 190,000

    Tallest Mountains of the World
    #MountainLocation Height (M)
    1Mauna Kea Hawaii 10203m (33476 ft). If measured from its base in the sea.
    2Mount Everest Nepal 8850m (29035ft)
    3Qogir Pakistan 8611m (28250ft)
    4Kangchenjunga Nepal 8586m (28169ft)
    5Lhotse Nepal 8501m (27920ft)
    6Makalu 1 Nepal 8462m (27765ft)
    There are five oceans. 70.9% of the surface of the earth is covered with water. salt water (97%), fresh water (3%)
    Oceans of the World
    #Ocean Size (103km2)
    (km6 miles2)
    Deepest Point (Feet)
    1Pacific (155,557), 64 Mariana Trench (35,827)
    2Atlantic (76,762), 33 Puerto Rico Trench (30,246)
    3Indian (68,556), 28 Java Trench (24,460)
    4Southern (20,327), 7 South Sandwich Trench (23,736)
    5Arctic (14,056), 5 Eurasia Basin (18,456)
    Career Oceanographer. Studies oceans
    Instrument Thalassometer. Instrument for measuring tides
    Seas of the World
    #Sea Size (km2)Location
    1South China 2,974,600 Vietnam
    2Caribbean 2,515,900 West Indies
    3Mediterranean 2,510,000 South Europe
    4Bering 2,261,100 Russia, Alaska
    5Gulf of Mexico 1,507,600 Texas, Mexico
    6Arabian 1,498,320 Saudi Arabia
    7Sea of Okhotsk 1,392,100 East Russia
    8Sea of Japan
    (East Sea)
    1,012,900 Korea, Japan
    9Hudson Bay 730,100 North Canada
    10East China 664,600 North Taiwan
    11Andaman 564,900 West Thailand
    12Black 507,900 North Turkey
    13Red 453,000 Egypt, Israel
    Career Marine Biologist. Studies sea life
    Rivers of the World
    #River (km) Location
    1Nile 6,825 Africa
    2Amazon 6,437 South America
    3Chang Jiang (Yangtze) 6,380 Asia
    4Mississippi 5,971 North America
    5Yenisey-Angara 5,536 Asia
    6Huang (Yellow) 5,464 Asia
    7Ob-Irtysh 5,410 Asia
    8Amur 4,416 Asia
    9Lena 4,400 Asia
    10Congo 4,370 Africa
    11Mackenzie-Peace 4,241 North America
    12Mekong 4,184 Asia
    13Niger 4,171 Africa
    Equipment Scuba. Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus

    Geography Project: Build Pangea or the New Jerusalem land forms
    Career Cartographer. Map maker
    The continents of Australia, India, South America, Africa, and Antarctica, existed together as a single land floating on aquifers (underground rivers and lakes) before the flood. There were no large bodies of water like our oceans and at that time there was no rain. A mist used to come from the earth and water the plants.

    According to the Bible, during the flood the foundations of the earth burst open and water came out. It was during this time that the continents probably broke apart. The Bible says that 100 years later the land was divided. People separated according to language. The earth probably was drifting apart. Native Americans could have easily gone from the Middle East to the American continent.

    The earth seems to have tilted approximately 4,000 years ago, at about the same time as the flood. It still has a wobble, suggesting that it was struck with great force. Science might explain this tilting as a result of an impact from an asteroid, and Creationists might explain the tilting by the action of God. At the time of the flood, God might have sent a great asteroid that struck the earth and broke the foundations and weakened the land along the lines of the plates and broke apart into the continents. Water from below rushed up to the surface and flooded the earth.

    Evolutionists call this super continent Pangea. It is made from Gondwana in the south and Laurasia in the North. Pangea broke up into Gondwana (or Gondwanaland) which included South America, Africa, Antarctica, India, and Australia, Florida and part of southwest Europe. Laurasia is made up of North America, Europe and Asia.

    Australia is now moving away from Antarctica and is moving north towards Asia at about six centimetres per year and will be a part of Asia in about 40 million years.
    But the Second Coming will change all this. In about 1000 years, the Earth will be recreated and will probably be one land floating on the sea. Australia will not crash into China.
    Earth Sciences Geography is the study of the land. Oceanography is the study of the oceans. Geology is the study of rocks and minerals. Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere.

    Earthquake Classification Proof

    Scientific Observation
    StrengthMagnitude Frequency
    Great9+ 1 / decade
    8+ 1
    Major7 - 7.9 17
    Strong6 - 6.9 134
    Moderate5 - 5.9 1319
    Light4 - 4.9 13,000
    Minor3 - 3.9 130,000
    Very Minor 2 - 2.9 1,300,000
    The Largest Earthquake. The Earth is recovering from a wobble. By applying mathematical calculations that are based on causing a wobble in a spinning toy, it has been shown that this wobble occurred about 4000 years ago. Around the same time as the flood.

    The wobble was probably caused during the flood by an asteroid striking the earth and breaking the crust. This broke the tectonic plates, tilted the earth and caused huge tsunamis.
    Career Seismologist. Studies earthquakes
    Instrument Seismometer. Measures earthquake intensity
    Earthquakes are caused by the shifting plates under the surface of the earth or by the movement of magma (melted rock that comes from volcanoes). Most plates travel at speeds of between 1 and 15 cm per year. When they move by each other, they cause an earthquake.

    Fault Lines. A break in the Earth along which movement occurs at the plates.

    Plate Tectonics. The theory that relates most of the geologic features near the Earth's surface (Mountains, earthquakes and volcanoes) to the movement and interaction of thin plates of rock. There are four basic plate movements.

    Tsunami. A large tidal wave caused by an underwater earthquake exceeding magnitude 7.5, underwater landslide, volcanic eruption, impact from a meteorite, or the impact caused by large rocks falling from a mountain into the sea. Land slides from volcanic islands are the most likely of these.

    Liquefaction. It occurs when soil behaves more like a liquid than a solid when it is saturated with water and loses it's strength and stiffness due to an earthquake or rapid increase in water pressure.

    The source through which molten rock flows out to the surface of the earth in the form of lava. Volcanoes are a conical hill or mountain built around a vent that connects with reservoirs of molten rock below the surface of the earth. They are built by the accumulation of the particles that erupt from them. These are lava (melted flowing rocks), bombs (crusted over ash flows), and tephra (airborne ash and dust).
    Lava exits the volcano through a central vein or through side fissures. Sometimes the lava solidifies in the side veins and form dikes. These support and strengthen the volcano. There are four types of volcanoes.
    1. Magma.
    2. Ejected Particles.
      1. Lava.
      2. Bombs.
      3. Tephra.
    3. Other Flows.
      1. Pryoclastic flow.
      2. Mud flows.
    Fast Facts! Olympus Mons, on Mars, is the tallest volcano in the solar system. It is a shield volcano that rises 24 km (78,000 feet). The base is more than 700 km in diameter.
    Fast Facts! There are about ten active volcanoes every day around the world.
    Career Volcanologist. Studies volcanoes

    Volcano products.

    Geology: The Earth
    Day 3
    Everything was still covered by water. On the third day God separated the water from the earth. He created the land and the trees. This includes grass, flowers, fruits and vegetables.
    Sea, Earth (Clay) and Trees Sodium was available so salt could have contaminated the water.
    Magnesium was available to make chlorophyll for trees.
    Sodium aluminium silicates make clay (Al, Mg, Fe) SiO2, SO4.


    Scientific Observation
    Scientists actually observed this!
    Surtsey Island. In November 1963, this island formed from a volcanic eruption and had mature beaches within months, not millions of years.
    Turbidity Currents. These under water mud flows show that the layers in the geologic column can form in minutes or days, not millions of years as evolutionists say.
    They prove that the layers of the geologic column could have been formed by the flood.
    Career Geologist. Studies the earth and rocks
    Career Archaeologist. Studies old buried objects
    Hobby Spelunker. Explores caves
    Geology The study of the earth and minerals.

    Scientists recognize three types of rocks.

    1. Igneous. Crystallize from magma.
    2. Metamorphic. Forms when existing rock is changed by temperature, pressure or chemicals.
    3. Sedimentary. Form by erosion of preexisting rock. This sediment turns into rock. This type of rock was made by the flood as water eroded existing rock and soil and mixed with the bones of the dead creatures.
      Granite - Genesis Rock

      Scientific Experiments
      Dr. Robert Gentry studied granite rock and discovered that pleochroic haloes trapped in the rock were formed in less than three minutes. Probably 1.5 minutes. Therefore, he concluded that granite changed from a liquid to a solid form in less than three minutes.
      Granite rock did not cool over millions of years. It cooled in three minutes!
      Evolutionists are hoping that they can find another explanation for this. Because, if granite is reheated it forms another type of rock called rhyolite when it is cooled. So all the granite we see is in its original form on the day it was made.
    4. Genesis Rock. Creationists recognize a fourth type of rock which does not fit any of the categories above. Granite is a rock which existed at creation. It cannot be formed by any of the three classifications. When granite is heated and cooled, it forms rhyolite. Therefore, any existing granite could not come from melted magma.

    How did the sedimentary rock layers form? The creationists claim that all we see is a result of the flood. Evolutionists claim that all these layers were formed over trillions of years.

    The discovery of turbidity currents changed this. They are only formed under water when large layers of mud slide across each other like an avalanche, building up layers in hours or days that scientists thought took millions of years.

    Precious Stones
    Gems are rare and so they are expensive. They are also prized because of their beautiful color. Diamond is made from carbon, the same element as coal. But, the diamond forms a crystal structure while coal is a random formation of the element. There are three sources of natural gems (animal, plant and minerals):

    Animal Sources. Organic source of pearl, coral and ivory.

    1. Ivory. It is the bone from elephants and rhinoceras tusks.
    2. Pearl. It is made from fresh water or salt water oysters. A pearl starts out as a bit of dirt or garbage or something foreign that is annoying the oyster. The oyster responds by secreting a substance to encase the piece of dirt. It eventually grows into a round substance we call pearl. The response of the oyster reminds us of how our immune system cells responds to a foreign object in our body.
      Gem Gem Family Color Sample
      Sapphire Corundum Blue Sapphire
      Ruby Corundum Red Ruby
      Diamond Carbon Clear Diamond
      Emerald Beryl Green Emerald
      Aquamarine Beryl Blue-green Aquamarine
      Alexandrite Chrysoberyl Blue, red Alexandrite
      Amethyst Quartz Lavender Amethyst
      Citrine Yellow, orange Citrine
      Ametrine Purple, yellow Ametrine
      Rose quartz Pink Rose Quartz
      Onyx Chalcedony
      Rainbow stripes Onyx
      Sardonyx Red stripe Sardonyx
      Chrysoprase Green Chrysoprase
      Chalcedony Blue Chalcedony
      Agate Blue stripe.
      Many colors
      Garnet Garnet Dark red Garnet
      TanzaniteGarnet Dark Blue Tanzanite
      Iolite - Blue - purple Iolite
      Peridot Olivine Golden green Peridot
      Spinel Spinel Red Spinel
      Topaz Topaz Orange Topaz
      Tourmaline Tourmaline Blue Tourmaline
      Turquoise Turquoise Sky blue Turquoise
      Jade Jade Green Jade
      Opal Opal Rainbow Opal
      Pearl - Pink Pearl
      Palm Wood - Brown, Spotted Pearl
    3. Coral. It is calcium carbonate. It is formed from the calcified skeletons of sea creatures that grow in formations resembling the branches of a tree.

    Minerals. They are made from chemicals (atoms or molecules) which harden to form a crystal. There are several groups of mineral gemstones.

    1. Beryl. Be3Al2(SiO3)6. Beryl is normally colorless and the impurities give the different varieties its color.
      Emerald. green beryl Be3Al2Si6O18.
      Aquamarine. blue
      Beryl. red and golden versions
      Goshenite. colorless
      Morganite. pink
      Heliodor. greenish yellow
    2. Corundum. Al2O3
      Ruby. red color caused by chromium
      Sapphire. usually blue, but can be any color
    3. Olivine. (Mg, Fe)2SiO4
      Peridot. green, sometimes called chrysolite
    4. Quartz. SiO2 comes in different shades of purple. Formed from one crystal or microcrystals:
      Amethyst. purple
      Citrine. yellow - orange
      Milky Quartz. cloudy white
      Smoky Quartz. brown to grey
      Rose Quartz. pink to reddish pink
      Rock crystal. clear
      Tiger's Eye. Brown with gold yellow band
      Chalcedony. Formed from several microcrystals.
      Chalcedony, Jasper, Flint, Cert and crystalline quartz are all types of quartz.
    5. Garnet. A3B2(SiO4)3
      Almandine. Fe3Al2(SiO4)3 - reddish brown to brown
      Pyrope. Mg3Al2(SiO4)3 - dark red
      Spessartine. Mn3Al2(SiO4)3 - orange, pink, brown
      Uvarovite. Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3 - green
      Andradite. Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3 - brown, black, green
      Grossular. Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 - colorless, orange, green
    6. Topaz. Al2SiO4(F, OH)3 Colors are clear, yellow, orange, red, blue and green
    7. Zircon. ZrSiO4
    8. Feldspar. A group of aluminosilicate minerals that contain calcium, sodium, or potassium. They make up more than 50 percent of the Earth's crust.
    9. Other Gem Families. Spinel, Tourmaline, Chrysoberyl, Opal, Diamond, Jade, Peridot, Turquoise, Lapis Lazuli
    Gem Family FormulaHard Color Gem Stones
    2Diamond C 10White, gray, black, blue -
    3 Quartz SiO2 7
    Amethyst Heliotrope JasperCitrine
    AgateRose QuartzMorion Onyx
    Carnelian ChalcedonyChrysoprase
    Brown, violet, colorless, gray, yellow
    3Opal SiO2•1.5(H2O)5.5-6.5
    Water Opal Fire Opal
    White Opal Black Opal
    White, yellow, red, brown, blue
    3 Corundum Al2O39 Blue, red, yellow, brown, gray
    3 Spinel MgAl2O4 8
    Spinel Almandine Spinel Balas RubyRubicelle
    Chlorspinel Ghanospinel Sapphire Spinel
    Colorless, red, blue, green, brown
    3Chrysoberyl BeAl2O4 8.5 Blue green, brown, brownish green, green, gray
    AlexandriteCat's Eye
    3 Beryl Be3Al2(SiO3)6 7.5-8
    EmeraldAquamarine Goshenite
    HeliodoreMorganite Red Beryl
    Green, blue, yellow, pink, colorless
    3 Topaz Al2SiO4(F, OH)3 8Colorless, pale blue, yellow, yellowish brown, red
    3Tourmaline NaMg3A16(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)4 7-7.5
    Tourmaline Rubellite Siberite Achorite
    Dravite IndicoliteVerdilite Brazilian Emerald
    3Peridot Mg2SiO4 (Forsterite) 7Colorless, green, yellow, yellow green
    4 (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 (Olivine) 6.5-7Yellowish green, olive green, greenish black, reddish brown
    3 Garnet A3B2(SiO4)3
    Mg3 Al2(Si3O12) (Pyrope),
    Pyrope-AlmandineGarnetChrome Pyrope AlmandineHessonite
    Tanzanite- Rhodolite Color Change Garnet
    GrossularPyropeMalaia Topazolite Spessartine
    Pyrope-SpessartineAndraditeDemantoid Tsavorite Uvarovite
    4 Fe3 Al2(Si3O12) (Almandine),
    Mn3 Al2(Si3O12) (Spessartine),
    Ca3 Al2(Si3O12) (Grossular),
    Ca3 Fe2(Si3O12) (Andradite),
    Ca3 Cr2(Si3O12) (Uvarovite)
    4 Feldspar (K, Na, Ca)(Si, Al)4O86-6.5
    4Jade Ca2(Mg,Fe++)5Si8O22(OH)2 6Green, green black, gray green, black
    4Turquoise CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8•4(H2O) 5-6Blue, blue green, green, green gray, light blue
    4Lapis Lazuli Na3CaAl3Si3O12S 5.5 Blue, azure blue, violet blue, greenish blue
    5 Zircon ZrSiO47.5 Brown, reddish brown, colorless, gray, green

    Plant Sources. Organic source of amber, diamond and jet. Petrified wood is fossilized wood that has had its organic matter replaced by agate.

    1. Amber. It is the fossilized resin of ancient pine trees which trapped seeds, leaves, feathers and insects and over time the resin hardened into a soft, warm, golden gem, known as amber.
    2. Jet. It is black, shiny fossilized coal. When trees fell into the swamps the water logged trunks sank and compressed. In fresh water, soft jet was formed. Salt water formed hard jet.
    3. Diamond. Made from carbon arranged in a cubic structure, hardness of 10. Carbon is the same element that makes coal and the graphite in pencils. It is the hardest known substance, four times harder than corundum. Carbon has other allotropes (different forms of the same chemical created by a different internal physical structure).
      » Graphite. A hexagonal structure of carbon. Iron black, dark gray, black, steel gray color, hardness is 1.5 to 2.
      » Chaoite. A hexagonal structure of carbon. Dark grey color, hardness is 1 to 2.
      » Fullerite. Black, brown color and 3.5 hardness.
      » Lonsdaleite. The heat and stress of a meteorite impact transforms the graphite into a hexagon shaped diamond, brownish black, light brownish yellow color and hardness is 7 to 8.
    4. Petrified Wood. There are three types. Silicified wood has a wood grain pattern. Palm wood, from palm trees, looks different depending on the angle of the cut. It may be spotted, or have lines. Massive silicified wood has so much wood replaced with silica that a wood grain pattern cannot be recognized.

    The Gems Of Heaven. The walls of the city of New Jerusalem and the breastplate of the high priest are made of twelve different gem stones. Some of these names are unknown, but some people have guessed which gem they might be. Agate is usually striped blues or earth tones. Chrysoprase is apple green chalcedony. The shade of green is due to nickel. Carbuncle is a red garnet. Carnelian is a red chalcedony.
    The colors may be incorrect because some of these names are no longer used and because some stones have more than one color variety.
    If the colors are correct, the walls of the city appear to have a green and blue foundation (or these are new colors that we do not know) then they progress in the order of the rainbow.

    # New Jerusalem Son Breastplate of the High Priest
    12Amethyst Purple 1 Reuben Ruby Red The order of the stones is pictured from right to left since this is the order in which the Jews read and write.
    Emerald Topaz Ruby
    Diamond Sapphire Turquoise
    Amethyst Agate Jacinth
    Jasper Onyx Beryl

    Onyx - Two onyx stones called the urim and thummim were kept in the folds of the breastplate. They were used to receive answers from God.

    Lapis Lazuli - the ten commandments were carved from this blue stone Lapis Lazuli - The Ten Commandments were carved on a blue sapphire stone named Lapis Lazuli. It is one of the softest gemstones, making it perfect for writing.
    11*Jacinth Blue 2 SimeonTopaz Orange
    10*ChrysopraseGreen 3 LeviEmerald Green
    9 Topaz Orange 4 JudahTurquoiseSky Blue
    8 Beryl Blue5 DanSapphire Blue
    7 *Chrysolite Yellow 6 NaphtaliDiamond Clear
    6 *Sardius Stripes 7 Gad Jacinth Blue
    5 Sardonyx Red 8 AsherAgate Stripes
    4 Emerald Green 9 IssacharAmethyst Purple
    3 *Chalcedony Blue 10 ZebulunBeryl Blue
    2 Sapphire Blue 11 JosephOnyx Stripes
    1 Jasper Green12 BenjaminJasper Stripes
    Pearl gates Pink 2 Onyx (rainbow stripes) Stripes
    Streets Gold Furniture Gold Silver Bronze Glass

    Imagine What will your house in heaven look like? Will it float? Will it be under water? Will the roof be one large diamond or clear so that you can see the sky?
    Gold will be so common that the streets will be made from it. Precious gems are used to make walls.

    Fossil Fuels and Hydrocarbons (Oil and Natural Gas)
    Oil is called "black gold" because it is a mined resource that is highly prized. Most of our energy (81%) is produced by the three main sources of fossil fuels. These deposits of fuel are created from old trees and animals. Their existence points to their rapid burial and mass storage in fixed places by the catastrophic flood. But the bible also indicates that the region called Babylon (Iraq) had open tar pits before the flood.

    Fast Facts! Other sources of fossil fuels are heavy oils, tar sands, oil sands and oil shale, but they are more expensive to produce. The largest deposits are in Canada and in the Orinoco province of Venezuela.

    Nuclear Energy. This is renewable, but it is not suitable for vehicles and the problems of radioactive waste and disposal are enormous. The contamination lasts for 24,000 years.

    Green Fuel. These are friendly to the environment. They produce no known pollutants and are renewable. While other sources of energy are not practical for operating vehicles, or are seasonal, solar energy is clean, renewable, not labor intensive to produce and should be cheap. Most alternative fuels are designed to run mobile systems and take energy to produce. Only solar energy and electrical battery technology (stored energy) can run green power plants efficiently now.
    Thoughts to Consider. How friendly is some of this "green" fuel?
    If we rely heavily on geothermal and ocean thermal energy will we cool down or heat up the oceans and affect the thermohaline cycle, weather patterns and the marine ecosystem?
    How does growing and burning biomass deplete the soil, pollute the air and drive up the cost of basic foods as farms compete to grow crops that give a higher profit?

    Fast Facts! Biofuels and Alternative Fuels used for automobiles are mostly made from high cellulose perennial grasses and plant material like switchgrass, miscanthus, HDSR megaflora tree, algae, rice and corn. They will produce pollutants because they are carbon based. Ethanol and vegetable oil are some of the most popular fuels used. They are useful for removing waste, but not as a permanent solution for mobile fuel.
    » Megaflora Tree (HDSR). This is also called HDSR because of its high density and short rotation. It is a broad leaf tree that grows very big, very quickly. This tree grows to the full size of 60 feet (1829 cm) in 3 years and regrows from the stump after harvest. There is no need to plant again. It grows in poor soil and harsh climate and helps to reclaim damaged soil. So it is a very excellent source of biomass for fuel which does not compete with food crops.

    Fast Facts! The United States consumes 25% of the global oil supply. Yet it produces only 2% of the oil and is only 2% of the global population. The world will run out of this source of energy by the middle of the century.

    Facts Green Fuels. These are renewable, friendly to the environment and do not produce pollution.
    Facts Greenhouse Gases. Gases that trap heat. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and fluorocarbons
    Fast Facts! Photovoltaic Cell. A photovoltaic cell makes electricity from light, mostly red light dislodging electrons from silicon.
    Fast Facts! Solar Thermal Mirrors. Curved mirrors concentrate the rays of the sun and heat a tube of liquid which creates steam and moves turbines to produce electricity.

    Energy Production.
    Energy Source Type of Energy System Conversion Path
    Sun Sun Light Radiant Solar Panels
    (Photovoltaic cells)
    Light Radiant Plants Photosynthesis Sugar Power lines Alcohol Power linesHeat Power linesTurbines Power linesElectricity

    Facts Turbine. A rotary engine in which the kinetic energy of a continuous stream of moving fluid is converted into mechanical energy by turning the shaft attached to rotating blades. Water, steam, wind and gas can cause this rotation.
    Heat Thermal Solar Thermal Stored heat
    Heat Kinetic (Motion) Wind Mechanical energy
    Ocean Heat Thermal Ocean Thermal Heat
    Earth Heat Thermal Geothermal Heat
    Earth Gravity Potential Hydroelectric Mechanical energy
    Earth Chemical Electromagnetic Fossil Fuels Chemical Power lines Heat
    Atom Chemical Electromagnetic Fuel Cell Mechanical energy
    Atom Atomic Strong force Nuclear Heat
    Two main processes converts energy to electricity by driving turbines.
    Energy Source Power lines heat water Power lines drive turbines Power lineselectricity
    Energy Source Power lines mechanical rotation Power lines drive turbines Power lineselectricity

    Hydrocarbons (Fuel)
    Sources of Energy Systems
    Classification Product Source Problem Homes Cars Plants
    C1-C4Natural Gas (22.9%) Methane (CH4), Ethane, Propane, Butane Pollution, global warming, limited supply, not renewable -2-5 5 Y
    C3-C4Liquid Natural Gas (LNG). Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) -2-5 Y Y
    Petroleum (38.1%) Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) (C3H8) ---5 Y Y
    Bottled Gas. (Propane, Butane) -2-5 Y Y
    C5-C7Petroleum Ethers Very volatile ---- - -
    C6-C12Gasoline (38.1%) Petroleum (crude oil, heavy oil, tar sands, oil sands, bitumen, oil shale) ---5 Y Y
    C13-C18Diesel ---5 Y Y
    Fuel Oil -2--- Y Y
    C10-C14Kerosene Petroleum 12-5 - Y
    Jet fuel - ----- Plane -
    Paint thinner - ??--- - -
    -Coal (23.2%) Coal mining -2-5 - Y
    Garbage dump Natural Gas (Methane) (CH4) -2-5 5 Y
    Industrial waste Sawdust, nut shells, plant waste -2-5 5 Y
    Wood Trees Volume -2--- - -
    C16-C20Lubrication oils Pollution, not renewable ---- N N
    C25-C30Greases, Petroleum jelly, Parrafin wax, solids ---- N N
    C60Asphalt -- N N
    Biofuels Dung (poop) Dried cow dung, manure burned like wood Supply -2--- - -
    Biogas Cow Power. Manure makes methane Supply -2-5 Y -
    "Green Fuels"
    Ethanol Corn, sugar cane, beets (CH3CH2OH) Food supply, volume, weather ---5 Y Y
    Biomass (2.9%)
    Cellulose Ethanol
    Hay and other high cellulose perennial plant. Algae, switchgrass, miscanthus, megaflora (HDSR), rice ---5 Y Y
    Methanol (M85) Wood alcohol (CH3OH) ---5 Y Y
    E85 85% corn ethanol and 15% gasolene ---5 Y Y
    Biodiesel Vegetable and animal oils and fat Volume ---5 Y Y
    Cooking oil Recycled cooking oil Volume ---5 Y -
    Whale oil Whale. Used in the 1800's before kerosene Volume 12--- - -
    Candle Wax. Volume 1---- - -
    "Green Fuels"
    Solar Photovoltaics (.006%) Sun. It is the biggest nuclear power plant creating light and heat which can be converted to energy. Heat can be stored Darkness 123456 5 Y
    Solar Thermal mirrors - 123456 5 Y
    Wind (0.1%) Using wind with speed greater than 12 mph (19 kph) Weather 123456 5 Y
    Hydroelectric (2.7%) Water height differences Drought 123456 5 Y
    Geothermal (0.3%) Natural steam or heat sources. Hot springs, geysers Regional 12-456 5 Y
    Aquafer Natural cold water sources to cool buildings Regional 3 - N
    (OTEC) Ocean thermal Ocean thermal energy conversion. Ocean layer temperature differences of 20ºC (36ºF) Regional 123456 5 Y
    Hydrogen Fuel cells Hydrogen + Oxygen = Water + energy Supply 123456 Y Y
    Microbial Fuel cells Soil bacteria + garbage + dirt = Soil + heat Supply 1--5 N N
    Water (Hydrogen) Water + solar energy = Hydrogen fuel cell + Oxygen Supply 12345 Y Y
    Sound God used this energy to create the world Science research
    Stored Energy Generator Petroleum Volume 1234- 5 Y
    Battery Secondary source of energy that can be charged by any primary source. This may solve the disadvantage of mobility and availability of energy from green fuels Volume, size 1234- Y -
    Nuclear Uranium Atoms (8.1%) Nuclear reaction Radioactive waste 123456 5 Y
    Home Energy1 Light2 Cooking, Heating3Cooling 4Electrical appliances5Stored energy6Power plant
    Fractional Distillation separates the hydrocarbons to make sources of energy used to power stationary and mobile systems. Catalytic Cracking produces high octane gasoline.

    Fossil Fuel Independence (Alternative Fuels).
    Old SupplierGreen Energy SupplierConsumer Energy Demands Green Homes
    No good
    GeothermalOcean Thermal Sun
    Power Plant Wind
    Chemical Battery Steam
    Power lines
    Power lines
    Snow Cooling
    Emergency Generator Energy Storage Cooking
    Power lines
    Solar Panels
    Fuel Cell
    Problems. There are several problems with these new forms of energy. The ultimate system depends on a good battery design and powerful, efficient solar-electric vehicles. Power suppliers must also convert to solar, wind and steam energy.

    Alternative Fuel Infrastructure.
    Oil Germ Sun Ethanol Plant
    Product CO2
    Extract Extract
    Bran Dry Distiller's Grain
    (High Protein)
    Ideally, the best solution is a combination of solar and battery technology. Practically, unless businesses can engineer a constant flow of income from these systems, they will not develop them. Unless they can build in planned obsolescence or keep the service station model they will not support a system that will one day give the owner total independence from the energy producers. Therefore, they will invest in biofuels but not solar. Biofuels use a lot of energy in their production. Some estimate that they use more energy than they produce!. The best way to make this work is to use solar energy for processing. Manufacturers also remove the expensive bran and germ before fermenting the starch.

    What if? Since oil, coal and diamonds are carbon products created under pressure, is it possible that the oil fields have diamonds? And does the presence of diamonds indicate oil near by?
    Career Energy Development. The key to our future energy needs is the development of reliable solar energy. Therefore, one major problem to resolve is the development of small batteries that can store large amounts of energy for long periods of time or long distances and can be recharged in minutes.
    One other possible breakthrough is the development if solar panels that can be shaped and colored so that they are pleasing to the eye and blend in with existing roofing material.
    Portable Emergency Energy. Why are there no solar generators?

      Sun Trees
    Mohorovic Discontinuity
    Our world has many different worlds or biomes. There are oceans, deserts, rain forests, snow and ice, bodies of fresh water and the salt water ocean. Many different types of plants and animals were created to live in these different places. What makes them different is the temperature and the amount of water, sunlight and nutrients. With warm average temperatures and lots of water more life can be supported. With light, photosynthesis and plant growth occurs, attracting more life. The biomes exist in three zones.

    Ecosystem Temperature WaterLight Features and Location
    Desert Hot, cold Dry Sun



    North Africa, Arabia, Australia, Central and South America
    Tundra Cool Dry Barren and treeless land. They are like deserts in cold climates. They are located in the northern hemisphere near the arctic ocean
    Scrub Dry summer Wet winter Florida
    Grassland, Savannah Windy Dry Mostly grass areas between deserts and forests. They are found in central Africa, South America, India and Australia
    Coniferous Forest Cool Dry Also called taiga or boreal forest. They are a continuous belt of coniferous trees in North America and Eurasia
    Deciduous Forest Cool Wet Regions where leaves change into many colors and lose leaves in autumn. Europe, Eastern North America
    Temperate Rain Forest Cool Wet Heavy rain. Areas with evergreen conifers and broadleaf deciduous trees on the western edge of north and south America
    Tropical Rain Forest Warm Wet Jungles with broadleaf evergreen trees, vines, found around the region of the Equator at 10º North and 10º south latitude below 3000 feet
    Rhizosphere Cool Fresh Hypogean The region where soil interacts with roots
    Karst Cool, humid Fresh Formed by the underground erosion of rocks such as limestone, marble dolomite, gypsum and halite. It includes caves, sinkholes, springs, aquifers, underground streams
    Anchialine Cool, humid Fresh, salty Inland system near coastal groundwater in caves with no surface connection to the sea but affected by marine tides. Australia (Bundera sinkhole), Christmas Island
    Ground water Cool Fresh Aquifers and ground water in the water table
    Lakes, rivers, ponds Cool Fresh Intertidal Zone (Littoral)

    Shallow to deep. Flowing or still in land pools of water
    Wetlands, swamps Humid Fresh Shallow, warm wet land with large trees
    Temperate ponds Cool Fresh Shallow, inland pools of water
    Mangrove Forests Warm Shallow, salty, fresh Found mostly in the Indo-Malayan region. They catch sediment and alluvial materials promoting sediment build up in tidal areas
    Estuaries Warm - cool A semi-enclosed coastal body of water that has a measurable salinity gradient from its freshwater drainage to its ocean entrance
    Mud Flats Warm - cool Fresh, salty Mud and sandy mud exposed between the extreme high tide and extreme low tide marks. They form from the deposition of mud in sheltered tidal water, particularly in estuaries where there is a large sediment supply
    Tidal Marsh Warm - cool Fresh, salty Marine intertidal areas with soft substrate, colonized predominantly by grasses. They occur only where there is regular flooding and nearby sources of fine sediment
    » Salt marsh Salt
    » Coastal fresh Fresh
    Coastal Ocean Warm - cool Shallow, salty 10% of ocean area closest to land with 90% of species
    » Intertidal Zone Warm - cool Tidepools. Submerged in high tide and dry at low tide
    » Coral reef Warm Equator, tropics, shallow water near land
    » Kelp ForestsCold Neritic Zone
    (Open Water)
    (0-200 m)
    Brown algae growing in clear, shallow, cold coastal water
    » Fast Ice ColdIce attached to the land
    » Pack Ice ColdFloating drift ice assembled in a single mass found in the Arctic and Antarctic
    » Benthic CoolShallow, sea bottom not exposed to air but exposed to tidal currents
    » Continental Shelf Warm - Cool Shallow Gentle slope to 200 m, soft sediment, photosynthesis
    Pelagic Zone Warm Shallow, saltySunlight Zone Epipelagic zone (Euphotic zone) (0-200m 660 ft)
    »Open ocean Warm Warm water, plants, light, photosynthesis
    »Deep Sea Cool Deep, saltyTwilight Zone
    (1000 m)
    Mesopelagic zone (Dysphotic) (200-1000 m 660-3,300 ft). High pressure, low light, no photosynthesis, no plants
    »Polar Ocean Frigid Found near the arctic and antarctic circles
    » Aphotic Zone Cold 2ºC Squid
    Deep, salty, sulfur
    Midnight Zone
    (6000 m)
    Bathypelagic Zone (Aphotic) (1000- 4000 m 3300-9800 ft) Cold, dark, bioluminescence, high pressure (3 tons/inch2)
    » Abyssal zone Cold 4000-6000m
    Cold Seeps Cold Cold sulfide rich ocean water
    Benthic Zone Ocean Floor and Trenches
    Conrad Discontinuity (7.5-8.6 Km) Hadal Zone
    (11000 m)
    Seismic waves travel at a different speed above and below
    Hydrothermal Vents Hot Dense, cold waters in the deep trenches (6000-11000 m). Cracks in the ocean floor where hot, sulfide rich ocean water meets cold water and creates precipitates
    (Moho) Mohorovic Discontinuity32 Km [20 miles]The boundary between the lower crust and the upper mantle. 75 Km thick at the continental shelf and 5 Km thick at the mid-ocean ridges
    Fast Facts! Kola Peninsula. The deepest bore hole is over 12 Km deep (12262 m).
    Fast Facts! Water slows the speed of seismic waves. Perhaps the Moho is evidence of deep oceans or saturated rocks.
    Career Florist. Arranges flowers for beauty Career Farmer. Grows plants for food. Read about organic gardening here

    Trees and Flowers
    Botany The study of plants.
    People need trees to provide the air we breathe, clothes, the food we eat and to build houses. Their flowers give us beauty and fruit, and they provide shade from the sun.

    In the day light trees breathe in (inhale) carbon dioxide and breathe out (exhale) oxygen. The process is reversed at night. Animals only breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. So plants and people need each other to provide good air.

    People can make Vitamin D from the sun, but we cannot use it to provide the amount of food we need. But plants do this for us. Plants take energy from the sun, water and minerals from the earth to make fruits, seeds and nuts.

    Fruits and flowers are food to animals but they are the reproductive system of plants. It is the flowers that eventually produce fruits and seeds. These seeds grow into new plants. The parts of a plant are:

    God created some very interesting plants.
    Weird Plants
    The Walking Banyan Tree
    Fast Facts! The largest banyan tree has 1775 trunks.
    The Thomas Edison Museum in Florida has the third largest banyan tree which is over 400 feet wide. (122 meters)
    A forest of one tree. The banyan tree is a fig tree that grows in Southeast Asia and India. It has multiple branches that grow down into the ground so that they appear to look like another tree. Therefore it is called the walking Banyan tree.
    As the branch grows, it send down shoots that eventually reach the ground. They become so big that they look like a tree trunk. So the tree spreads by creating these new trunks from its branches.
    Corpse Plant It has a giant flower 6 to 9 feet tall found in Sumatra. The flower blooms every 1 to 3 years and dies after just 2 days. It smells like rotting garbage, rotten eggs or a dead animal from up to half a mile away.
    Male and female tree Most trees have flowers that contain separate male and the female parts in close proximity. These trees can reproduce by themselves. But dioecious trees grow as a separate male and female tree. The ginkgo and date palm are examples of these trees.
    Carnivorous plants Some plants like the venus flytrap and the pitcher plant eat meat! They lure insects to their death with pretty colors and a sweel smell. The venus flytrap has leaves that are shaped like a jaw and they snap shut when an insect walks in.

    The pitcher plant has a lid that can be closed when it traps an insect. mmmm soup!
    Fast Facts!Male trees give more pollen. Most cities are planted with them Career Botanist. Studies trees and plants

    Farming (Organic)
    This is the science of managing crops without using artificial seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. Adam was the first organic farmer. God gave him the task of caring for the animals and the garden and to farm the land.

    Crop Rotation.
    This does not mean that the entire field should be planted with only one crop every year. The field can be divided into different sections that grow a variety of crops, but each section must be rotated every year. Legumes make nitrates, cereals use nitrates so they should be rotated in sequence. Rotate crops by the type of family, nutrient use and depth of root system (deep or shallow).
    Rotation Method Crops
    Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7
    Cereal Three Year RyeBarleyFallow Rye (winter wheat), barley (spring oats)
    Four Field WheatBarleyTurnipsCloverWheatBarleyTurnips
    Vegetable Crops

    Two Field BeansCornBeansCornBeansCornBeans
    Five Field Grain, cornRootLeafyLegumeFallowGreen manureGrain
    Other Bean, cornLeafyRootGreen manureBeanLeafyRoot
    Seven Year Bean, cornRootCabbagePeasTomatoPumpkinFallow
    Bean, peasCornPeppersGreen manureCarrotLegumeFallow
    Fruit Crops
    Fruit Fruit do not deplete the soil easily. But cover crops can be rotated near them and compost added. Too much nutrients may promote leaf growth instead of fruit.
    The first flowers are usually male. Pollination must occur for the female flower to produce fruit. So a fruit farm requires bees or butterflies.
    Plant Families: Legumes (beans), cereal, grain, pumpkin, tomato, tarot (root), cruciferous (leafy).
    Facts Cabbage Family. Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale.
    Facts Green Peppers. They are immature peppers of the colorful varieties.
    Facts Scallion (Green Onion). Immature onions.

    Microgreens. Plants can be grown in soil and harvested in small trays indoors near well lighted windows in 7 to 14 days. Microgreens are the stems, seed leaf and first set of true leaves of the seed.
    Biblical Farming Principles. These principles are based on the Plan of Salvation.

    Companion Planting.
    While some plants can be planted near each other, other plants should not be planted close to each other or rotated in the same field in successive years.
    Crop Incompatible
    Beans Onion, beet, kohlrabi, sunflower
    Broccoli Grapes, lettuce
    Cabbage Tomato, dill, strawberry, beans
    Carrot Anise, dill, caraway
    Corn Tomato
    Cucumber Potato, sage
    Lettuce Broccoli, fava bean, rye, wheat, barley
    Onion Beans, peas, sage, rue
    Irish Potato Squash, pumpkin, zucchini, sunflower, onion, carrot, cucumber, tomato, peas, turnip, pepper, eggplant, melon, pear
    Tomato Potato, cabbage, corn, kohlrabi, fennel
    Grapes Blackberry, peach, collard, kale, radish, peas, cabbage, beans, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower
    Strawberry Cabbage
    Dill Cabbage, carrot
    Fennel Most plants
    Wormwood Most vegetables
    Facts Irish Potatoes. They should not be planted where tomatoes, peppers or eggplants grew previously.
    Sweet Potato. The enemies are not known.

    Sample Field Design
    Bed Major Crop Companion Crop
    1 Cabbage Celery, spinach, chard, lettuce, beet, grapes, mint, thyme
    2 Potato Corn, cabbage, broccoli, basil
    3 Corn Beans, peas, squash, pumpkin, watermelon
    4 Beans Corn, peas, cucumber, broccoli
    5 Pepper Carrot, cucumber, lettuce, oregano
    6 Tomato Carrot, cucumber, asparagus, basil
    7 Spinach Zucchini, celery, parsley
    8 Zucchini Lettuce, squash, peppers
    9 Onion Carrot, pepper, beet, garlic
    10 Melon Strawberry, all bush berries
    11 Strawberry Grapes, blueberry, raspberry
    12 Grapes Strawberry, blueberry, melon
    Crop Compatible
    Beans Most herbs and vegetables, eggplant, pepper
    Broccoli Beans, cucumber, tomato, potato, celery, leek, onion, garlic
    Cabbage Celery, beet, onion, spinach, chard, celery, leek, thyme, sage, mint
    Carrot Peas, lettuce, onion, tomato, leek, pepper, sage
    Cauliflower Onion, kale, chinese cabbage, sage, thyme, peppermint
    Corn Potato, beans, peas, squash, pumpkin, cucumber, melons
    Lettuce Carrot, bean, onion, radish, strawberry, cucumber, collard
    Onion Cabbage, lettuce, beet, carrot, pepper, cucumber, tomato, squash, strawberry
    Spinach Fava beans, strawberry, pea, celery, corn, cabbage, eggplant
    Peas Beans, corn, carrot, radish, turnip, cucumber
    Pepper Bean, carrot, onion, tomato, oregano, basil, spinach
    Potato Beans, corn, cabbage, brussels sprout
    Tomato Carrot, onion, cucumber, asparagus, pepper, marigold, mint, basil, borage
    Zucchini Lettuce, peppermint, peppers, corn, spinach, silver beet, squash, tomato, parsley
    Berries Grapes, lettuce, spinach, onion, tansy, nasturtium
    Grapes Strawberries, bush berries, hyssop
    Melon Corn, radish, nasturtium
    Basil Pepper, tomato, cauliflower, broccoli, beans, cabbage, kale, collard, brussels sprout
    Henbit Most plants. Insect repellant, chive
    Marigold Most plants
    Mint Cabbage, tomato, beans, broccoli, cauliflower
    Tarragon Most vegetables
    Thyme Cabbage, carrot, onion, sage, rosemary
    Facts Bush Berries. Raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, gooseberry, currants.
    Your Garden Plant an organic garden with at least three different fruit and vegetables and save seeds to plant next year. e.g. Cantaloupe, pumpkin, tomato, bell pepper.
    If you can care for your garden maybe you can care for a pet

    Experiment Grow a bean in a cup. If you split open a bean you will see a tiny baby tree inside. It has a leaf and roots.
    Imagine The Tree of Life in heaven grows on both sides of the river of life. Maybe it grows like a walking banyan tree.
    This tree grows twelve kinds of fruit. There is no other tree like this on the earth. Every month it bears a different fruit. Its leaves are edible and maybe its trunk smells nicer than the Allspice tree. Maybe it has a different smell every month.

    The Sun, Moon and Stars
    Day 4
    God created space on the second day and filled it with the planets in our solar system on the fourth day. The Bible says "He made the stars also". This could mean that He made the stars that same day, or it is simply saying that He made the stars that we can see from our earth. I believe that He made them on that day. Because He is so incredibly awesome!
    Sun and Moon God filled the fourth day with the creation of the first day. Since nucleosynthesis by burning hygrogen ends with nickel, God needed another source of light and He created the sun. The sun burns hydrogen and helium in the same process of nucleosynthesis to produce light.

    Planet Distance Diameter
    x10 22 (kg)
    Sun Sun 0 0 1392000 19891 x10 4
    Rocky Planet Mercury .387 57.9 4879 33.02
    Rocky Planet Venus .72 108.2 12104 486.85
    Rocky Planet Earth 1 149.6 12756 597.36
    » Moon 3575 7.348
    Rocky Planet Mars 1.52 227.9 6805 64.185
    The Asteroid Belt
    Dwarf Planet Ceres 2.766- 975x909 .095
    Jovian Planet Jupiter 5.2 778.3 142984189900
    Jovian Planet Saturn 9.541427.0 12053656846
    Jovian Planet Uranus 19.222869.0 511188683.2
    Jovian Planet Neptune 30.064497.1 49528 10243
    Kuiper Belt
    Dwarf Planet Pluto 39.505900.0 2390 .125
    Dwarf Planet Charon 39.405900.0 1207 .151
    Orcus 39.4- 1500?
    Ixion 39.6- 822?
    Varuna 43.0- 1060?
    2003 EL61 43.3- 1960.42
    Quaoar 43.4- 1250.1-.26
    2005 FY9 45.79- 1800 -
    Scattered Disc
    Dwarf Planet Eris 2003 UB313 68 18000 2600 ?
    Oort Cloud
    Sedna 502.013500.0 1180-1800 .17-.61
    1 astronomical unit (AU) is the distance of the earth from the sun or 149,597,870.691 Km. (92,955,807 miles)
    Geography Project: Build a three dimensional landscape of the Moon or Mars.
    Career Cosmologist. Studies the solar system.
    Career Astronomer. Studies the stars and planets.
    Instrument Telescope. Instrument for viewing distant objects

    Astronomy The study of the stars and planets and other objects in space.

    Solar System

    Solar System Pallas Sun Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Asteroid belt Storm on Jupiter Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Sedna Ceres Charon  "Xena" (2003 UB313) Quaoar  "Easter Bunny" 2005FY9 "Santa" 2003 EL61 Hermes Vesta Chiron Varuna Orcus Ixion Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud Asteroid belt
    Enter Your Weight
    What is your weight?
    It depends on the weight of the planet where you are standing.
    Enter your weight on earth and click on another planet to see what your weight would be.
    New weight
    Career Engineer. Uses science and technology to design and build systems
    There were nine planets in our solar system. Now there are eight "classical planets". Scientists redefined the word planet after recent discoveries of other large Kuiper belt objects such as 2003 UB313, which has a diameter of 2600 km, making it larger than Pluto.
    A planet is an object that orbits a star and has enough gravity to maintain a spherical shape. It must not be a star or the satellite of another planet and it must dominate its vicinity.

    Planets in our solar system are divided into these groups:

    1. Rocky Planet Terrestrial ("Rocky"). Those like the earth are small, dense and rocky with a solid surface.
    2. Gas Giants Jovian Planets ("Gas Giant"). Those like Jupiter which are large, made of gases or fluid, lighter and colder with no solid surface. They all have rings.
      "Ice Giants". They have less Hydrogen and Helium and more rock and ice.
    3. Dwarf Planet Dwarf Planet. Smaller planets. e.g. Ceres, Pluto, Charon, Xena.
      "Ice Dwarfs". Objects, like Pluto, whose composition is primarily ice.

    Exoplanets. Planets found outside our solar system.

    Moon (Natural Satellites)
    Many of these planets have other natural satellites or objects (moons) that orbit them. Some of these smaller moons have only been discovered since 2002.
    Our Moon is 384,403 Km (238,857 miles) from the Earth. It has a diameter of 3476.2 km and weighs 7.347673 x 1022 kg. It takes 27 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes to go around the earth.
    Only Triton and Titan have an atmosphere.

    Planet Year Day Natural Satellites (Moons) Rings First Space Vehicle
    Mercury 87.97 days 59 days 0 0 0 Mariner 10 (March 29, 1974)
    Venus 224.7 days 243 days 0 0 0 Venera 1 (February 12, 1961)
    Earth 365.22 days 23 hrs. 56 min. 1 Moon (Luna) 0 Sputnik (October 4, 1957)
    »Moon 27 days 7 hrs. 43 min. Luna 1 (January 2, 1959)
    Mars 686.98 days 24 hrs. 37 min. 2 Phobos, Deimos 0 Mariner 4 (July 14, 1965)
    Jupiter 4,332.7 days 9 hrs. 55 min. 63 Ganymede, Callisto, Io, Europa, Himalia, Amalthea, Thebe, Elara, Pasiphae, Metis, Adrastea, Carme, Lysithea, Sinope, Anake, Leda 4 Pioneer 10 (March 3, 1972)
    Saturn 10,759 days 10 hrs. 39 min 56 Titan, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Janus, Epimetheus, Hyperion, Phoebe, Prometheus, Pandora, Helene, Atlas, Telesto, Pan, Calypso 14 named Pioneer 11 (September 1, 1979)
    Uranus 30,685 days 17 hrs. 8 min. 27 Titania, Oberon, Umbrial, Ariel, Miranda, Puck, Portia, Juliet, Belinda, Cressida, Desdemona, Rosaline, Ophelia, Bianca, Cordelia 11 named Voyager 2 (January 24, 1986)
    Neptune 60,190 days 16 hrs. 7 min. 13 Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus, Triton, Neried. Five other moons were announced in 2004. 9 named Voyager 2 (August 24, 1989)
    Pluto 90,800 days 6 days 3 Charon, S/2005P1, S/2005P2 0 -
    Sedna 11,487 years 20-50 days 0 2003 VB12 was found on November 14 0 -
    Fast Facts! Apollo 11 (July 20, 1969). Neil Armstrong was the first human to walk on the Moon. Edwin Aldrin was the second.
    Fast Facts! Echo 1A was the first communications satellite. It was launched in 1960.
    Fast Facts! Sputnik 2 (November 3, 1957). A dog, Laika, was launched and it became the first modern creature in space.
    Fast Facts! Neptune Rotates on its side.
    Fast Facts! Chariot 1 (922 B.C.). Elijah became the first creature from Earth to travel to space in a vehicle. (2 Kings 2: 11) But Enoch and Moses travelled before him either by vehicle or by whole body transportation with clouds (rapture) like Jesus

    Galaxy Location Shape
    Milky Way Sagittarius Spiral
    Large Megellanic Cloud Irregular
    Small Megellanic Cloud Irregular
    Triffid Nebula (M20) Irregular
    Lagoon Nebula (M8) Irrugular
    Orion Nebula (M42) Orion Irregular
    M43 Irregular
    Horsehead Nebula (Omega, Swan) (M17) (IC 434) Irregular
    Flame Nebula (Christmas Tree) Irregular
    Butterfly Cluster (M6) Irregular
    Crab Nebula (M1) Taurus Elliptical
    Pleiades (M45), seven sisters Irregular
    Hyades Spiral
    Hercules Cluster (M13) Hercules Irregular
    Virgo A (M87) Virgo Elliptical
    M60 Elliptical
    Sombrero (M104) Spiral
    Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Andromeda Spiral
    M32 Elliptical
    Whirlpool (M51) Canes Venatici Spiral
    Sunflower Galaxy (M63) Spiral
    Pinwheel (M101, M102) Ursa Major Spiral
    Cigar Galaxy (M82) Irregular
    Winecke 4 (M40) Double star
    Owl Nebula (M97) Irregular
    Bode's Galaxy (M81) Spiral
    Messier 77 Cetus Spiral
    Southern Pinwheel (M83) Hydra Barred
    Antennae Corvus Irregular
    Cartwheel Sculptor Irregular
    Ring Nebula (M57) Lyra Circular
    Beehive Cluster (Praesepe) (M44) Cancer Irregular
    Triangulum Galaxy (M33) Triangulum Spiral
    Blackeye Galaxy (M64) Coma Berenices Spiral
    Dumbell Nebula (M27) Vulpecula Irregular
    Little Dumbell, Cork, Butterfly (M76) Perseus Irregular
    Eagle Nebula (M16) Serpens Irregular
    Wild Duck Cluster (M11) Scutum Irregular
    Ptolemy's Cluster (M7) Scorpius Irregular
    Outer Space Objects Comet Gaspra asteroid Milky Way Galaxy Pleiades (Seven Sisters) Phobos (Moon of Mars) Large Megellanic Cloud Deimos (Moon of Mars) Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Solar eclipse Shoemaker-Levy Comet Galaxy M32 Saturn Venus Pinwheel Galaxy
    Meteor, comet, Gaspra asteroid, Milky Way, Pleiades, Phobos (moon of Mars), Large Megellanic Cloud, Deimos (moon of Mars), Andromeda (M31), eclipse, Shoemaker-Levy comet, M32, Saturn, Venus and the Pinwheel.

    They used to be called Nebulae because of their cloudy appearance. Galaxies are huge collections of solar systems circulating in one of three definable shapes. They have a central nucleus and rotate like a solar system.
    The three known shapes are:

    1. Spiral. (Barred spiral)
    2. Elliptical.
    3. Irregular. Have no specific form because they are either single galaxies with a unique shape or colliding galaxies.

      Fast Facts! The Milky Way galaxy is 100,000 light years in diameter and interacts with two neighboring galaxies - the large and small Megellanic Clouds. The constellation Sagittarius is at the center of the Galaxy. Our solar system is located two thirds of the way out from the center of the Milky Way galaxy and our sun takes 200 million years to complete one pass around the center.
      Fast Facts! The Crab Nebula is a supernova remnant which was first observed in 1054 A.D.

    The sun is the closest star to the earth. It is a giant ball of hydrogen and helium gas that is expected to burn another five billion years and end its life by becoming a red giant when it loses its hydrogen. It will expand in size to engulf Mercury and Venus and possibly the earth. The earth will get hotter. Then it will become a white dwarf. This process might take only a few minutes! Then the earth will get darker. After it cools it becomes a black dwarf.

    Star Classification
    Stars are classified by their temperature and color. There are seven main types.
    Type Color Temperature Size (Mass-Radius) Example
    O Blue > 30,000K 6015 10 Lacerta, Zeta Puppis, Hatysa, Alnitak
    B Blue-white 10000-30000K 187 Rigel, Spica, Alnilam, Achernar, Pleiades
    A White-Blue 7500-10000K 3.22.5 Sirius, Vega, Altair, Deneb
    F Yellow-White 6000-7500 1.71.3 Procyon, Canopus
    G Light Yellow 5000-6000 1.11.1 Sun, Capella, Alpha Centauri
    K Orange-Red 3500-5000 .8.9 Arcturus, Aldebaran, Pollux, Atria
    M Red < 3500 .3.4 Betelgeuse, Antares, Proxima Centauri

    Star Location Comment
    Sun Sun Milky Way Morning and Evening Star. They are not stars. It refers to Venus and sometimes Mercury which can be seen near the sun at sunrise and sunset.
    1 Sirius Canis Major
    2 Canopus Carina Instrument NAVSTAR GPS. The Navigation System with Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR) Global Positioning System (GPS), is a series of 24 satellites launched at 20,200 km circular orbits between 22 February 1978 and 9 March 1994. By 17 November 2006 there were 31 satellites. It was developed by the US Department of Defense to provide all weather continuous navigation capabilities for military ground, sea, air forces and civilian applications.
    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A set of three satellite constellations used for navigation systems which includes GPS, GLONASS and Galileo. GLONASS is the Russian system and Galileo is a European system which will have 30 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites.
    3 Arcturus Bootes
    4 Alpha Centauri Centaurus
    5 Vega Lyra
    6 Capella Auriga
    8 Procyon Canis Minor
    7 Rigel Orion Rigel. Blue super giant and brightest star in Orion.
    Theta. A giant blue star. The brightest star in the Trapezium in the Orion Nebula.
    Betelgeuse. Red giant in Orion.
    Belt of Orion. Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka
    Sword of Orion. NGC1981, C Orionis, Orion Nebula and Hatysa.
    Polaris (Cynosura). The north star. It is at the tail of the little dipper.
    Sun. The brightest star in the sky. A yellow dwarf.
    Sirius. The brightest star in the sky. A binary star. Sirius B is a white dwarf.
    Proxima Centauri. The sun's nearest neighbour, a red dwarf, 4.2 light years away.
    Aldebaran. Orange giant that forms the eye of Taurus.
    Capella. A yellow binary star.
    Algol. Blue dwarf star in Perseus.
    Arcturus. The third brightest star in the sky.
    - Theta
    11 Betelgeuse
    13 Altair Aquila
    14 Aldebaran Taurus
    15 Antares Scorpio
    16 Spica Virgo
    19 Deneb Cygnus
    48 Polaris Little Dipper
    65 Gemma Corona Borealis
    There are over 100 billion stars in our galaxy and there are at least 50 billion galaxies in the universe. There are other stars that are visible from the earth, example: Polaris, Sirius, Vega, Capella, Arcturus, Rigel, Procyon, Altair, Betelgeuse, Aldebaran, Pollux, Spica, Antares, Deneb, Regulus, Castor and Algol.

    Life Cycle Of A Star.
    Region Asteroid Group Orbit Family
    Sun to Earth Vulcanoid 0.4 AU Hypothetical. In the orbit of Mercury
    Apoheles <1 AU Within the orbit of Earth
    Arjuna 1 AU Orbits similar to earth
    Earth Trojans Earth-Sun L4-L5 -
    Earth to Mars Near Earth Objects 1 AU Aten
    >1 AUApollo
    1.017 - 1.3 AUAmor
    Mars-Crosser - Orbits cross Mars
    Mars Trojan - None confirmed
    Mars to Jupiter The Asteroid BeltMost asteroids exist in this region
    The Main Belt 2 - 4 AU
    I 2.3-2.5 AUHungarias, Phocaeas, Floras, Nysas
    II 2.5-2.706 AUAlinda, Pallas, Marias
    IIb 2.706-2.82 AUCeres
    IIIa 2.82-3.03 AUKoronis, Eos
    IIIb 3.03-3.27 AU-
    Cybele 3.27-3.7 AU -
    Hildas 3.7-4.2 AU -
    Thule 4.2-5.05 AU -
    Trojan 5.05-5.4 AU -
    Beyond Jupiter Damocloid Asteroids in this region and beyond may be composed of ice or other volatile substances and are similar to comets
    Centaurs A class of icy planetoids that orbit the sun between Jupiter and Neptune. Some Centaur asteroids are: Asbolus, Nessus, Pholus and Chiron.
    Neptune Trojans - 2001 QR322
    Trans-Neptunian Objects >30 AU Kuiper Belt Objects and the Oort cloud
    1 Kuiper Belt Objects 30-50 AU Icy asteroids
    39-40.5 AU Plutinos
    40.5-47 AU Cubewanos
    >100 AU Scattered disk objects
    2 Oort Cloud 50,000-100,000 AU Hypothetical cloud of comets
    The nuclear reactions in a star give off radiation that causes it to shine. Eventually, this fuel will burn out and the star will die.
    The rate at which a star dies, the violence with which it dies, and its final form depends on the mass of the star.

    Eclipses occur when the light from the sun or the moon is blocked by the shadow of the moon or the earth.
    A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the Earth and the sun and the moon casts its shadow on the earth.
    A lunar eclipse occurs when the earth casts its shadow on the moon.

    Space Debris
    Many small objects wander around the universe, sometimes in a long orbit and other times by gravitational pull. Periodically, these objects from space interact with the earth. There are three types - comets, meteors and asteroids.

    Asteroids are large, solid pieces of rocks greater than 50 meters wide that may be hundreds of miles long. They are little planets that mostly originate in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Objects less than 50 meters wide are called meteoroids. One classification of asteroids is the distance at which they orbit (Orbital radius). This classification helps to see which asteroids might impact the earth.

    Modern Asteroids. In modern times several asteroids and fireballs have struck the earth.
    Fireball Tunguska Event. On July 30 1908, a massive explosion of an asteroid above the forests of Russia destroyed 1000 square miles.
    Fireball In 1947 another struck Siberia.
    Fireball On August 10, 1972 a large fireball appeared over Canada and the Eastern United States.
    Fireball In 1992 a fireball was observed over Florida.
    Fireball In 2001, one appeared over Washington D.C.
    Fireball On July 8, 2004, a 100 Lb meteor came over the south central USA (Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri)
    Fireball Chelyabinsk. February 15, 2013. an 11 ton meteor strikes Chelyabinsk Russia. 725 injured, buildings damaged.

    Ancient Asteroids. Asteroids have been blamed for the destruction of the dinosaurs. This is partly correct. During the flood, the earth was struck with something with such force that it broke up the surface and tilted the orbit 23.5 degrees. Ever since that time, we have had different seasons, the land mass was separated and the oceans dominated the surface.

    Asteroid Dimensions Class Comment
    2004 FH 30m Aten Passed 43,000 km by earth on March 18, 2004
    1999 KW4 1.2 km Aten NEA. Has a 400m moon that orbits every 16 hours.
    Cruithne 5 km Aten NEA
    Apophis 415 m Aten NEA
    1950 DA 1.1 km - Has a 1:300 chance of hitting earth on March 16, 2880
    Asclepius (1989FC) 30m Apollo March 23, 1989 it missed earth by 400,000 miles. It crossed where earth had been 6 hours before
    Sisyphus 10 Km Apollo Largest Apollo asteroid
    Hermes Two 300-450m Apollo Binary asteroid
    Toutatis 4.5x2.4x1.9Km Apollo Contact binary
    Eros 33x13x13Km Amor NEAR spacecraft lands here
    Ganymed 32 Km Amor Largest Amor
    Ceres 1003 Km Alinda Largest asteroid
    Pallas 608 Km Alinda Second largest asteroid
    Vesta 538 Km Alinda Third largest asteroid
    Gaspra 19x12x11Km Floras First fly by of an asteroid
    Chiron 170 Km Centaur It is a comet and an asteroid
    Hektor 116 Km Trojan Largest Trojan
    Achilles 370 x 195 Km Trojan First Trojan discovered
    Fast Facts! The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft landed on Eros on February 14, 2000 after a 4 year trip

    Near Earth Objects
    Asteroid can be classified by their average orbital diameters. This is reported in astronomical units (AU). This is the distance from the Earth to the Sun. But only three of these groups are near Earth asteroids (NEA) that actually cross the path of the earth.
    Fast Facts! As of April 2004, there are 708 of these that are over one km wide. Objects that large can destroy the earth. As of November 2006 there were 831 potentially hazardous asteroids (PHA) discovered.

    Comet Period
    Last Seen Next
    Halley 76.1 1986 2061
    Shoemaker-Levy 9 17.8 1994 Lost July 1994, hit Jupiter
    Hale-Bopp 2300-4300 1996 4300
    Faye 7.34 1999 (2006) Discovered November 23, 1843
    Encke 3.30 2000 2003
    Biela's 6.62 1852 Lost
    Kohoutek 6.67 2001 2007
    Tempel-Tuttle 33 1998 Lost
    Swift-Tuttle 135 1992 2126
    Tuttle 13.51 1994 2008
    Hyakutake 8-14000 1996 18000 A.D.
    Halley's comet has appeared at the conquest of some famous political leaders and nations.
    44 B.C. - Julius Caesar
    66 A.D. - Masada
    451 A.D. - The fall of Atilla the Hun
    530 A.D. - Church
    1066 A.D. - Battle of Hastings

    Comets orbit the sun. There are over 100 known comets but there may be thousands more. Comets are dirty snow balls with a bright head and a long tail. They were called "broom stars" by early observers because of their shape. They are called "dirty snow balls" because they are believed to be made of ice and dirt. The tail is formed when the ice melts and a separate tail can be formed from the trail of dust and water.
    This trail of dust causes a meteor shower when the dust eventually reaches the atmosphere.

    Meteors are the temporary bright streaks of light that sometimes appear in the night sky at an altitude of about 100 Km. They are small particles that are normally the size of a grain of sand. They enter the atmosphere at speeds of up to 70 Km/second. A large number of these occurring at the same time are called a shower. The most famous are the Leonid Meteor showers which show increased activity every 33 years. The famous showers on the night of November 12-13, 1833 started interest in astronomy and led many people to believe that the world was ending.

    Meteor Showers. Meteor shower activity can be linked to the passage of comets. They are caused by the dust trails from the tails as they burn off. This appears as a shower several years later. Sometimes the trail of dust can take up to six years to become a shower.
    Meteor Shower Active Rate
    Quadrantid (Bootes) January 2-4 20-100 2003 EH1
    Delta Leonids Feb 15-Mar 10 2 -
    Pi Puppids April 15-28 13-40 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup
    Lyrids April 21-22 8-15 Thatcher 1861 I
    Eta Aquarids May 5-6 20-50 1P/Halley
    Bootids June 26-July 2 -100 7P/Pons-Winnecke
    Pegasid July 7-13 3 -
    Phoenicid July 10-16 3-10 -
    Southern Delta
    July 27-29 3 96P/Machholz
    Alpha Capricornids July 30 - Aug 1 3 Unknown
    Kappa Cygnids August 3-25 3 -
    Perseid August 11-13 40-200 109P/Swift-Tuttle
    Northern Iota Aquarids August 11-31 3 -
    Alpha Aurigids Aug 25-Sept 05 10 Kiess
    Piscids September 3 -
    Draconids October 6-10 ? 21P/Giacobini-Zinner
    Epsilon Geminids October 14-27 2 -
    Orionids October 21-22 24 1P/Halley
    Taurids November 5-12 5-8 2P/Encke
    Alpha Monocerotids November 15-25 5-400 -
    Leonids November 17-19 7500 55P/Tempel-Tuttle
    Phoenicids Nov 28-Dec 9 3-100 -
    Geminids December 13-14 40-120 Asteroid 3200 Phaethon
    Ursids December 22-23 10-15 Tuttle
    Coma Berenicids Dec 12-Jan 23 5 -
    Hemisphere Location
    Northern Both Southern
    Meteor showers are named after the constellations from which they originate.
    The Geminids are the only showers known to be caused by an asteroid.

    Meteoroids And Meteorites. Meteors normally burn up in the atmosphere. Each particle is called a meteoroid, If they survive burning up in the atmosphere and land on the earth they are called meteorites.

    Fireball. This is an asteroid or meteoroid that burns up as it enters the earth's atmosphere. Meteorites are nickel and iron alloys that are difficult to make on earth. So scientist assume the presence of a meteor whenever they see this alloy.

    Other Events and Structures
    Some of these are predicted to exist, while others are descriptions of what is observed.

    Ursa Major Constellation
    A constellation is a major pattern of the stars in the sky which is made by connecting a line between the bright objects in the sky. There are 88 constellations. They are generally confined to either the Northern or Southern Hemisphere.

    The Ecliptic : A band across the sky between the highest and lowest point of the Sun's apparent path around the galaxy.

    The Zodiac : The twelve constellations called the zodiac appear about eight degrees north and south of the ecliptic. Because of the Earth's motion around the Sun, the Sun appears to pass in front of each constellation of the zodiac once per year.

    Asterisms : Smaller star patterns within a constellation:

    Journey through your imagination Imagine your trip through heaven at the Second Coming. What would you like to see? Do you think we will have a series of meteor showers like fireworks all the way home?
    After the earth is recreated, we will not have a sun or moon. What do you think will be in space?
    It is possible that there will be a sun and moon but that we cannot see them because the light from God is so much brighter.

    Imagine Have you ever thought about how infinite the universe is? Not just in terms of the size of space but in the number of possibilities. Everything that we can see, hear, touch and measure is based on one underlying concept, the electromagnetic spectrum. Suppose there are other building blocks, not based on electromagnetic waves?
    That is your limitation. We are handicapped by our current knowledge and what we think is possible. How can you possibly think outside the box when everything in your set of building blocks depends on electromagnetic waves.
    God has many objects in His tool box, look what He created with just one tool!

    Constellation Families :
    Constellation Families Star Chart
    Star Chart
    Locations are approximate
    There are also constellation families. These are constellations that are related to each other:

    Constellation Groups
    Hercules Heavenly Waters Perseus Orion The Bayer Group La Caille Ursa Major
    Northern Hemisphere
    The hero
    The Lyre
    Medusa Slayer
    New The Giraffe
    Ursa Minor
    Little Bear
    Little dipper
    The Dragon
    The Crow
    The Swan
    Chariot driver
    New The Unicorn
    Canes venatici
    Hunting Dogs
    New The Sextant
    Corona Australis
    Southern Crown
    The Princess
    Canis Major
    The Big Dog
    Coma Berenices
    Berenice's Hair
    Ursa Major
    The Big Bear
    The big dipper
    The Plow
    New The Fox
    - Cassiopeia
    The Queen
    Canis Minor
    The little dog
    Corona Borealis
    Northern crown
    Leo Minor
    New Little lion
    The Eagle
    New The Dove
    The King
    Orion. Includes the Pleiades (M45) and the Orion nebula (M42 and M43). This is the region to watch for the Second Coming.
    Belt. Three stars (Alnitak, Alnilam, Mintaka).
    Sword. (Hatysa, M42, M43, NGC1981).
    The Goblet
    The Dolphin
    New The Lizard
    New The Shield
    Argo Navis The Compass
    The Arrow
    Argo Navis The Stern
    The Triangle
    Water Snake
    The Little Horse
    Winged Horse
    The Snake
    The Whale
    The Whale
    The Hunter
    Serpent holder
    The Ecliptic Lupus
    The Wolf
    The Twins
    The Bull
    The Ram
    The Fish
    Water Carrier
    The goat - fish
    The Zodiac
    The Crab
    The Lion
    The Virgin
    The Scales
    The Archer
    Southern Hemisphere
    The Rabbit
    Pisces Austrinus
    Southern Fish
    The Sculptor
    The Microscope
    The net
    The Level
    The Pump
    The Centaur
    Argo Navis The Sails
    The Phoenix
    The Telescope
    Table Mountain
    The Octant
    The Altar
    Argo Navis The Keel
    Pendulum Clock
    Painter's easel
    The Chisel
    Southern cross
    The River
    (The lesser water snake)
    Bird of Paradise
    The sword fish
    The flying fish
    The Toucan
    Triangulum Australe
    Southern Triangle
    The Peacock
    The Fly
    There are 61 constellations visible in the northern hemisphere, 48 were known by the ancient Greeks. In 150 A.D., the Greek scientist Ptolemy listed 1022 stars arranged into 48 constellations in a book named "Almagest".
    Argo Navis Argo Navis (Ship of Jason and the Argonauts). Carina, Puppis, Pyxis and Vela were part of one constellation. Volans and Columba are also associated with the ship.
    These were known by the ancients. But Coma Berenices was a part of Leo and Columba was a part of Canis Major.
    New These and some of the southern constellations were named after 1600 A.D.
    Peace Did you know that God used the constellations and the seasons to illustrate the timetable of the Plan of Salvation?
    The Keystone formation is in the Hercules constellation.

    Fish And Birds
    Day 5
    On the fifth day God filled the ocean and the skies with living things. He created fish and birds and everything that flies.
    Fish and Birds The creatures of the fifth day fill the creation of the second day. Fish and birds were made to fill the sea and sky and both are filled with color.

    Biosafety Hazard Level for Microorganisms
    LevelSeverity Treatment Example
    1No disease in the healthyBacillus subtilis
    2Not serious AvailableDengue, pox
    3Lethal AvailableWest nile, yellow fever, smallpox
    4Lethal Not available Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, junin
    Cold and Flu Geographic Activity
    1No report
    2No Activity
    4Low Activity
    5Regional (epidemic)
    6Wide spread (pandemic)
    Viruses and bacteria are the smallest of living things. But they are the source of many infectious diseases.
    In an epidemic, pandemic or an active season for a germ, the government issues a report on the geographic activity of the germ concerning human to human transmission.
    Fast Facts! Over 40 trillion bacteria live in the human body!
    Fast Facts! An epidemic is a regional spread of disease.
    Fast Facts! A pandemic is a widespread or global spread of disease. The worst case is a level 3 or 4 pathogen, level 6 activity and level 5 severity.
    Pandemic Mortality Severity Index
    #Severity Example
    1Widespread, low infection rate, low mortality, no economic impact 1968 flu
    2Widespread, low infection rate, minimal mortality and economic disruptions AIDS
    3Spreads quickly, low mortality (2%) 1918 flu
    4Spreads quickly, medium mortality (40%) 1347-1350
    Black death
    5Spreads quickly, high infection rate, high mortality (90%) Smallpox in New World
    The pandemic severity index measures disease, deaths, disruptions (economic impact).
    Fast Facts! A pathogen is an organism that causes disease.
    Career Microbiologist. Studies microbes.
    Career Virologist. Studies viruses.
    Career Pathologist. Examines tissues for diseases
    Instrument Microscope. Magnifies small objects
    Peace Did you know that God used the concept of quarantine to illustrate the Plan of Salvation.
    In 1865 Dr. Joseph Lister used the biblical principles and introduced handwashing and sterile techniques to the medical community. Death rates dropped from 40% to 3%
    Biology The study of living creatures.

    Living things are fascinating. A living thing grows and reproduces. Living things also protect themselves, we will see how they do this and the clever way they search for food.

    Germs and Microscopic Organisms
    They are the smallest living creatures that cause diseases.

    Fast Facts! Some antibiotics work by damaging the cell wall. Since viruses do not have a cell wall antibiotics have no effect on them.

    Genes, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    Genetic material or genes are made up of two strands of material called DNA. Every cell in the body, except the red blood cells, has a copy of the DNA in the nucleus. DNA, inherited from the mother, is also found in the mitochondria. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one strand of DNA is inherited from each parentand the last pair determine gender. DNA is made up of a sugar and phosphate backbone with one of four chemicals attached (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine). Adenine pairs with Thymine with two hydrogen bonds. Thymine and cytosine are paired with three hydrogen bonds. Three base pairs of genes make about twenty amino acids and a chain of amino acids make proteins.

    Inheritance. Any physical traits that we have are governed by a pair of genes. We inherit one gene from each parent. Simple inheritance of a trait is represented as a combination of two similar letters, one from each parent. However one trait may be more likely to be expressed than another.
    List of Human Chromosomes
    A12968Connective tissue,Rh blood,collagenPorphyria. Gaucher, Glaucoma, prostate cancer, Alzheimer's
    Collagen type 3, 4 and 5ALS, harlequin ichthyosis, Ehlers-Danlos (EDS), Waardenberg
    Eyes, ears, heartUsher Syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau, long QT syndrome
    Wound healing, nerveWolf-Hirschhorn, FOP, Huntington's, Parkinsons, narcolepsy, achondroplasia, Ellis-van-Creveld
    Bones, muscle, face, collagen proteinsCri-du-Chat, Treacher-Collins, Ehlers-Danlos, asthma, Cockayne, Crohn
    C61963Collagen, blood vesselsParkinsons, diabetes mellitus, hemochromatosis
    Collagen type 2, circulatory, blue eye color, boneWilliams syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis, Ehlers-Danlos, diabetes, obesity, Pendred syndrome
    Immunity, thyroid, nerves, lipaseWerner syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma
    91299Urea, collagen type 5, ABO bloodCitrullinemia, galactosemia, Ehlers-Danlos
    101440Cell division, PTEN geneCowden syndrome, Gyrate atrophy, Refsum, Crohn
    HemoglobinAtaxia Telangiectasia, Cancer (ATM), sickle cell
    GrowthRussel Silver syndrome
    Bone, cartilage, collagenParkinson, phenylketonuria, excessive growth
    D13 748
    Cell divisionRetinoblastoma, breast cancer (BRCA-2), Wilson, deaf
    141098Lipid, thyroidNiemann-Pick, Alzheimer
    151122Fibrillin, blue-brown eyeAngelmans, Prader-Willi, Marfan, Tay-Sachs
    ATP, COQ7, red hairCrohn's, autism, polycystic kidney, alpha thalassemia, FMF
    1576Myelin, cells, collagen type 1Neurofibromatosis (elephant man), Ehlers-Danlos, Cancer: ovarian, breast (BRCA-1), Marfan
    18 766
    LipidsEdward's Syndrome, Tourette, Niemann-Pick
    Absorbs iron, green-blue eyeHemochromatosis, hypercholesterolemia
    20 927Brain, prion, immuneCFJ, SCID (immunodeficiency)
    G21 303
    Biotin enzymeDown's Syndrome, ALS, early onset alzheimers
    22 288Supress tumor (CHEK2)Neurofibromatosis, DiGeorge
    Y. Male Gender Jacobs (XYY), Klinefelter (XXY)
    X. Female Gender, iris color, red and green eye color Triple-X (XXX, XXXX, XXXXX), Turner's (XO), Midas, Goltz, hemophilia, color blind, duchene muscular dystrophy
    Total Chromosomes
    OrganismTotalOrganismTotal OrganismTotal
    Ant2Roundworm2 Earthworm36
    Rabbit44 Kangaroo12 Amoeba13
    Human46Chimpanzee48 Mouse40
    Hare46 Rhesus Monkey48 Rat42
    Cat, Tiger38 Dog, wolf78 Zebra44
    Horse64 Mule63 Donkey62
    Cow60 Goat60 Sheep54
    Elephant56 Mammoth58Pig38
    Bee (Queen, Worker) 32Bee (Drone)16
    Mosquito6 Fruit Fly8Gypsy Moth62
    Dove16 Chicken78Turkey82
    Shrimp254 Goldfish94Carp104
    Crayfish200 Frog36Starfish36
    Tobacco48 Algae148 Rice24
    Corn20 Wheat42 Oat42
    Potato48 Horsetail216 Pea14
    Cabbage18 Mango40 Bean22

    Chromosome Classification. Chromosomes are numbered 1 to 22 from longest to shortest. They are also arranged in seven groups based on size and centromere location.
    Centromere. Each strand of a chromosome pair is joined or constricted at one location creating two arms. The short arm is called "p" and the longer "q arm".
    Satellite. A small segment separated by a secondary constriction.

    Chromosome Classification
    GroupChromosomes Centromere Size
    A1-3 Median Largest
    #2 has two fused genes and 2 centromeres
    B4-5 Submedian Large
    C6-12, X Submedian Medium
    D13-15* Acrocentric Medium
    E16-18 Median, Submedian Short
    F19-20 Median Short
    G21-22*, Y Acrocentric Very Short
    * Short arms of 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 have satellites

    Homeobox Genes (HOX). These are responsible for the body plan. There are four chomosomes in humans with this gene cluster.

    Chromosome Banding. Chromosomes with the same size and centromere location are further identified by the banding pattern of light and dark regions they make with certain stains. Each chromosome has a unique banding pattern that is like a bar code.

    Chromosome Banding Techniques
    TypeStain Analysis
    QQuinacrine Chromosomes, centromeres
    GGiemsa Structural abnormalities
    CGiemsa Centromere, satellites
    RHeat, Giemsa Deletions, translocations
    RAcridine Orange Deletions, translocations
    TGiemsa or acridine orange Telomeric banding
    NORSilver nitrate Acrocentric satellites
    DAPI/DADistamycin A Y autosome translocations, breaks, small chromosomes

    Mutation. An unrepaired error in DNA is a mutation. Genetic disorders or mutations occur when there are missing, excess or malfunctioning genes. These result in a change in the manufacture of a protein.
    Anomalies occur when only one of the pair is inherited (monosomy) or three copies are inherited (trisomy) or substitutions or deletions in the chromasome occurs.

    Fast Facts! The number of chromosomes is not related to the similarity, size, complexity or intelligence of the organism.

    Forensic DNA Analysis. DNA is used to uniquely identify a person or to determine genetic relationships. There are several DNA tests.

    DNA Database. Different systems choose a set of DNA markers to identify humans. Each lab hopes theirs will be the global standard. As a result several majar standards are in existance.

    Cells And Cloning
    DNA is found in two places in the cell. In the nuclear DNA of the nucleus and the mitochondrial DNA in the mitochondria outside in the cell body. Regular cells have all the genetic material, but the reproductive cells contain one half. When the egg combines with the sperm, each contributes one half of the nuclear genetic material. Then mitosis (cell division) occurs after this reproductive cell has all the DNA. So, the child has half the nuclear DNA from the mother and father and 100% of the mitochondrial DNA of the mother.
    Female EggMale Sperm
    Nuclear DNA
    Mitochondrial DNA
    Nuclear DNA
    Mitochondrial DNA
    Egg Sperm
    Baby Embryo
    Cloning removes the material from the nucleus of the embryo of one animal and places it in the egg of another animal.
    Recombinant DNA technology involves switching sections of the gene of an animal with the genes of another animal or plant.

    Cloning is not the creation of life. It is the artificial stimulation of mitosis after recombining the nucleus of one animal into the cell body of the female egg. So the clone has the mitochondrial DNA of the female (e.g. cow) with 100% of the nuclear DNA of the other animal (e.g. pig).
    So far cloning does not take half the genes from the nucleus of one animal and combine it with half of the nuclear DNA of another species of animal. The cloning technique takes a normal cell which has all the genetic material and substitutes the nuclear DNA of one animal with the nuclear DNA of another, then cell division is artificially stimulated.
    Transgenic Animals. A transgenic animal has foreign genes inserted into its DNA. Cloning is just one extreme form of creating transgenic animals. There are two basic ways of injecting or substituting new genes.

    1. Embryonic Stem Cell. This is the DNA taken from a cell after the egg and sperm have fused.
      » Pronucleus Method. This also uses embryonic stem cells. After fertilization, it intercepts and substitutes the nucleus of the sperm before it joins the nucleus of the egg.
    2. Other Cells. These use cells from other parts of the body, not embryos.

    To survive, animals need to do several things:

    1. Breathe
    2. Eat
    3. Reproduce. Have children to continue the species.
    4. Protect themselves from enemies.
    5. Know God. This gives eternal life. The others give temporary life.

    Animals use two basic mechanisms to accomplish these:

    1. Display. A show of bright colors can be used to warn of danger or to attract a female.
    2. Trick. Animals use disguises and camouflage to blend into the surroundings so that they can hide from their enemies or to lure food.

    Peace Creation. Did you know that over 4000 years ago Jacob described a process that models the DNA double helix and the DNA replication process?
    The Spotted And Striped Stick (Genesis 30: 37-41). He took a stick and carved spots and stripes in it, then set it in a trough of water where the animals of a single color came to drink and mate. When they looked at the stick as they mated their children looked like the stick with spots and stripes and circular stripe pattern (ringstraked).
    The Spotted And Striped DNA. The DNA double helix looks like a stick with spots and stripes. It even has an -OH molecule at each end. Since it carries the genetic desription of our outer appearance, when our parents mate we will look like the instructions carved in the DNA.
    Another "silly and unscientific" Bible story described DNA process 4000 years before Watson and Crick discovered it.

    Camouflage is the art of blending into the surroundings so that you cannot be seen. It is based on the fact that the eye tends to look for patterns and to fill in the gaps.
    The four methods used to blend into the surrounding environment are:

    1. Similarity. Use the same pattern, color, shape or size.
      Leaf The pink flower mantis looks like the orchid that it hides inside as it waits for food.
      Leaf Leaf bugs look like leaves.
      Leaf Most camouflage mimic only one pattern but Cuttlefish are the best. They mimic color, pattern, texture and shape of any environment and can even give a light show by changing color in rhythmic pattern like a neon sign.
    2. Proximity. Align yourself in the same direction as the surroundings.
      Leaf Stick bugs look like a branch. They attach themselves to the tree at an angle like a branch.
      Leaf Some sea horses align themselves upright to look like the seaweed.
    3. Continuity. Use the same pattern as the surroundings. Or use the same pattern to appear larger so that no individual stands out.
      Leaf The striped pattern of the zebra makes it impossible to see only one.
    4. Closure. The eye will fill in missing details. Therefore, the object being hidden does not have to look exactly like the surroundings.

    Left Picture Right
    Camouflage Evolution
    Sea dragon
    Sea dragon
    Stick bug 1
    Stick bug 2
    Leaf bug
    Bush Cricket
    Brimstone butterfly
    Piltdown man
    Nebraska man
    Gypsy moth
    Monster mutation
    Too much life
    Clean world
    Carbon dating
    Missing link
    Body symmetry
    Turbidity current
    Pleochroic halo
    Arizona tracks
    Speed of Light
    Biological clock
    Bee and Ant
    Career Teacher and Professor. Experts who share knowledge by teaching others about a particular subject

    85% of all living creatures on earth are insects from over one million species. Insects have six legs, hard outer shell (exoskeleton) and a three part segmented body (head, thorax and abdomen). Arachnids have eight legs and two body parts. They include spiders, scorpions and mites in about 73,000 species.
    Honey Bee
    Bees are social creatures that live in hives ruled by a queen. There are three different kinds of bees in a hive who divide the work by them:
    Bee Queen. The only bee who can have children. A queen develops when the larvae is fed royal jelly.
    Bee Worker Bee. Females who do not have children. They build the hive, gather nectar, water and pollen and care for the colony. They make the honey, feed the queen and the babies, clean the hive and defend the colony.
    BeeDrone. Male bees who fertilize the queen
    Play a Creation Game
    Career Apiology. Study of bees
    Career Entomology. Study of insects, arachnids
    Career Biologist. Studies living things
    Career Zoologist. Studies animals
    Career Ornithologist. Studies birds
    When they find a source of food, worker bees, perform one of two different kinds of dances when they return to the hive.

    1. Circular dance. Tells the location of food sources less than about one hundred yards away. (91 meters)
    2. Figure eight dance. Tells the location of food sources over one hundred yards and up to several miles away.

    Communication. Some bees use pheromones, sound and dance to communicate. The bees have two dances to indicate the location of food. A circle dance indicates food without any reference to distance. When the food is far away (over 300 feet) the bees do a "figure eight" dance. In the dance, they waggle their bodies to tell the distance and direction of the food in relation to the sun. As the sun changes its location, the information in the dance must change. This indicates intelligence and mathematical ability.

    1. Angle of the dance. They use the sun as a compass in relation to the vertical wall of the hive to show the angle of the food in relation to the sun.
    2. Length of the dance. The distance from the hive.
    3. Number of "waggles". The distance from the hive.
    4. "Vigor" of the dance. How delicious the food is.
    5. Scent. Gives an idea of the source of the food.

    Other experiments show that if the information seems to be impossible, then the hive will not go after the food.

    Ants also live in social colonies like bees but with millions of members, with the same division of work structure by three types of ants.

    Species DescriptionAnt Chamber
    Carpenter Ants They construct nests in wooden structures. antant ant
    -  -
    - Larvae
    Ant Eggs -
    - ant
    Ant Food
    - Dump
    Food -
    - Dump
    Farm Ant -
    - Winged ants
    Queen Queen
    Honey Pot Ants During the rainy season, storage ants fill their abdomens to the size of grapes with nectar and hang from the ceiling until there is famine. When the food gets low the colony gets nectar from them. They sometimes capture hostages from other colonies and raid a colony to kill the queen and enslave the workers.
    Leaf Cutter AntsThey are gardeners who gather leaves, grind them to smaller pieces, fertilize them with their feces and then grow a fungus which they use for food. When the queen goes to create a new colony she carries a sample of this fungus with her.
    Harvester Ants They collect, store, and eat seeds. Sometimes they travel up to forty miles away from their nest in search of food.
    Army AntsMigratory hunters that feed on other creatures. They travel up to 20 meters per hour and set up a temporary camp every night and only stay in one location for 2 to 3 weeks when it is time to lay eggs. The queen lays at least 30,000 eggs in one day. They can interlock their legs to form bridges across rivers and roll up into a ball to float in a flood.
    Polyergus Samurai Ants of the Polyergus samurai species have sharp, sickle-shaped mandibles which are good for fighting but useless for domestic work.. They do no work except to raid other nests and force the slaves to work. Between July to September the worker ants raid the nests of formica japonica species and seize the larvae and pupae of the raided nest. When they grow to adults they become slaves.

    Communication. Ants hear with their knees by picking up vibrations. Ants touch their antennae to communicate, rock back and forth so that their mandibles strike the nest with beats up to seven thumps per 50 millisecond (drumming), by making high pitched squeaks by rubbing body parts (stridulation) or use pheromones. Pheromones are chemicals that are used to alert other ants of danger, mark trails, identify each other, enlist the help of other ants and scare off enemies.
    Fast Facts! Ants are the most numerous types of creatures. They have a combined weight greater than the combined weight of all humans.
    Fast Facts! Ants can carry 10 to 20 times their body weight and they work in teams to move heavy objects.
    Fast Facts! The largest ant colony is 3,600 miles long (5890 Km), stretching from the Italian Riviera to northwest Spain. It consists of billions of Argentine ants living in millions of nests that cooperate with each other.

    Mccaw There are about seven to eight thousand species of birds. Fish and birds were created on the same day and are the most colorful of the living creatures that God created.

    Mccaw or Parrot. These birds are interesting because of their beautiful colors and because they can imitate human speech. They mate for life and are often seen in pairs.
    Humming Bird Facts. They are the smallest birds. Wings flap at 100 beats per second and they can fly backwards.
    Indigo Bunting. The male bird has a beautiful indigo blue color, while the female is brown. They migrate south and travel in flocks at night, navigating by the stars.
    Bird Song. Birds sing, and the sound is similar to speech in humans.

    God created some very incredible fish and other creatures that live in the sea. Let us take a look.

    Creature Description Fish Farms
    Anableps He has an interesting eye. The top half can see in the air and the bottom half sees in the water. Modern technology allows us to grow fish on farms. But the living conditions are not what our Creator intended for His creatures and the results are probably not healthy.
    • Farmed fish are crowded into pens and swim in their own waste. It is like living in a toilet.
    • The waste from a normal farm is equal to the sewage from a city of 7,500 people - this contaminates the water and destroys other fish habitats.
    • Toxins are ten times higher in PCBs.
    • Diseases spread faster because of crowded conditions and the sewage water they live in. Therefore farmed fish receive antibiotics in their food and by injections. But disease still spreads to the wild fish and the excessive use of antibiotics creates super bugs that we have no methods of killing.
    • Since their normal color is grey, farmed fish are dyed pink so that they look like wild fish.
    • Farmers kill hundreds of seals and sea lions and other fish to protect the farmed fish.
    • Three pounds of mackerel, sardines and other fish feed one pound of salmon. 2,332,000 tons of fish are taken from the sea to produce 737,000 tons of salmon in 1997.
    Archer fish Captures insects by shooting water out of the air like a bullet.
    Angler fish He goes fishing! In front of his mouth hangs an appendage that attracts other fish. Also, the male does not eat. He attaches himself to a female and their blood streams merge! Now how could these have evolved? Not!
    Decoy fish He also goes fishing by attracting other fishes. One of the fins looks like a tiny fish while the rest of the body is camouflaged.
    Sea horse The male carries the eggs and gives birth
    Whales and dolphins Mammals that breathe air but live in the sea

    Imagine Try to invent a new animal. What colors will it have? Will it be spotted or striped? Imagine a patchwork animal!
    Will it fly, hop, swim or do all of these? Where does it live? Does it only like to eat blue things? Can it talk like a parrot?
    Give it a name. God asked Adam to name the animals. Maybe He will make this animal just for you and you will see it in heaven.

    Animals And Man - The Incredible Human Body
    Day 6
    On the sixth day God created the male and female animals on the land. In the evening he created the last two living things. He created Adam and Eve.
    Animals and Man Magnetic elements are in the sixth period. God created marriage to complete the attraction between male and female.


    Male and Female
    Sexual reproduction could not have developed over millions of years because the male and female must develop simultaneously in the same location in less than fifty years for humans and in a week for fruit flies.

    This impossible coincidence must be repeated in every species. Millions of them.
    Adam and Eve
    The first two humans were Adam and Eve. They are the parents of all the human family. Therefore they must have had the genes that are in all the different racial groups. What do you think they looked like?
    Humans and all biological systems reproduce in two ways:

    1. Asexual Reproduction. This is usually done only by simple single celled creatures. The cell usually eats and grows in size then it divides to form two new creatures from the old one.
      This apparently does not work well with complex creatures. I tried doubling in size so that I could split in two and reproduce. I only got fatter.
    2. Sexual Reproduction. Requires two creatures, a male and female. This is a problem for evolutionists. Usually, they will throw in millions of years for events to happen. Unfortunately, the reproductive system is very complex and the two creatures have totally different parts, and half the genetic material they need. In addition, they only have a short period in their life span for these systems to develop and the compatible design must be transmitted to the other parent who must be developing at the same time.
      Evolution cannot support separate species communicating design specifications to each other therefore it is a mystery how the two different creatures emerge within thirty years with chemical and physical attributes that complemented each other.
      Because evolution depends on an offspring surviving they needed an answer to the question of reproduction. To answer this question they developed a theory called Monster Mutation.


    Scientific Observation
    The difference in size of a liger and a tigon shows that in one generation a medium sized animal can produce a giant and a dwarf. So, could a dinosaur sized creature and a lizard be produced in the same year from a large alligator? This is observable evidence that the evolutionary charts that rely on differences in size as proof of long periods of growth are a fallacy.

    Hybrid Animals
    God created us so that we cannot have children with other species. But humans have tried to cross-breed related species. But even animals that are closely related have a few problems. Hybrid breeds are almost always sterile.

    Mule. The child of a female horse and a male donkey.
    Hinny. The child of a male horse and a female donkey.
    Tigon. The child of a female lion and a male tiger that is usually a dwarf that is much smaller than the parents.
    Liger. The child of a male lion and a female tiger that is usually a giant. It is the largest cat in the world. It has stripes and spots and an orange - gold color. They can stand up to twelve feet tall and weigh as much as 1000 pounds. (3.7 meters and 454 kg).
    Fast Facts! The Lion and the Lamb. Scientists claim that carnivorous animals must eat meat to survive. They claim that this is why they have evolved sharp incisor teeth. But "Little Tyke" is a female vegetarian lion who refused to eat meat. She ate cooked grain, raw eggs and milk. The bible says that the lion will live with the lamb and it will eat straw like an ox.

    Evolution: Monster Mutation.
    Even if a fish could possibly give birth to a frog. It is impossible for a male and female to emerge.
    That would require two impossible events using processes that contradict modern observations and scientific knowledge.
    This is the fairy tale that says that one day a fish laid one egg and a male and female frog came out! This is contrary to what we observe and know about genetics.

    1. Current biological observations show that a single egg can only produce identical babies of the same gender.
    2. A creature can only produce their own species.

    The theory recognizes that small mutations will not create the large biological changes that cause evolution. This is because small mutations usually go back to their original form within two generations. The famous gypsy moth experiments failed because the moths would change back after two generations. Biological systems also have many complicated parts that must all be working at the same time or they will be useless.
    Therefore, the theory says that once every 50,000 years an egg has so many huge mutations that it cannot go back to an original form.
    Therefore, a fish can give birth to a frog!
    However, realizing that they have to account for sexual reproduction, they further went on to say that when the new creature emerged, a male and female must emerge from the single egg.
    That does not sound like a scientific theory. It is a fairy tale!
    And this miraculous fairy tale continues further because every one of the two to thirteen million species that we know, must have gone through this same miraculous process that is full of coincidences.
    Imagine, thirteen million impossible events. In fact, twenty six million impossible events if you count the male and female.

    Monster Mutation Mathematics. Apparently, evolutionists cannot do basic arithmetic either because if a new creature emerged every 50,000 years then it would take 75 billion years to develop the one and a half million species that we have named so far. And 650 billion years to develop the thirteen million estimated species.
    What is wrong with these figures? The big bang that started evolution was calculated to have occurred 6 to 13 billion years ago and life emerged 545 million years ago!

    Instead, for the time in which life is supposed to have emerged, the calculations support one specie emerging every 540 years for the 1½ million we know exist. And, forty two years for the thirteen million we estimate to exist.
    Some people claim that there are 100 million species, thirteen million is just the conservative upper limit. If there are 100 million then they must have evolved every 5½ years.
    I have not seen any of these exotic new creatures, have you? My toe nail does not grow that fast.

    The Human Body
    God says that we are "wonderfully made". He made several advanced systems to take care of our bodies while we are on earth. These systems manage the body like any major city government. There is a defence or military system, transportation, communications, education, medical, reproduction, energy, structural engineering, waste management and food management.

    System The Human BodyPurpose Structures
    Spiritual Body To learn about God and to worship Him Brain, mouth, voice box, eyes, ears and sensory system
    Skeletal Supports body, protects organs, movement, produces blood cells and stores minerals. Bones, skull, vertebrae, ribs, teeth, tendon, ligament, marrow
    Muscular Movement. They are attached to the skeletal system by the ligaments. Biceps, triceps, deltoid, gluteus maximus
    Digestive Processes food and changes it to energy for the body. It sends solid and liquid waste to be eliminated Teeth, mouth, tongue, stomach, gall bladder, liver, small intestine, rectum, anus, saliva, hydrochloric acid, bile
    Urinary Removes waste products and excess fluids and regulates the volume of fluids Kidney, colon, urinary bladder, large intestine, ureter
    Reproductive Produce children Uterus, testes, eggs, sperm, mammary glands
    Respiratory Processes oxygen (O2) and exhales carbon dioxide (CO2) Nose, trachea, lungs, alveoli, bronchi, pleura, hemoglobin, vagus nerve, pulmonary arteries and veins
    Circulatory Transmits blood, oxygen, food and waste to the organs Heart, artery, vein, blood
    Immune Fights infections and foreign substances Skin, stomach acids, white blood cells, bone marrow, spleen
    Lymphatic lymph nodes, lymph, tonsils, thymus, MALT, Peyer's patches
    Sensory or
    Control motion. Feelings, senses as electrical impulses to the brain. The senses collect signals from the outside, converts them to electrical signals and sends them to the brain for interpretation Brain, spinal cord, eye, ear, tongue, nose and skin
    Endocrine A system of chemical messages from organs that secrete hormones to control body functions such as growth and development, puberty, reproduction, energy levels, response to stress and injury and internal balance Glands. Pituitary, adrenal, thymus, hypothalmus, thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, testes, ovaries, pancreas, liver
    Fast Facts! Better Than Super Man. The physical description of God is very different. For God, it is the spiritual component that is dominant. Physically, He appears as one who is on fire from head to toe. There is a stream of living water flowing from Him. This combination of water and light causes a rainbow and a cloud to surround Him. His structure can change and pass through solid physical objects. He can move faster than light. He does not eat or sleep. His breath gives life to physical beings. He reproduces by speaking electromagnetic waves. How awesome is our God!
    Career Nurse. Cares for patients. Career Physician (Doctor). Manages human health, treats disease
    Disease Influenza. Viral infection. Disease Cancer. Abnormal growth of any cell that starves healthy cells.
    Instrument Thermometer. Measures temperature Instrument Endoscope. Instrument for viewing the interior of hollow organs

    Skeletal System
    Fast Facts! The adult body has 206 bones and 32 teeth and about 650 muscles. A baby has 300 bones. Some animals, like bugs, have their skeletons on the outside (exoskeletons). While others have their skeleton on the inside (endoskeleton). The bones have several functions.

    Skeleton # Part Bones Organs and muscles
    1 Head Axial
    (80 bones)
    Skull, jaw (mandible, 2 maxilla),
    Ear (malleus, incus, stapes), hyoid,
    7 cervical vertebrae, 32 teeth
    Brain, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, tongue
    2 Spine 33 bones: vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx Nerves
    3 Chest 24 Ribs (12 pairs), sternum,
    12 thoracic vertebrae
    Trachea, bronchi, heart, lungs, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, aesophagus
    3a Appendicular
    (126 bones)
    Shoulder Girdle
    (4 Bones)
    Clavicle, scapular
    4 Hip Pelvic

    (2 Bones)
    Pelvis (iliac, pubic)
    Spine (Vertebrae).
    » 5 lumbar,
    » 5 fused sacral
    » 4 fused coccyx
    Digestive system, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, anus
    Reproductive system. Uterus, vagina, eggs, fallopian tubes, penis, scrotum, prostate gland, sperm, testicles
    5 Arms Upper

    (60 bones)
    Humerus, radius, ulna Deltoid, biceps, triceps
    6 Hands 27 bones. Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges (fingers) 19 muscles move the wrist and fingers
    7 Legs Lower

    (60 bones)
    Femur, patella (knee), tibia, fibula Gluteus Maximus, quadricep, sartorius, biceps, gastrocnemius
    8 Feet 26 bones. Tarsals (ankle), Calcaneus (heel), metatarsals, phalanges (toes) Achilles tendon
    Fast Facts! The bone marrow produces 2.6 million red blood cells every second.
    Fast Facts! The great white shark has 3000 teeth! It loses over three million teeth during its life. You have only 28 to 32.
    Fast Facts! The second cervical vertebra is named the axis. It allows the head to turn.
    Career Podiatrist. Treats the feet. Career Orthopedics. Treats bone injury. Career Dentist. Treats the teeth and gums.
    Injury Fracture. Broken bone Disease Arthritis. Fusion of bones Disease Osteoporosis. Loss of calcium, brittle bone
    Instrument Crutch. Assists walking Instrument Brace. Immobilizes weak bone Instrument Radioscope. Views objects using X-rays

    Muscular System
    Skeleton # Part Muscles Body Organs and muscles
    1 Skeletal
    Types of Muscles Voluntary muscles for movement. Controlled by the somatic nervous system
    2 Smooth
    The muscles of the internal organs are controlled by the autonomic nervous system
    3 Cardiac
    Muscles of the heart. They are controlled by the autonomic nervous system
    Joints are the point where two or more bones meet Types of Muscles
    1a Muscle Tissues of the Musculo-skeletal System The contraction or relaxation moves the bones to which it is attached. Muscles
    1b Tendon Attaches muscle to bone. Achilles tendon is located in the heel.
    1c Ligament Attaches bone to bone
    2 Bone The moveable support structure
    Front View Back View 3 Cartilage Protective gel lining the joint The Joint
    Fast Facts! Synovial Fluid. Lubricating fluid between the joints. An injured joint may respond to the weather because the pressure changes in the atmosphere may cause pressure changes in this fluid.
    Front View Body. Trapezius, deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis.
    Arms. Triceps, biceps, brachialis.
    Legs. Gracilis, adductor longus, iliopsoas, pectineus, gluteus medius. Sartorius, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis. Lower Leg. Gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus
    Back View Body. Trapezius, deltoid, teres minor, teres major, external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, latissimus dorsi, Gluteus Maximus.
    Leg. Gracilis, adductor magnus, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris.
    Lower Leg. Gastrocnemius Arm. Triceps brachii, anconeus, flexor carpi, extensor carpi.
    Fast Facts! There are about 650 muscles in the human body. Nineteen muscles move the wrist and fingers.
    Career Surgeon. Opens the body to treat injury and diseases Career Dermatologist. Treats skin diseases.
    Disease Muscular Dystrophy. Loss of muscle tissue and mobility Disease Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP). Muscle turns to bone


    The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage that covers the trachea when we swallow and stops food from entering the lungs. If evolution occurred, then our ancestors would have choked on their food for several thousand years until they realized that they should evolve a flap to protect the wind pipe. It sounds ridiculous. A baby would have choked to death.

    Study any system in the body and you will realize that it would not function if it had to wait millions of years for the necessary part to evolve.

    The Respiratory System
    Lungs # Organs Structure Function
    1 Lungs The right side has three lobes and the left has two. They have a thin lining, the size of a tennis court, which absorbs oxygen and transfers it to the hemoglobin of the blood. High levels of carbon dioxide make the blood more acidic. This triggers the vagus nerve which causes us to increase respiration and exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide
    2 Heart Receives oxygen from the lungs and sends carbon dioxide to the lungs through the pulmonary vein and artery
    3 Diaphragm Muscle moves up and down so that the lungs can contract and expand and force air in or out
    4 Trachea Wind pipe. Air flows from the nose to the lungs
    5 Ribs 12 ribs attached to the spinal column in the back and the sternum in the front. They protect the organs in the chest
    5a 7 true ribs They are attached directly to the sternum
    5b 3 false ribs They are attached directly to the cartilage of the last true rib
    Right Lung Left Lung 5c 2 floating ribs They are only attached in the back
    Breathing 5d Cartilage They attach the ribs to the sternum
    Inhale. A vacuum is created when the diaphragm and the rib cage contract and air rushes in. The diaphragm flattens and the ribs spread and are raised.
    Exhale. When the rib muscles and the diaphragm relaxes air is forced out.
    6 Sternum The true ribs are attached here in the front
    7 Spine All the ribs are attached in the back
    8 Clavicle Collar bone
    9 Pleura Lining between the ribs and lungs that allows the lungs to slide along the rib cage without an injury
    Career Paramedic. Provides first emergency services. Career Respiratory Therapist. Gives breathing treatments.
    Disease Asthma. Breathing impairment. Disease Cystic Fibrosis. Mutation creates thick mucus in the lungs
    Fast Facts! The First Surgery. The Bible says that God made Adam fall asleep, then He took a rib and created Eve. Now men and women have an equal number of ribs. So, where did the ribs come from and why did God use the rib? Here is a possible answer.
    • 13 Pairs of Ribs. Most people have twelve ribs. A few have eleven or thirteen. Adam could have had thirteen pairs in the beginning. If Eve was made from one pair of ribs, then God would use the number twelve to represent the number of people, who are within the body of one man, who would be the foundation of a race of people.
    • Floating Ribs. He could have used a part of the floating ribs.
    • Stem Cells. The bone marrow has cells called stem cells. These can grow into any type of cell. However, the power of God is so great that he might have used other processes to create her.
    Peace Did you know that the structure of the rib cage and chest cavity illustrates the Plan of Salvation?
    God demonstrates how he will make peace with the world through twelve nations.

    Circulatory System
    The Heart Structure
    Heart A1 Heart Atrium Chambers at the top of the heart
    A2 Ventricle Chambers at the bottom of the heart
    B1 Veins Takes blood without oxygen to the heart
    B2 Arteries Takes blood with oxygen from the heart to the body
    B3 Pulmonary Carries blood between the heart and the lung
    C Valves Stops blood from flowing back into the chambers
    D Capillaries Tiny vessels that connect the arteries and veins
    1 Red Blood Cell
    40-45% of total blood volume. Transports oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Sickle cell anemia causes the malformation of these cells.
    1a Hemoglobin The gas transporting protein molecu e that is 95% of the volume of red cells. They give the red color to blood when they are bound to oxygen.
    Right HeartLeft Heart 2 White Blood Cell
    Immune System. Defend against infection by viruses, bacteria and other foreign enemies
    A1 Atrium (left and right)
    A2 Ventricle (left and right)
    B1 Anterior Vena cava from the head
    B1a Inferior Vena cava from the lower body
    B1b Jugular Vein
    B1c Subclavian
    B2 Ascending Aorta
    B2a Descending Aorta
    B2b Carotid artery
    B3a Pulmonary artery (goes to lungs)
    B3b Pulmonary vein (comes from Lungs)
    C1 Tricuspid valve
    C2 Pulmonary valve (right ventricle to pulmonary artery)
    C3 Bicuspid valve
    C4 Aortic valve (left ventricle and aorta)
    2a Neutrophil  60-70% Wound healing. Made in the bone marrow
    2b Eosinophil 5% Attacks parasites like worms and eats antigens and antibodies
    2c Basophil 1% Allergic response. Releases histamines and heparin
    2d Lymphocytes
    T-Cell. Made in the thymus. Immune response and rejection of foreign tissue
    2e B-Cell. Made in the lymph nodes. Makes antibodies
    2f Monocyte
    Eat viruses and bacteria. They have different names in some organs (kupfer cells, microglia, mesangial, osteoclasts)
    The heart pumps blood to the body through the artery and receives blood through the veins.

    Deoxygenated blood comes from the body through two large veins (vena cava) to the right atrium. It goes to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and then it is pumped through the pulmonary valve through the pulmonary artery and to the lungs.

    In the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is added.

    The blood returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary vein and enters the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve. Then it is pumped through the aortic valve to the aorta and to the body.
    3 Other Blood Components Thrombocyte (Platelet) causes blood to clot when there is an injury.
    4 Human Leukocyte Antigen System (HLA) A group of over 100 antigens on the surface of cells are important for organ transplant because they are recognized by white blood cells.
    5 Antigen A large protein found on the surface of red blood cells that gives the blood the type or identity.
    6 Antibody They provide a major defense for our bodies against invasion by alien organisms. They recognize and eliminate bacteria and viruses, mismatched blood transfusions and organ transplants.
    7 Plasma Clear liquid in which all the cells travel
    Structures Lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, tonsils, Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)), Peyer's patches
    Function Absorbs excess fluid, absorbs fat from the small intestine and immune response
    Fast Facts! There are 60,000 miles (96,000 Km) of blood vessels in our body.
    Career Cardiologist. Treats diseases and impairments of the heart Career Phlebotomist. Takes blood.
    Disease Hemophilia. Inability to clot blood causes bleeding Disease Sickle Cell Anemia. It deforms red blood cells
    Disease Heart Attack. Blood clot or clogged vessel in the heart.
    Disease Stroke. Blood clot or clogged vessel in the brain.
    Disease Deep Vein Thrombosis. Blood clot in the legs.
    Disease Surfer's Myelopathy. Stroke to the spinal cord caused by arching the back and cutting off blood supply to the spine.
    A blood clot or other substances can block the flow of blood and causes the surrounding cells to die and they eventually stop functioning. High cholesterol can build up in the walls of the blood vessels and block them.
    Instrument Stethoscope. Instrument for listening to sounds in the body Instrument Sphygmometer. Measures blood pressure
    Eye Chart Blood Pressure. This is the force against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is given as two numbers. The systolic over the diastolic. Normal pressure is less than 120/80. Systolic. Maximum pressure when the heart contracts
    Diastolic. Pressure when the heart is at rest

    The Ear.
    The Ear Structure
    Ear 1 Outer Ear Pinna Ear lobes collect sound
    2 External auditory meatus Ear canal
    3 Middle Ear Ear drum Transmits sound
    4a Malleus Bones amplify sound in this air filled chamber. Their movement is caused by the movement of the ear drums
    4b Incus
    4c Stapes
    5 Inner Ear Cochlea Interprets sound
    6 Nerves Transmits signals to the brain
    7 Semi circular canal Three fluid filled tubes aligned in three different directions. They give the sense of balance.
    Fast Facts! The TRPA-1 protein is a chemical that converts sound into electrical impulses.
    Career Musician. Creates beautiful sounds for entertainment. Career EENT. Eye, Ears nose and throat specialist.
    Disability Deaf. Inability to hear. Over 100 genes affect hearing Disability Vertigo. Lack of balance and dizziness
    Instrument Otoscope. Instrument for examining the ear Instrument Myringoscope. Instrument for viewing the ear drum

    The Brain
    Brain # Brain Area Function
    Left Hemisphere Controls right side of body and verbal stimulii (words)
    Right Hemisphere Controls left side of body and non verbal stimulii (sounds)
    Grey matter Neuron cell bodies on the surface of the brain (cortex)
    White Matter Connecting fibers in the brain interior
    Hind Brain Medulla Oblangata, pons, cerebellum
    1 Medulla Oblangata Regulates body functions such as breathing and heart beat
    2 Pons The Pons and medulla control respiration
    3 Cerebellum Cerebellum regulates posture and balance and coordinates skilled movements
    Fore Brain Cerebral Cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus
    Fast Facts! The brain weighs three pounds, and has more than 100 billion neurons and 50 billion supporting cells. If stacked on top of each other, they would reach 5000 miles. It uses 20% of the blood and 20% of the oxygen we breathe.

    The brain is protected by the skull and the spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column. There are two halves called the left and right hemispheres, they are connected by the corpus callosum.
    OrganStimulus Senses
    Seeing and Hearing
    Eye Electro-magnetic Spectrum Sight, Light
    Pineal body Light (seasons, biological clocks)
    Ear, lungs, feet Hearing
    Ear, larynx Echolocation, biosonar (RADAR)
    Smelling and Tasting
    Tongue Chemicals and Volatiles Taste (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami)
    Nose, tongue Smell
    Vomeronasal (Jacobson's organ) Pheromone (chemical signals for danger, alarm, sex, food trail)
    Feelings and Emotions
    Skin, feet, hands, antenna, whiskers Internal, nerves, gravity, physical, drugs, brain chemicals Touch, temperature, pressure
    Skin Pain
    Hypothalamus Hunger, thirst
    Insula Hunger, cold, pain
    Sex organs Pleasure
    Semi-circular canal, status stone Balance (gravity), orientation
    Magnetite (Fe3O4) Electricity, magnetism Magnetic field, migration, navigation
    Greigite (Fe3S4)
    Electrocytes (Ampullae of Lorenzini) Electroreception, electric fields
    Lateral line Water pressure, electricity
    Psalm 115 lists several senses and their organs.
    Sense. Speak, see, hear, smell, feel, walk, make sounds.
    Organs. Tongue, eye, ears, nose, hands, feet, throat.

    » Status Stone (Stone Of Standing). Shrimp place a grain of sand in a special place in their head every time they molt.
    Cerebral Cortex Outer portion of the cerebrum which is divided into lobes. (Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital). The cerebrum is responsible for consciousness
    4 Temporal Lobe Auditory Association area Sound, memory storage
    4a Wernicke's area (Lateral cerebral sulcus) Language comprehension
    4b Pituitary Gland Endocrine gland which control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation
    4c Thalamus All sensory input except smell
    4d Hypothalamus Regulates the autonomic nervous system by hormone production and release. Hunger, blood pressure, heart rate, sleep and wake, arousal, thirst, water balance, body temperature, circadian cycles
    4e The Limbic System is a combination of several structures which control the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. This affects emotion and pleasure, memories, sex, hunger, sleep, judgment, mood, insight, motivation.
    Fasting. Learning to control the appetite will help to control the desires of the limbic system.
    4e1 Amygdala Fear, jealousy, aggression
    4e2 Nucleus Accumbens Reward, pleasure, addiction, sex
    4e3 Mesolimbic system Secrete dopamine. Food cravings, sex, hallucinations, delusions
    4e4 Striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens) Coordination center for chemical messengers. Process information from the limbic system and frontal lobe. Regulates dopamine levels, walking, balance. Superior autobiographical memory and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with the caudate nucleus.
    4e5 Hippocampus Long term memory
    4e6 Orbitofrontal Cortex Decision making, morality
    4e7 Cingulate Gyrus Autonomic functions. Heart rate, blood pressure, thinking about self
    4f Insula (Insular Cortex or Island of Reil). Integrates the mind and body displaying social emotions, things like lust and disgust, pride and humiliation, guilt and atonement. It gives moral intuition, empathy and the capacity to respond emotionally to music. Hunger, taste, craving, breathe, addiction, heat, cold, itch, tell fresh food from rotten, muscle ache, pain (anticipate or feel).
    5a Frontal Lobe Prefrontal Cortex Personality, complex thought, emotion. Accutane affects this part of the brain.
    5b Motor Association Cortex Complex movement coordination
    5c Broca's Area Speech center
    5d Auditory Cortex Sound quality, loudness, tone
    Homunculus ("The Little Man in the Brain").
    The brain has a map of the surface of the body on the parietal lobe. The map is based on the number and density of sensory and motor nerve connections and not on the physical proportions. So the hands and tongue appear to be larger than most body parts.
    It is responsible for the phantom limbs felt by amputees.
    They are arranged in order from the middle of the brain to the sides in this general order.
    Detailed Order. Genitals, toes, feet, legs, trunk, neck, head, shoulder, arm, hand, fingers, thumb, eye, nose, face, lips, jaw, tongue, swallowing, intra-abdominal.
    5e Primary Motor Cortex Voluntary movement. Motor homunculus
    5f Primary Somatosensory Cortex Touch signals. Sensory homunculus
    Central Sulcus (Fissure of Rolando) is a fold or groove separating the frontal and parietal lobes
    Corpus Callosum Bundle of axons (300 million fibers) connecting the left and right hemispheres.
    6 Parietal Lobe Sensory Association Cortex Touch, pressure, pain, temperature, homunculus
    7a Occipital Lobe Visual Association area Complex visual information
    7b Visual Cortex Simple visual information
    9 Spinal Cord Carries signals between the brain and the body. It is located in the center of the vertebrae
    White Matter Connecting fibers that form the interior of the brain
    Gray Matter The neurons that form the cortex on the surface
    Central Nervous System The brain and the spinal cord

    The Nervous System
    Human Nervous System
    Central Nervous SystemBrain and Spinal Cord Somatic Nervous System. Voluntary response from sense organs to muscular system
    Peripheral Nervous System
    Arrow Somatic Nervous SystemVoluntary Responses Autonomic Nervous System. From internal receptors to smooth muscles and glands. They affect the sympathetic and the parasympathetic motor system. The Sympathetic system activates the body with noradrenaline, causing the "fight or flight" response. The parasympathetic system uses acetylcholine to relax the body.
    Arrow Autonomic Nervous SystemInvoluntary Responses
    The neurons transmit electrical signals between the brain, spine, muscles and sensory organs.
    Sensory Neuron
    Intermittent Neuron
    Motor Neuron
    The nerves are the electrical system of the body. Signals travel from the brain through the nerves. Chemicals at the end of the nerves help to block or transmit signals to the next nerve. It is these chemicals that are mostly affected by illegal drugs.
    Neurotransmitters. Cross the synapse to send a signal. Some examples are, Acetylcholine, noradrenaline, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine.
    Drugs usually act on the neurotransmitters by either blocking their actions or mimicking them.
    Peripheral Nervous System The neurons of the brain and spine
    Sensory Neurons Send information from the outside to the central nervous system. They have long dendrons and short axons. Cell body and dendrites are outside the spinal cord
    Relay Neurons These nerves carry signals between neurons. They have short axons and dendrons and are located in the spinal cord.
    Motor Neurons Send information from the central nervous to the muscles. They have short dendrons and long axons. Axon is outside the spinal cord and the terminals attach to the muscles.
    10a Neuron Cell Body Sends and receives nerve signals
    10b Dendron Sends signals to the cell body
    10c Axon Sends electrical signals from the cell
    10d Axon Terminals They secrete neurotransmitters into the synapse
    10e Myelin sheath Insulation created by the schwann cell which is wrapped around the axon. It increases the speed of the signal.
    10f Synapse The space between the axon termonal of one neuron and the dendron of another
    Career Neurologist. Treats diseases of the brain Career Psychiatrist. Treats mental disorders
    Disease Huntington's Disease. Inherited disease destroys brain Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CFJ). Human form of Mad Cow Disease
    Disease Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS). Damages motor nerves Disease Parkinson's disease. Nerve cells in the brain die
    Disease Alzheimers. Dementia, possibly caused by type 3 diabetes due to insulin receptors in the brain Disease Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Young onset dementia caused by shrinking brain
    Disease Lewy Body Disease (LBD). Dementia caused by abmormal structures in the midbrain or cortex, microscopic protein deposits in the nerve that disrupts signals Disease Niemann Pick Disease Type C. Childhood dementia caused by fatty deposit buildup in the cells

    The Eye
    The Eye Structure
    Eye 1 Outer Eye Eye lids Protects the eye
    2 Tear duct Cleans the eye. Keeps it moist
    3a Eye ball Iris The colored part that changes the size of the pupil and the amount of light.
    3b Pupil The opening of the eye in the iris
    4a Cornea Adjusts the focus of the light
    4b Lens Adjusts the focus of the light
    - Fluid Aqueous Humor The watery liquid in the front chamber before the iris and lens
    - Vitreous Body The jelly liquid in the rear chamber behind the iris and lens
    The retina contains 100 million rods and seven million cones and a chemical called rhodopsin, or "visual purple." Rhodopsin converts light into electrical impulses that are transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve. The cones are sensitive to red, blue and green. Rods handle vision in low light.
    Look at what a color blind person sees.

    The Blind Spot. It occurs where the about 1 million axons of the nerves and blood vessels exit the eye. At that location there can be no rods or cones to interpret vision.
    Bulb   Cross
    Cover your right eye. Look at the cross and move closer to the screen. The bulb will disappear. This is the blind spot.

    The Yellow Spot (Fovea). It is a part of the retina located behind the pupil and includes only cones. It is responsible for good visual resolution.

    Night Blindness. The inability to see clearly in the dark. Vitamin A deficiency can cause this problem because it is used to make retinal, which is a part of the pigment which absorbs light.
    5 Nerve Signals Retina Converts light to nerve impulses. Two dimensional images appear up side down on the retina
    6 Rods Rods interpret black and white color
    Cones Cones absorb red, green or blue light
    7 Optic Nerves Sends signals to the occipital lobe of the brain
    8a Muscles Lateral and medial rectus Moves eye away from and towards the nose
    8b Superior and Inferior rectus Raises and Lowers eye
    8c Superior and Inferior oblique Rotates eye
    8d Ciliary body It contracts and relaxes to control the size of the lens for focusing
    8e Dilator and sphincter Makes the iris smaller or larger. As the iris gets smaller the pupil gets larger.
    - Layers Sclerotic Coat Tough outer layer. The white of the eye and the transparent cornea
    - Choroid Coat Middle layer. Pigmented with melanin, forms the iris
    5 Retina Inner layer with light receptors
    Career Opthalmologist. Treats diseases of the eye Career Optometrist. Prescribes eyeglasses
    Disease Cataracts. Cloudy appearance of the lens Disease Glaucoma. Pressure in the eye from excess aqueous humor
    Disease Myopia. Nearsightedness. Disease Hyperopia. Farsightedness.
    Instrument Opthalmoscope. Views the interior of the eye Instrument Chromatoptometer. Measures the eye's sensitivity to color

    Color Deficiency.
    Our eyes have three color receptors (red, blue, green). These are the primary colors of light. A person with color blindness (color deficiency) has difficulty seeing one or more of these colors. However, they may be extremely good at identifying variations in shade of the same color. This makes them excellent snipers and good at identifying camouflaged objects.

    Color Blindness Normal Color Deficient Color
    Normal (Trichromat) - - - - - - - - - Normal
    Protanomaly - - - - - - - - - Low red
    Deuteranomaly - - - - - - - - - Low green
    Tritanomaly - - - - - - - - - Low blue
    Protanopia - - - - - - - - - No red
    Deuteranopia - - - - - - - - - No green
    Tritanopia - - - - - - - - - No blue
    Cone Monochromat - - - - - - - - - Low color
    Rod Monochromat - - - - - - - - - No color
    Normal Red Orange Yellow Lime Green Cyan Blue Violet Pink
    Normal Deficient
    Click on the link to see a color deficient version of the picture.
    Fast Facts! One out of every twelve people has a color deficiency. This is about 8% of males and 0.4% of females in the United States.
    Fast Facts! Deuteranomaly is the most common form of color blindness (5% of males, 0.38% females).
    Fast Facts! Tetrachromats have four color receptors and pentachromats have five. This enhanced ability to see color may only exist in birds and some insects.
    Eye Chart Visual acuity. 20/40 (6/12) means that what a person sees at 20 feet (6 meters) can be seen at 40 feet (12 meters) by someone with normal vision Normal Vision. 20/20 (6/6)
    Legally blind. 20/200 (6/60) vision or worse
    Diagnosis Pseudoisochromatic Plate Test (Ishihara Test). Dichromatic vision Instrument Anomaloscope. Finds red-green deficiencies
    Other animals can see a range of one to four colors including the spectra outside the visible light. Mosquitos see infrared. Bees, many other insects, spiders and birds have ultraviolet eyesight.

    Imagine Do you think that we will be able to see radio waves or hear visible light when we go to heaven? Are there other colors? Can we hear, feel, smell or taste colors? It is possible if God widens the range of our receptors.
    Imagine seeing a song and composing music so that the color combinations and patterns it creates are as interesting as the sound. Could we create a song that generates heat that will keep us warm or cool? If we can use heat to run motors, is it possible to use sound or light as a new energy source?
    Synesthesia. This means joined perception. It is a condition in which some people experience another sense in addition to the primary sensation. They might experience a certain taste when they hear sound. Or see colors associated with letters. This is because the areas in the brain that process the senses are close to each other and have developed crossed links. So no two people will have the same experience. This is different from the ability that I describe above.

    The Endocrine System
    Gland Hormone Function Excess Deficiency
    Endocrine PituitaryLuteinizing (LH) Production of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone Precocious puberty Delayed or absent puberty
    Follicle Stimulating (FSH)Stimulate egg or sperm production Polycystic ovary syndrome Infertility
    Human Growth (HGH)Muscle, fat, liver and bone growth Gigantism, Acromegaly Pituitary Dwarfism
    ProlactinStimulate milk production Infertility No lactation
    Melanocyte stimulating (MSH)Places melanin in the skin Melanism Leukoderma
    Thyroid stimulating (TSH)Stimulate thyroxine Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism
    Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Stimulate adrenal gland Cushing's Syndrome Addison's Disease
    Adrenal GlandsCortisolImmune suppression and stress response Cushing's Syndrome Addison's Disease
    HypothalamusAntidiuretic hormone (ADH)Preserve fluid and electrolyte balance. Water retention Water retention Diabetes insipidus
    Hypothalamus OxytocinContractions of the uterus during labor - -
    Thymus ThymosinRegulates the lymph system and T-cell production. It stops working at puberty Myasthenia Gravis No immune system. Degeorges syndrome
    Pineal GlandMelatoninBiological clock, regulates sleep Depression Insomnia
    Thyroid Thyroxin T4, T3Basal metabolic rate Graves' disease Goiter, cretinism, myxedema
    Parathyroid Parathyroid hormoneRegulates blood calcium, phosphorus and magnesium Hypercalcemia Hypocalcemia
    Testes TestosteroneMale characteristics Precocious puberty Abdominal fat
    Ovaries EstrogenFemale characteristics Allergies Raised LDL, osteoporosis
    ProgesteroneFemale characteristics Incontinence Hypoglycemia, obesity
    PancreasInsulinRegulates blood sugar levels Hypoglycemia Diabetes mellitus
    Exocrine PancreasGastric juicesDuodenum Glands that secrete products through ducts or canals, such as sweat glands or mammary glands.
    ProstateSeminal fluidSecretes slightly alkaline fluid
    SalivarySalivaInitiate digestion
    SweatSweatCool body
    SebaceousOil (sebum)Hair follicle
    Fast Facts! The liver is the largest gland in the body
    Career Endocrinologist. A doctor who diagnoses and treats diseases of the endocrine system (glands and hormone levels)
    Disease Goiter. A swollen thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency
    Hormones are powerful chemical regulators that affect every system of the body that are manufactured in organs called glands. Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the blood stream. Exocrine glands release hormones into a duct connected to the target or directly outside.
    Pituitary Gland. It is called the master gland because it stimulates other glands to secrete hormones. It is responsible for sending the message to begin puberty.
    Liver. It is the largest gland. It is responsible for filtering many toxins and for aiding in digestion.
    Because hormones affect all systems, a malfunction can cause many diseases. This malfunction can be caused by defects in production, transport, delivery and clearance of the hormones.

    Reproductive System
    Female Structure Function
    1 Female Ovary Eggs
    1a Fallopian Tube Eggs travel down this tube to the uterus
    2 Uterus Baby storage
    2a Cervix Entrance to the uterus
    2b Vagina Birth canal
    2c Placenta Blood supply from the mother to the baby
    2d Umbilical Cord Blood vessels from baby to mother
    2e Amniotic fluid Baby swimming pool. Cushions baby
    The egg is fertilized when the sperm meets an egg from the ovary. The egg is attached to the uterus and begins to grow. It takes forty weeks for the baby to grow in humans.
    2f Baby Cries all night, eats a lot. Cute. Expensive. Not a toy. Wait until you are married.
    3 Both Urinary bladder Urine is stored here
    Male 3a Ureter Urine flows to the bladder
    3b Urethra Urine or sperm flows to the outside
    4 Large Intestine Eliminates solid waste
    1 Male Testicles Eggs (sperm)
    1a Vas Deferens Sperm travels to the urethra.
    1bEpididymis Sperm matures and is stored here
    2 Penis Urinary and sexual organ
    2a Corpus Cavernosum Helps to keep the penis erect
    2b Corpus Spongiosum Helps to keep the penis erect
    2c Prostate Gland Releases alkaline fluid that buffers the acidic urine.
    Circumcision: The loose outer skin is stretched and a small portion is cut off and buried. At 8 days old the Jewish male perfomed this ceremony to join the covenant. It is a sign that the Messiah would have His outer human body cut off. 2d Seminal Vesicle Stores mucus, fructose, amino acids and hormones to help the sperm
    2e Prepuce Foreskin cut off in circumcision
    Peace Male. Did you know that God used circumcision to illustrate what would happen to Him as He kept His vows in the Plan of Salvation? God made peace by offering Himself and He became the Father of a new creation through His seed.
    Peace Female. Did you know that God also used the female reproductive system to illustrate the timing of the Plan of Salvation?
    Career Pediatrician. Treats diseases in children
    Career Neonatologist. Treats premature children, newborns
    Career Gynecologist. Treats diseases and impairments in women
    Career Obstetrician. Treats pregnant women
    Disorder Pregnancy. A child growing in the uterus Disease Prostate Cancer.

    Pregnancy Anomalies
    Gender Determination A gene on the Y chromosome (SRY) is the master switch for making a male. There are two ways to determine gender. Whether an organism is male or female.
    1External Sexual Characteristics The gender is male if there is a penis.
    2XX or XY Chromosomes The sperm and egg each have half of the genes (chromosomes) needed. The egg has only "X" chromosomes. The sperm can either have "X" or "Y" chromosomes.
    The gender is female if the chromosomes are "XX" and male if they are "XY".
    In rare cases an egg can lose one of these chromosomes. An "XO" fetus is a female that may have begun as an "XX" female or "XY" male. "OY" fetus is probably a possibility.
    Variations Hermaphrodite An organism with both sexes, or the external characteristics are partially from both genders. Earthworms and garden snails are complete hermaphrodites.
    Parthenogenesis The ability of an unfertilized egg to hatch. Usually, only females are produced. But unfertilized bee eggs turn into males in the spring.
    Delayed Implantation
    Embryonic Diapause
    Delayed Pregnancy
    Over 100 species can delay their pregnancy after fertilization for days up to over a year. Embryos temporarily cease developing and enter a state of dormancy, existing as free-floating, microscopic balls of cells (blastocysts) in the uterus until the female is ready. e.g. Bear, skunk, seal, marten, fisher, rodents, weasels, seals, otters, fruit bats, armadillos, kangaroos, nutrias and red pandas
    Multiple Births Fraternal Separate eggs fertilized by different sperm cells which may be of different sex
    Identical One egg divides and each new cell becomes a separate fetus with the same sex (gender) and the same genetic profile.
    Multiple births occur when there are more than one fertilized egg or a single egg develops into separate babies. Several anomalies can occur in this process.
    • Conjoined. Incomplete division of a cell causes fusion at the physical level with an incomplete separation of identical children after the twelfth day of fertilization. Each section develops into a separate fetus that are joined in their physical body. Joining can occur at the front, side or back at the head, chest, abdomen or hips.
      » Acardius-Acephalus (Parasitic Twin). A poorly formed fetus that does not have a heart or a brain is attached to a complete baby and is completely dependant on the normal child. The parasite can appear as an extra leg or a complete baby. Sometimes these extra limbs can be attached in strange places.
      Acardiac. A baby whose upper body is not developed. It has no head, heart or arms. If it survives in the womb it is because it uses the blood supply of its twin.
      » Sirenomelia (Mermaid Syndrome). Fusion of the legs. This is a birth defect that is not related to conjoined twins.
    Type of JoinHead (Cranium)Chest (Thorax)AbdomenHip (Pelvis)
    Cephalopagus (Janus Twin) Thoracopagus (35%)XiphopagusOmphalopagus (30%)Ischiopagus (6%)
    (Not joined) (Not joined)(Not joined)Parapagus (5%)
    Dithoracic Parapagus
    Dicephalic Parapagus (Dicephalus). (One body and two heads)
    Diprosopic Parapagus. (One body, one head and two faces)
    Dorsal (Back)Craniopagus (2%)RachipagusPygopagus (19%)
    • Superfetation. Having a second pregnancy while you are already pregnant. This is extremely rare.
    • Fetus in Fetu (Baby in a Baby). An undeveloped fetus is encased into the body of the other twin. One fetus is absorbed into the cell of the other during the early stages. So it is possible that this could occur with either identical or fraternal twins. It does not have any internal organs and does not develop into a viable baby. It is completely dependent on the normal baby.
      » Teratoma (Monster Tumor). This is a tumor that may have hair, teeth and other tissues and may look like a cyst caused by a fetus in fetu. However, it is a cancer that is caused by unfertilized reproductive cells (egg or sperm) dividing and differentiating like a normal fertilized egg.
    • Hormone Anomalies. Male or female external characteristics can develop because of a malfunction in the hormones or abnormal levels of the correct hormones during gestation.
      » Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS). Genetic males with an XY chromosome who do not develop the male features because the male hormones (androgens) are not functioning normally. Testosterone is produced but the body cannot process it and actually turns it into estrogen. So feminization of the external sexual characteristics develops and the penis does not form and the testes do not descend.
    • Chimera and Genetic Mosaics. Fusion at the cellular level that can occur between eggs of the same sex or opposite sex. A person whose non-identical twin was merged with their cell and causes them to have two different DNA in various body tissues with various degrees of expression. While chimerism of identical twins may be impossible to prove, only chimerism of fraternal twins can be detected.
      » Hermaphrodite. A true hermaphrodite is a chimera in which both male and female genes are fully expressed. Most hermaphrodites are either genetic males or female whose sexual organs have changed because of sex hormones in the womb.
      » Turner's Syndrome. This disease is caused when an egg loses an "X" or "Y" chromasome. If a male egg loses a "Y" chromosome, he genetically becomes an "XO" female with one "X" chromosome. If this occurs in one of two identical twin boys, then we could have a case when identical twins would be male and an infertile female! This anomaly may occur in some or in all cells. So far it seems to occur only in real girls whose father has lost the "X" chromosome.
      » Noonan's Syndrome. This occurs in boys who have the same symptoms as girls with Turner's but they have no damaged chromosomes.

      Fast Facts! Is this a Possibility? Normally, when a sperm fertilizes an egg, a change occurs in the lining that prevents penetration by other sperms. Is it possible that this system can be compromised? So chimerism could be caused by a variation of fetus in fetu at the cellular level in the early stages of cell division, or it could also be caused by a second sperm penetrating the egg. The second sperm could be the same or the opposite sex as the first.
      Fast Facts! In Vitro Fertilization ("Test Tube Babies"). Chimerism appears most often in cases of In vitro fertilization. Possibly cases of gender identification may be prevalent also. With "test tube" babies, many male and female eggs are simultaneously fertilized together in a dish which is a soupy mixture of male and female chemicals. In the body, these are most likely separated for three to ten days. If there is a multiple birth, identical twins would be of the same gender. Fraternal twins of opposite genders may come from separate ovaries and are separated for days before they are implanted in the uterus. Who knows how the unnatural forced chemical environment affects the growing fetus.
      Cancer is more prevalent in this group.
    Fast Facts! The cancer process and the development of the cells into a fetus have important common elements. Both involve the rapid growth of cells. In addition, teratomas are cells that have received the instruction to differentiate like an embryo. While the development of the embryo eventually includes instructions to stop this process, cancer cells do not receive or respond to these instructions. So, understanding embryonic development may lead to a cure for cancer. And, understanding teratomas may lead to the growth of replacement body parts.

    Digestive System
    Digestive system Process StructureFunction
    1 Ingestion
    Swallowing and mixing
    Esophagus Mouth and teeth grind food and it is sent down the esophagus. Saliva in the mouth mixes with the food and breaks down starch
    2 Stomach Holds and mixes food. Kills bacteria and living cells with hydrochloric acid and breaks down protein with pepsin
    3 Digestion,
    Absorption and
    Small intestine 17 feet long (518 cm). Digests and absorbs food. The duodenum in the upper part digests food and the rest of the intestine (jejunum and ileum) abso bs nutrients. The cause of diabetes may be found in the duodenum
    4 Pancreas Insulin manages glucose. Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acid. Digestive enzymes break down food
    5 Liver Breaks down fat, removes toxins, stores glucose
    6 Gall bladder Makes bile which helps to digest fat
    7 Appendix Processes good bacteria for digestion
    Peristalsis is the automatic movement of the muscles of the esophagus to send food towards the stomach 7 Large Intestine 5 feet (152 cm) long. (Caecum, appendix, ascending colum, transverse colon, descending colon, rectum). Absorbs water
    Holds and removes solid waste
    8 Rectum Solid waste exit
    Ruminant Digestive system Ruminant Stomach Some vegetarian animals have a stomach designed to digest plant material. Their stomach has four parts. During digestion, food goes from the mouth to the first and second stomach. Then the animal lies down and the food is regurgitated and is swallowed into the third stomach. Then it goes to the fourth stomach and to the intestines.
    1 Chewing and fermentation Rumen The bacteria named cellulase breaks down and ferments cellulose
    2 Reticulum Packs undigested food into cud so that it can be regurgitated and chewed again.
    3 Ingestion Omasum Water is absorbed
    4 Abomasum
    (True Stomach)
    Prepares food for digestion in the small intestine. It releases hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes
    Peace Did you know that God used the ruminant stomach to illustrate the resurrection which is a critical part of the Plan of Salvation? The stomach of the clean animal demonstrates the death burial and resurrection of the Seed of God who would spring back to life after it fell into the earth and died.
    Fast Facts! Cows eat as much as 90 pounds (41 kg) of food each day. This produces methane gas in their stomach. They can expel as much as 600 liters (132 gallons) of gas each day (from both ends). This includes up to 455 liters (100 gallons) of burps. But cows that eat grass instead of feed mixtures produce less methane. Since methane is a greenhouse gas, cows contribute to global warming.
    Career Gastroenterologist. Treats the digestive system. Career Veterinarian. Treats diseases and impairments in animals
    Disease Ulcer. An acid burn in the stomach wall Disease Halitosis. Bad breath
    Instrument Gastroscope. Instrument examines the stomach Instrument Proctoscope. Instrument for examining the rectum

    Urinary System
    Urinary Structure Function
    1 Kidneys Nephron Saves nutrients and concentrates urea
    2a Blood Vessels Aorta Blood is filtered under pressure and water, salt, amino acids and urea are removed. Everything except urea is later reabsorbed.
    2b Renal artery
    3a Renal vein
    3b Vena cava
    4 Elimination Ureter Urine flows from the kidney to the bladder through this tube
    5 Urinary bladder Urine is stored here
    7 Urethra, Penis Urine flows outside through one of these organs
    Career Urologist. Treats diseases of the urinary system Career Proctologist. Treats the intestines
    Disease Kidney Stones. Ureter blocked by deposits of calcium Disease Anuresis. Bed wetting
    Instrument Cytoscope. Instrument for examining the bladder Instrument Colonoscope. Instrument examines the colon

    Input And Output Flow Control
    ImagesSoundAir Words Food - Chyme (Ileum) Bladder SpermUreter Urine, Sperm
    EyesEarsNoseMouth Stomach
    Chyme (Jejunum) Waste
    Urine TesticlesPenis
    ImagesSoundAirCarbon dioxide-- Words-Food - Small Intestine Chyme Kidney Ovaries -
    Brain Esophagus Food Food (Duodenum) Uterus
    Vagina Sperm
    Oxygen HeartCarbon Dioxide - Bile, enzymesBileGall bladderPancreatic juiceWater
    Lungs LiverBilePancreas Large Intestine FecesRectumFeces
    • Physical Food. Through the action of peristalsis and respiration, water, food and air flow into our bodies as nutrients and carbon dioxide, urine and feces flow out as waste.
    • Mental Food. Through the action of seeing and hearing, information and knowledge flow in as mental nutrients. Through the act of speaking and teaching, information flows out as wisdom and understanding. Ignorance and rebellion can also flow out as waste.
    • Spiritual Food. When we choose to learn about God by reading, hearing and listening to spiritual things, our mental food becomes spiritual food that gives eternal life. No waste flows out.


    The fact that male and female exist is the greatest proof that God exists. It is impossible for one complicated human being to evolve, but it is even more impossible for a male and a female to have evolved because they would have to evolve within 30 years and a short distance from each other.
    And this miracle of both male and female evolving must be repeated at least 26 million times (twice for each of the 13 million species we have named on earth). But there are probably over 100 million species.

    Imagine Which system in our body do you think we will not have in our new bodies in heaven?
    Why? How do you think we will function without it?
    What Do You Think? Animals, people and plants were about 200%-300% larger in the beginning and lived ten times longer. Only since advancement in modern technology, nutrition and medicine have we seen a small increase in age and size since the middle ages (3 inches or 8 cm).
    We can link the decrease in age to a change in diet from vegetarian to carniverous. What could have caused the great reduction in size? Change in diet and waste products. Pollution. Exposure to radiation. Decrease in the speed of light. Genetic changes and genetic pollution.

    Sabbath Rest
    Day 7
    The Sabbath day was created as a day of rest. On that day, God had a party to celebrate. In creating the Sabbath, He established the mental and spiritual laws. These are rest, fellowship and love for others and for God.
    Sabbath Radioactive elements are in the seventh period. These are very energetic particles that need rest by turning into a more stable form. The Sabbath is given for rest.

    Special Delivery
    My Child

    You may not know Me, but I know everything about you. Psalm 139:1
    I have counted all the hairs on your head. Matthew 10:29-31
    You were made in My image. Genesis 1:27
    Because of Me you are alive. Acts 17: 28
    For you are My child. Acts 17: 28
    I knew you even before you were conceived. Jeremiah 1: 5
    I chose you when I planned creation. Ephesians 1: 11-12
    You were not a mistake. Psalm 139: 15-16
    I determined the exact time of your birth. Acts 17: 26
    You are lovingly and wonderfully made. Psalm 139: 14
    I knit you together in your mother's womb. Psalm 139: 13
    And brought you out on the day you were born. Psalm 71: 6
    I Love you. John 3: 16
    Career Pastor. Provides spiritual guidance.
    Disease Sin. Inability to make good moral choices
    Tools Bible. Recorded knowledge about God and His actions
    Caring For God
    You can care for God by remembering how great He is. He created the world in six days He loves you. To care for Him you can do the following:

    Caring For Your Mind And Body
    Many people abuse dangerous legal substances, prescription drugs and illegal drugs because of the good feeling that they get for ten minutes. Unfortunately, these are addictive, destroy the mind and the body and your future.
    Although some drugs give a good feeling in the beginning, they quickly become addictive and it takes more of the drug to give the same high, until finally there is no more pleasure and you need to take the drugs to avoid the pain of withdrawal.

    Alcohol and Cigarettes. Legal substances such as alcohol and cigarettes are often the first substances used and become the gate through which the other drugs are abused. Here are some facts about smoking.

    Organized Crime. In addition, the people who profit from the sales of these drugs are also responsible for the cycle of evil in murder, crime, slavery, terrorism and misery.
    Appetite Suppressants. I also notice that many drugs created as appetite suppressants commonly become these narcotic drugs or are banned because they cause permanent damage. The class of drugs designed as appetite suppressants have proven to be dangerous almost every time. They have destroyed the brain, liver and the heart tissue. Do not let the drug companies experiment on you.
    Club Drug. These are drugs that are popular at bars, all night parties and dances. MDMA (Ecstasy), GHB, Rohypnol, ketamine, methamphetamine, and LSD.

    Drug Effects Brain damage
    Legal substances Food, household chemicals
    Caffeine Stimulant
    Alcohol Alter sleep pattern, reduce motor coordination, headaches, dizziness, nervousness. 10 grams is fatal.
    Caffeine is found in coffee, tea and soft drinks.
    Alcohol Depressant
    Frontal lobe, poor coordination, reduces brain size, low weight babies, mental retardation, birth defects
    Nicotine (Cigarettes, tobacco) Stimulant Cigarettes Cancer, lung disease, heart disease, emphysema, stroke, bronchitis, bad breath, yellow teeth. 33% or one in every three cancer deaths are caused by smoking.
    Every month tobacco kills 418,000 people in the world, including 36,000 Americans!
    Hallucinogenic mushrooms Hallucinogen Hallucination, deep sleep, similar to symptoms of alcohol intoxication
    Inhalants Depressant InhaledNail polish, paint, glue, gasoline and over 100 products can be inhaled. They cause permanent damage to the brain and other organs and death. Effects are hallucination, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sleepiness and slurred speech. They affect the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus.
    Nitrous Oxide Dissociative Laughing gas, gas, whippitts, nitrous, blue bottle. Anesthesia. Kidney or liver damage, peripheral neuropathy, spontaneous abortion
    Over the Counter Medicine Legal drugs
    Dextromithorphan Depressant Triple-C, robo. The effects are similar to PCP or morphine. It is found in cough medicine such as coriciden and robitussin.
    Codeine Depressant The effects are similar to PCP or morphine.
    Controlled Substances Prescription drugs, illegal drugs
    Amphetamine Stimulant Pills Same effects as cocaine
    Methamphetamine Stimulant (Speed, meth, chalk, ice, crystal, glass) Parkinson's disease symptoms, euphoria, aggression, insomnia, confusion, tremors, paranoia, convulsions, stroke, anorexia and anxiety. Very addictive.
    Ritalin Stimulant (West Coast) same effect as Amphetamines. Given to ADHD children
    Barbiturates Depressant Anxiety, insomnia, seizures, nausea, hallucinations, reduces inhibitions
    Oxycontin Depressant A pain reliever with effects that are similar to heroin. It can also be crushed, dissolved in water and injected.
    Methadone Depressant A pain reliever with effects that are similar to heroin. Used to treat heroin addiction but it is more addictive
    Rohypnol (Flunitrazepam) Depressant Date Rape Drugs
    Someone could poison your drink and then hurt you. You would not remember.
    These drugs are colorless, odorless, tasteless and erases memory of crimes being done on your body
    (Roofies, Roach, R-2, Mind Erasers, Roche, Stupifi, Shays). Permanent memory loss, visual disturbance, motion difficulty, drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, respiratory depression, amnesia
    1,4-Butanediol (BD) Depressant Permanent memory loss. Becomes GHB in the body
    Illegal substances and Club Drugs Drugs, pills, plants
    GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyerate) Depressant Date rape drug with a salty taste. (Tranquility G, midnight blue, GHB, GBH, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid G, Somatomax, Cherry Meth, Easy Lay, Gamma 10) Permanent memory loss. Death. Coma, loss of consciousness, decreased inhibitions, nausea, convulsions, amnesia - same effects as alcohol. The dosage needed to get high is close to the lethal dose. It is used as an industrial floor cleaner.
    Ecstasy (MDMA) Stimulant Permanent brain damage, memory loss, lowers inhibitions.
    Ketamine Hallucinogen (Special K, Vitamin K, Ket, K, Kit Kat, Keller, Cat Valium, Purple, Super C) used as an animal tranquilizer. It causes delerium, amnesia, motor and respiratory problems. It is a powder that is smoked and is usually combined with other drugs.
    Cocaine Stimulant, Hallucinogen Illegal drugs. Death in a needle. Sharing needles can cause incurable diseases. (Crank, crack cocaine). It is smoked, inhaled or injected. Insomnia, depression, hallucination, anxiety, headache, euphoria and death
    Crystal Meth Stimulant (Glass, ice) A type of amphetamine in powder form
    PCP Depressant, stimulant, analgesic, hallucinogen Eaten, inhaled, injected or smoked. (Angel dust, hog, rocket fuel, DOA, peace pill) Violent, suicidal, psychotic, confusion, drooling, coma and death
    LSD Hallucinogen Hallucination, paranoia, confusion, panic and the effects can occur for years after
    Heroin, opium Depressant (Horse, crank, smack, jive, dope, shag, junk, black tar) It is smoked, inhaled or injected. Sleepiness, reduces pain, brief euphoria, coma, death
    Marijuana Depressant Illegal drugs (Grass, pot, weed, reefer) Hallucination, delusion, sleepiness, impaired memory, disorientation
    Hashish Depressant Same effect as marijuana
    Salvia Hallucinogen Divine sage, magic mint. Same effect as LSD. Suicidal thoughts
    Designer Drugs Barely legal drugs. A new drug designed to mimic the effect of controlled substances but is legal because it is not yet controlled
    Bath Salts StimulantNo Smiles Same effect as cocaine and amphetamines
    2C-I Hallucinogen (Smiles) Phenylethylamines. 2Cs class of drugs causes strokes, increase heart rate and cause it to beat out of rhythm
    Fake Weed, K2, K3 Hallucinogen (Spice, Black Mamba, Mr. Nice guy). Synthetic marijuana sprayed with psychotropic drug and sold as organic blend for smoking, incense or potpourri. It is illegal in many countries. The effects are the same as marijuana, but with elevated blood pressure and heart rate. It is sold and labeled only as herbs. However, several synthetic drugs which can be up to 800 times more potent than cannabis are the active ingredients
    Dangerous Behavior Children get a high without drugs by causing oxygen deprivation through asphyxiation, or hyperventilation. A high is also achieved when oxygen rushes back to the brain.
    The Choking Game Stimulant (Space game, blackout, dream monkey, pass out game, fainting game, tingling game, gasp, knockout). Causes brain damage and death. Symptoms are headaches, red eyes, blood shot eyes, and marks on the neck. One method is to use other objects to choke themselves. So look for ties, ropes, bags or anything than can be used for choking or hanging.
    Career Mortician. Prepares a dead body for burial. Career Autopsy Surgeon. Examines body for the cause of death
    Career Lawyer. Defends a criminal in court. Career Detective and Police. Investigates crimes, arrests criminal.
    Disease Addiction. Abnormal dependency on drugs Disease Alcoholism. Abnormal dependency or addiction to alcohol
    Instrument Alcoholometer. Measures alcohol content Instrument Breathalyzer. Field test for measuring alcohol intoxication
    You are lovingly and wonderfully made. Do remarkable things for your mind and body.

    Caring For Your Mind And Body: Food And Nutrition
    Food pyramid
    Grains, Cereal Fruit Vegetables Beans, Nuts Dairy Fats, oil Water
    Fast Facts! God describes bread and water as our basic foods. This was the diet in the Exodus.
    My Vegetarian Food Pyramid
    2000 Calories
    Food Group Servings Vegan Vegetarian Ovo-lacto Vegetarian Kosher Omnivore
    Water 6 - 8 All
    Grains and Roots 6 - 11
    (6 oz)
    Rice, whole grain, cereal, couscous, bread, pasta, flour, potato, yam
    Vegetables 3 - 5 (2½ cups) All vegetables
    Fruits 2 - 4 (2 cups) All fruits
    Protein Legumes (2 - 3) Beans, nuts, tofu
    Dairy and Eggs
    (2 - 3)
    (3 cups)
    Not eaten Milk, cheese, eggs, yogurt * Milk, Eggs
    * cheese, yogurt
    Meat, Poultry and Fish
    (2 - 3) (5½ oz)
    Not eaten Not eaten Beef, lamb, tuna, salmon All flesh (pork and shrimp)
    Fats Little Nuts, Oil Nuts, Oil (nut, grain and vegetable), butter All, lard
    Animal Meat
    Cow Beef, veal
    Sheep Mutton, lamb
    Deer Venison
    Pig Pork, ham, bacon, sausage
    Mixed Pepperoni, bologna
    Fast Facts! The trend towards a low carbohydrate and high protein meat diet is not biblical.
    While we believe that refined flour and sugars are to be avoided, God designed our original diet to be high in carbohydrates from fresh fruits, vegetables and grain. All protein was from beans, grains and nuts. Meat was not eaten for almost 2000 years. After meat was introduced into the diet, the average age dropped from 700 years to 70 years!
    Career Chef. Creates and cooks delicious meals
    Career Butcher. Cuts meat
    Career Nutritionist. Analyzes food content
    Career Dietitian. Designs menus
    Disease Kwashiorkor. Protein deficiency
    Disease Trichonosis. Worm infection from pork
    Disease Marasmus. Insufficient food
    Disease Obesity. Excess body weight
    Instrument Stove, Oven. Instrument for cooking food Instrument Scale. Measures weight
    Our wonderful bodies need regular maintenance to grow. We need energy which is stored in food. We need fresh air, water, rest, regular exercise and sunshine. The food pyramid is a guide that tells us what to eat.

    Energy. We need carbohydrates to give our bodies energy.

    Growth and Repair. Proteins are used to build muscles and repair the body.

    Fiber. We need fibre to help to clean the digestive tract. We get this from fruits, beans and vegetables.

    Rest. We need rest to restore our mental functions and to allow the body time to repair itself.

    Sunshine and Fresh Air. Sunshine is good for creating Vitamin D in our bodies and for killing germs. It is also good for our mental health. Plants convert the energy from sunshine into food. Avoid the sun between the peak hours of 10:00 A.M. and 4:00 PM.

    Exercise. We need at least sixty minutes of exercise every day to prevent weight gain.

    Moderation (Temperance). Temperance is knowing how much to consume. Too much or too little can be deadly. Too much direct sunlight can damage the skin. Overeating can lead to obesity. Even too much water can cause water toxicity or leach minerals from the body.

    Worship. We need to know God. Jesus said, "Man shall not live by bread alone but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God." (Matthew 4: 4)

    Food Groups
    These are the food groups:

    1. Water (6 - 8 glasses).
    2. Fruits (2 - 4) servings or 2 cups.
    3. Vegetables (3-5 servings) or 2½ cups.
    4. Carbohydrates (Grain, bread, cereal, rice and pasta) 6-11 servings or 6 oz. Use unprocessed, whole grain.
    5. Protein (Milk, cheese and Yogurt) 2-3 servings or 3 cups.
      (Beans, nuts, eggs, and meat) 2-3 servings or 5½ oz.
    6. Fats and oils. Eat as little as possible.

    Chemical Reactions. Vitamins and minerals are needed by the body to perform important chemical reactions that will process the carbohydrates, proteins and fats. These are found in fresh fruits and vegetables. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluable and the rest are water soluable. Sunshine can also make Vitamin D through our skin.
    Mineral AtomFunction Vegetarian Source
    Calcium CaHealthy bones and teeth, blood clotting. Makes enzymes and hormones that regulate digestion, energy and fat metabolism, and nerve transmission. Dark green leafy Vegetable, Broccoli, Beans, Soy, Nuts, Seeds, dried Fruits, Sea vegetables, Calcium fortified tofu, orange juice and soymilk
    Iron FeManufactures hemoglobin which transports oxygen in blood. Strengthen the immune system. Dark green leafy Vegetables, Legumes, Nuts and Seeds, Blackstrap molasses, dried Fruits, sea vegetables, whole and enriched Grains
    Zinc ZnMakes enzymes in the body. Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Insulin, DNA and Prostate gland. Wound and burn healing. Wheatgerm, Nuts, Almond nuts, Seeds, Pumpkin and Sunflower seeds, Beans, Mushrooms, whole Grain products
    Magnesium MgSimilar function as calcium. Nuts, Seeds, Beans and Peas, Avocados, Bananas, dark green leafy Vegetables, whole Grains, Soybeans
    Potassium KHelps to balance and distribute fluids. Nerve transmission and cell membranes. Blood pressure, calcium balance and heartbeat. Fruits, Figs, watermelon, cantaloupe, potatoes, vegetables, grains, Avocados, Bananas, Oranges, Beans and Peas, dried Fruits
    Sodium NaSame as Potassium Salt, Fresh fruits and Vegetables, Nuts
    Phosphorous PHealthy bones and teeth. Growth and repair of cells. Nerve and muscle activity. Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats for energy. Legumes, Soybeans, Nuts and Seeds, Wheatgerm, rice Bran, wheat Bran.
    Boron BEssential for normal calcium and bone metabolism. Fresh fruits and Vegetables, Nuts
    Iodine IThyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism, growth, reproduction, nerve and muscle. Healthy hair and skin Iodized Salt, nutritional Yeast, sea Vegetables, Almonds, Mushrooms
    Manganese MnFormation of connective tissues, fats, cholesterol, bones, blood clotting factors and proteins. Metabolism of carbohydrates. Spinach, tea, whole grain Breads, Raisins, Blueberries, Pineapple, Legumes, Nuts, dark green leafy Vegetables, dried Fruits
    Selenium SeAntioxidant, protects against cancer and heart disease. Important for normal development of fetus during pregnancy. All plant foods grown in selenium rich soil
    Copper CuHeart, arteries, blood vessels and skeletal system. Nerve transmission, red blood cell, normal hair and skin color. Carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism Unprocessed foods, whole Grains, dark green leafy Vegetables, Legumes
    Chromium CrMakes glucose tolerance factor, which maintains normal blood sugar levels. Stimulates protein synthesis Nutritional yeast, whole grain Breads, Spices and Herbs
    Minerals are actually atoms that the body uses.

    Vitamins are complex compounds.
    Vitamin Name Function Vegetarian Source
    A Carotenoid, and retinol Eyesight, night vision, bone formation, skin and teeth. Dark green, dark yellow and orange vegetables, Carrot, Sweet potato, Colored fruits, Peach, Oranges, Apples.
    B1 Thiamin All body cells, nerves. Improve reaction time and hand-eye coordination. Protein, carbohydrates and fat metabolism Wheat germ, Nutritional yeast, beans and peas, Collard greens, Raisins, Oranges, Nuts, whole grains.
    B2 Riboflavin Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats for energy. Growth and development, hormones and red blood cells. Dark green leafy vegetables, Avocado, Wheatgerm, Whole grains.
    B3 Niacin Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Makes fats and hormones, red blood cells. Maintains cells. Beans, peas, nuts, whole wheat and grains, potato, nutritional Yeast
    B5Panthothenic acid Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Production of fats, cholesterol, bile, vitamin D, red blood cells, some hormones and neurotransmitters. Builds body cells. Legumes, Soybeans, Avocados, Mushrooms, green vegetables, Bananas, Oranges, Whole grains, wheatgerm
    B6 Pyridoxine Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Makes red blood cells an enzymes. Maintains the nervous system and immune system. Beans and peas, Nutritional Yeast, Wheatgerm, Nuts, Bananas, Avocados, Leafy green vegetables, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Potatoes, Whole grains, Dried fruit.
    B9 Folate (Folic Acid) Maintains cells, pregnancy. Makes DNA, neurotransmitters that regulate mood, sleep and appetite. Dark green leafy vegetables, Nutritional Yeast, Beans, Avocados, Wheatgerm, fruits, banana, Orange, Whole grains
    B7 Biotin Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Oatmeal, Nutritional yeast, Legumes, Soybeans, Mushrooms, bananas, Nuts, Whole grains
    B12 Cyanocobalamin Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Maintains the nervous system and all cells. Nutritional yeast, Fortified foods and beverages, cereals, soymilk and orange juice.
    C Ascorbic acid Makes collagen, strengthens connective tissues and immunity, promotes healing, healthy teeth, gums and bones. Antioxidant. Fresh fruits and vegetables, Green pepper, Broccoli, Citrus fruits, Tomatoes, Guava, Strawberries
    D Sunshine Vitamin Absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Aid in formation of bones, teeth, healthy nerve and muscle system. Sunlight, Fortified foods and beverages
    E Tocopherol Antioxidant. Protects body cells and tissues from damage, regulate use and storage of vitamin A. Vegetable oils, Seeds, Nuts, Wheatgerm, Spinach, Peaches, Avocados, Broccoli, Dried prunes, Whole wheat
    K - Blood clotting, promotes growth and healthy bones. Green or leafy vegetables, Broccoli, Turnip greens, Cabbage, Cauliflowers, Avocados, oats, wheat, rye, and alfalfa
    Essential Fatty Acids
    Omega 3 Linolenic acidNormal functioning of all body tissues Nuts, seeds, vegetables, beans and fruits; vegetable oils such as canola, flaxseed, soybean, walnut, and wheat germ
    Omega 6 Linoleic acidNormal functioning of all body tissues Nuts and seeds, sunflower seeds; vegetables oils such as black currant, borage, evening primrose, and hemp oils
    Disease Scurvy. Vitamin C deficiency causes bones to curve Disease Night Blindness. Vitamin A deficiency.
    Disease Rickets. Vitamin D deficiency causing soft bones Disease Beriberi. Thiamin deficiency.
    Disease Pellagra. Niacin (B3) and the amino acid tryptophan deficiency Disease Goiter. Iodine deficiency

    Play a Nutrition Game. Analyze your diet here.

    Dietary Style
    People have different rules by which they prepare meals.

    1. Fruitarian. Eats only fruit. Did you know that in God's original plan humans only ate fruits, grains, nuts, herbs and vegetables? The animals ate the herbs or vegetables. Nobody ate meat.
    2. Vegetarian. Does no eat meat (this includes fish and chicken). There are two types of vegetarians.
    3. Kosher. A vegetarian diet is always kosher. A non-vegetarian does not eat unclean meats such as pork, duck, shrimp and crab.
      Kosher rules do not allow the mixing of meat and milk or cheese in the same meal.
      Kosher rules are maintained by Jews and Christians who believe that the dietary laws of the Bible are still in effect, and some meats are clean while others are unclean and unfit for food.
    4. Non Vegetarian. Eats any meat. In the past decade, a distinction had been made between white meat (fish and chicken) and red meat (beef).

    Our bodies are 75% water and our brain is 85% water. So we need to drink about 6 to 8 glasses per day. The rule is one quart of water (four glasses) for every 50 pounds of body weight. (One liter for every 22.68 kg). Water is best stored in glass containers. Plastic or metal might cause chemicals to contaminate the water.
    Water Source ProcessingAdditives
    Municipal Water (Government supplied)
    Tap (Municipal) Surface PurificationChlorine and fluoride
    Fluoridated Municipal Purificationfluoride
    Filtered Municipal Home filterNone
    Water of life God NoNone. Naturally pure.
    Bottled Water
    Bottled Municipal NoNone
    Artesian Artesian well NoNone
    Well Well NoNone
    Spring Spring NoNone
    Sparkling Any Nocarbon dioxide equal to the source
    Mineral Any NoNatural or added inorganic minerals
    Purified (Demineralized) Any PurificationNone
    Distilled Any DistillationNone
    Sterile Water Any PurificationNone
    Club soda Any Nocarbon dioxide, flavor
    Seltzer Spring Nocarbon dioxide
    Tonic Any No carbonated water with quinine and high fructose corn syrup
    Impairment Dehydration. Lack of water Impairment Water Toxicity. Too much water

    There are many types of water. The definition depends on the source, original content, purification and the additives.

    Healthy Habits. Stop drinking and smoking. Exercise. Walk.

    Mental Health. Do not take illegal drugs. Be kind to others. Thinking only about yourself does not promote good mental health. Care for others without any thought of a reward. A good spiritual life will help you to bond with others in true love.
    Limit your exposure to violence and fake reality. Turn off the television. Go walking, hiking, read a book, do puzzles, construct puzzles. Learn to write with both hands. Then try to draw with both hands. Learn to write with your feet.

    Spiritual Health. This is the most important thing you should do. Pray to God, praise Him and thank Him every day as often as you can. From this relationship you will learn to love and that you are loved so much by God.

    Nutrient or Matter Life Cycles. Several important elements are needed to preserve life and they undergo several processes that recycle them. Notice that the sun plays a critical role in many processes.

    Doomsday Scenarios
    Finally, this would not be complete without a scientific analysis of possible doomsday events. This list was taken from a two hour documentary on the History Channel called "Last Days on Earth".
    Source # EventDescription
    Human Activity 1 Planetary Climate ShiftThe temperature and climate are being affected by green house gases causing global warming, glacier melting, rise in sea level and sea temperature and stronger hurricanes. Warmer temperatures also melt frozen methyl hydrates, releasing methane gas which is 26 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a green house gas
    2 PlagueA pandemic caused by a deadly pathogen like H5N1, small pox, ebola or a reengineered germ that is used as a biological weapon
    3 Atomic WeaponA nuclear bomb
    Earth 4 SupervolcanoA major eruption of a supervolcano could destroy a continent and plunge us into a state of nuclear winter
    Outer Space 5 AsteroidA cosmic bus crash. A large one could destroy the earth. Apophis will approach earth below the height of our communications satellites on April 13, 2029 and 2036
    6 Renegade Black HoleA giant cosmic vacuum cleaner. In 2000, scientists discovered that black holes can wander around aimlessly. A renegade black hole would suck up and devour our planet
    7 Gamma Ray BurstsNuclear gamma radiation bursts occur about once per day. They are caused by the final collapse of a star. If one explodes close to earth it could kill all biological life in one month
    While the Bible does say that we will be destroying the earth when Christ comes and that we will be terrified by events approaching from the heavens, we are guaranteed that there will be people here when He comes. So the earth will never be totally destroyed by any of the above doomsday devices.

    Caring For The Earth.
    Conflict Diamonds
    Conflict diamonds or blood stones get their name because of the exploitation of workers, families and children.
    • More than half of the world's diamonds are cut and polished by child slave laborers.
    • They are used to fund civil wars.
    • Children are used as soldiers, slave workers and prostitutes.
    • The all male work rules in the camps discourage families and encourage prostitution. So AIDS is rampant among the diamond mines.
    God says that it is your responsibility to care.
    Source: The Ultimate Field Guide to the U.S. Economy. URL:
    You can care for the earth and its people by doing several things:

    1. Recycle.
    2. Walk, use bicycles or use public transportation. This reduces the amount of fossil fuels in the air.
    3. Conserve water.
    4. Do not litter.
    5. Plant gardens.
    6. Reduce the number of harmful chemicals going into the atmosphere.
    7. Take care of national parks and forests. They are our lungs.
    8. Do not buy products that hurt other people and animals. Some endangered animals are killed for their horns, skins and bones. Some people are enslaved or severely underpaid to work in diamond mines.
    9. Care for the people and creatures of the earth.
      We are all children of God. All of us were descended from Adam and Eve. Blond hair, dark hair, straight or curly. Black skin, brown or white. We all have the same original parents. Since the laws of genetics make it impossible for different species to have children, no human beings were descended from monkeys. Just as all colors can come from one set of parents, all features can come from one set of parents.

      Middle Brown
      Parent Genes
      MaMbMamb maMb mamb
      Father MaMb MaMb
      Mamb MaMb
      maMb MaMb
      mamb MaMb
      One set of brown parents can produce all colors
      Syndrome Albino. Lack of skin color due to loss of melanin
      Syndrome Down's Syndrome. Excess chromosome 21 changes physical appearance
      Modern genetics shows that when a large, freely interbreeding group is suddenly broken into many smaller groups which from then on breed only among themselves (as the Biblical description of the language dispersion at Babel would imply), different racial characteristics will arise very rapidly. It can be shown that one pair of middle-brown parents could produce all known shades of color, from very white to very black, in one generation. The racial characteristics which exist today have not evolved, and generally speaking, are simply different combinations of pre-existing (created) genetic (hereditary) information. The environment plays a secondary role in favoring certain combinations over others.
      Environment does not change our genes. It may cause those with certain characteristics to move to a more favorable environment.
      Fast Facts! Skin color is essentially the only biological difference in race, and science has been unable to determine all the causes of "race". Melanin is one chemical that affects color. People with dark skin have more melanin and light skin have less.
    10. Care for the God who made them all.

    Imagine Since we are all descended from Adam and Eve, what do you think they looked like? The word Adam means red dirt. Is that a clue?
    What Do You Think? If God does something different on Sabbath that He does not do on other days, then we may be able to detect this activity. On Sabbath the creation rests. God might bring a spark of energy that rejuvenates those at rest. It could work like a wave that synchronizes with those at rest (same frequency) but interferes with the waves of those at work. Resting on another day can never capture this scheduled burst of energy.
    This periodic boost may be part of the system of derived eternal life.

    Thank You
    How awesome is our creator God! Thanks for coming to our Web site.

    In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1: 1) Time: 500 minutes
    Print: 97 pages

    Copyright     Updated : October 2007
    All images, except the lungs, were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of
    Laverna Patterson. B.S. Biochemistry. Columbia Union College (1982).
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